Chapter 14 Promotion and Pricing Strategies 5 Describe pushing and pulling promotional strategies. 1 Discuss how integrated marketing communications relates to a firm’s overall promotion strategy. 2 Explain promotional mix and outline the objectives of promotion. Summarize the different types of 3 advertising and advertising media. 4 Outline the roles of sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations. 6 Discuss the major ethical issues involved in promotion. 7 Outline the different types of pricing strategies. Discuss how firms set prices in 8 the marketplace, and describe the four alternative pricing strategies. 9 Discuss consumer perceptions of price. Promotion The function of informing, persuading, and influencing a purchase decision. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) Coordination of all promotional activities—media advertising, direct mail, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations—to produce a unified customer-focused message. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS • Must take a broad view and plan for all form of customer contact. • Create unified personality and message for the good, service, or brand. • Elements include personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and public relations. THE PROMOTIONAL MIX Promotional mix Combination of personal and nonpersonal selling techniques designed to achieve promotional objectives. Personal selling Interpersonal promotional process involving a seller’s face-toface presentation to a prospective buyer. • Nonpersonal selling Advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and public relations. Objectives of Promotional Strategy Promotional Planning • Product placement Marketers pay placement fees to have their products showcased in various media, ranging from newspapers and magazines to television and movies. • Guerilla marketing Innovative, low-cost marketing efforts designed to get consumers’ attention in unusual ways. ADVERTISING Advertising Paid nonpersonal communication delivered through various media and designed to inform, persuade, or remind members of a particular audience. Types of Advertising • Product advertising, institutional advertising, cause advertising Advertising and the Product Life Cycle • Informative advertising Build initial demand for a product. • Persuasive advertising Improve the competitive status of a product. • Reminder-oriented advertising Maintain awareness of the importance and usefulness of a product. Advertising Media • All media offer advantages and disadvantages SALES PROMOTION Sales promotion Nonpersonal marketing activities other than advertising, personal selling, and public relations that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness. Consumer-Oriented Promotions Premiums, Coupons, Rebates, Samples • Two of every five promotion dollars are spent on premiums, items given free or at reduced price with the purchase of another product. • Coupons attract new customers but focus on price rather than brand loyalty. • Rebates increase purchase rates, promote multiple purchases, and reward product users. • Three of every four consumers who receive a sample will try it. Games, Contest, and Sweepstakes • Often used to introduce new goods and attract new customers. • Subject to legal restrictions. Specialty Advertising • Gift of useful merchandise carrying the name, logo, or slogan of an organization. PERSONAL SELLING • A person-to-person promotional presentation to a potential buyer. • Usually used under four conditions: • Customers are relatively few in number and geographically concentrated. • The product is technically complex, involves trade-ins, and requires special handling. • The product carries a relatively high price. • It moves through direct-distribution channels. • Example: Selling to the government or military. The Sales Process Public Relations Public relations Public organization’s communications and relationships with its various audience. • Helps a firm establish awareness of goods and services and builds a positive image of them. Publicity Publicity Stimulation of demand for a good, service, place, idea, person, or organization by disseminating news or obtaining favorable unpaid media presentations. • Good publicity can promote a firm’s positive image • Negative publicity can cause problems. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY Pushing and Pulling Strategies • Pushing strategy Relies on personal selling to market an item to wholesalers and retailers in a company’s distribution channels. • Companies promote the product to members of the marketing channel, not to end users. • Pulling strategy Promote a product by generating consumer demand for it, primarily through advertising and sales promotion appeals. • Potential buyers will request that their suppliers—retailers or local distributors—carry the product, thereby pulling it through the distribution channel. • Most marketing situations require combinations of pushing and pulling strategies, although the primary emphasis can vary. ETHICS IN PROMOTION Puffery and Deception • Puffery Exaggeration about the benefits or superiority of a product. • Deception Deliberately making promises that are untrue, such as guaranteed weight loss in five days, get-rich-quick schemes for would-be entrepreneurs, or promised return on investments. Promotion to Children and Teens • Children and teens have enormous purchasing power but cannot analyze advertising messages. Promotion in Public Schools and on College Campuses • Schools earn income from in-school advertising, but it is generating backlash. PRICING OBJECTIVES IN THE MARKETING MIX Price Exchange value of a good or service. PRICING STRATEGIES • Pricing is influenced by people in different areas of a company. Price Determination in Practice Cost-based pricing Adding a percentage (markup) to the base cost of a product to cover overhead costs and generate profits. • Actual markup used varies by such factors as brand image and type of store. • Example: Typical clothing markup by retailers is double the wholesaler price. Breakeven Analysis Breakeven analysis Pricing technique used to determine the minimum sales volume a product must generate at a certain price level to cover all costs. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF PRICE Price-Quality Relationships • Consumers’ perceptions of quality closely tied to price. • High price = prestige and higher quality. • Low price = less prestige and lower quality. Odd Pricing • Setting prices in uneven amounts or amounts that sound less than they really are. • Example: $1.99 or $299. • Also used as a signal a product is on sale.