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4130 steel(
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41xx steel is a family of SAE steel grades, as specified by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
Alloying elements include chromium and molybdenum, and as a result these materials are often informally
referred to as chromoly steel (common variant stylings include chrome-moly, CrMo, CRMO, CR-MOLY,
and similar). They have an excellent strength to weight ratio and are considerably stronger and harder than
standard 1020 steel, but are not easily welded (need pre and post weld thermal treatment to avoid cold
While these grades of steel do contain chromium, it is not in great enough quantities to provide the corrosion
resistance found in stainless steel.
Examples of applications for 4130, 4140 and 4145 include structural tubing, bicycle frames, tubes for
transportation of pressurized gases, firearms receivers, clutch and flywheel components, and roll cages. 4150
stands out as being one of the steels accepted for use in M16 rifle and M4 carbine barrels by the United
States military. These steels are also used in aircraft parts and therefore 41xx grade structural tubing is
sometimes referred to as "aircraft tubing".
Properties[edit source | editbeta]
Alloy composition (by weight)[1]
SAE grade % Cr
% Mo
% Mn % P (max) % S (max) % Si
0.40–0.60 0.08–0.15 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.035
0.40–0.60 0.13–0.20 0.18–0.23 0.90–1.20 0.035
0.45–0.65 0.20–0.30 0.18–0.23 0.75–1.00 0.035
0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.28–0.33 0.40–0.60 0.035
0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.33–0.38 0.70–0.90 0.035
0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25 0.35–0.40 0.70–0.90 0.035
Mechanical properties
Tensile strength [psi Yield strength [psi Elongation in
2" [%]
Cold drawn—
85,000–110,000 psi
(590–760 MPa)
70,000–85,000 psi
(480–590 MPa)
B 90–96
Hot rolled—
90,000–100,000 psi
(620–690 MPa)
60,000–70,000 psi
(410–480 MPa)
B 90–95
Cold drawn—
105,000–120,000 psi 85,000–95,000 psi
(720–830 MPa)
(590–660 MPa)
B 96–100
Other characteristics[edit source | editbeta]
One of the characteristics of this class of steel is the ability to be case hardened by carburization of the
surface. The core of the material retains its bulk properties, while the outer surface is significantly hardened
to reduce wear and tear. This makes this grade of steel an excellent material for such uses as gears, piston
pins, crankshafts, and bike frames.[1]
References[edit source | editbeta]
1. ^ a b Central Steel & Wire Company Catalog (2006-2008 ed.), p. 246. Note: "For bar products; plate, sheet and
tubing may be slightly different."
2. ^ a b c d Central Steel & Wire Company Catalog (2006-2008 ed.), p. 260.
Property Results
Chemistry Data :
for 4340 Steel
0.38 - 0.43
0.7 - 0.9
0.6 - 0.8
0.2 - 0.3
1.65 - 2
0.035 max
0.15 - 0.3
0.04 max
Principal Design
AISI 4340 is a heat treatable, low alloy steel containing nickel,
chromium and molybdenum. It is known for its toughness and
capability of developing high strength in the heat treated condition
while retaining good fatigue strength.
Typical applications are for structural use, such as aircraft landing
gear, power transmission gears and shafts and other structural parts.
Machining is best done with this alloy in the annealed or normalized
and tempered condition. It can be machined by all conventional
methods. However in the high strength conditions of 200 ksi or
greater the machinability is only from 25% to 10% that of the alloy in
the annealed condition.
4340 has good ductility in the annealed condition and most forming
operations are carried out in that condition. It can be bent or formed
by spinning or pressing in the annealed state. Bend radii should be 3t
or greater.
The alloy can be fusion or resistance welded. Preheat and post heat
weld procedures should be followed when welding this alloy by
established methods.
Heat Treatment
Heat treatment for strengthening is done at 1525 F followed by an oil
quench. For high strength (over 200 ksi) the alloy should first be
normalized at 1650 F prior to heat treatment. See "Tempering" for
strength levels.
Forging may be done in the range of 2250 F max. down to 1800 F.
Hot Working
4340 has very good cold forming capability so that hot working should
not be needed. Hot working in any but the annealed condition can
affect the strength level. Consult the alloy supplier in regard to hot
Cold Working
The 4340 alloy may be cold worked, in the annealed condition, by
conventional methods and tooling. It has good ductility.
A full anneal may be done at 1550 F followed by controlled (furnace)
cooling at a rate not faster than 50 F per hour down to 600 F. From
600 F it may be air cooled.
Not applicable to this alloy.
The temperature for tempering depends upon the strength level
desired. Before tempering the alloy should be in the heat treated or
normalized & heat treated condition - see "Heat Treatment". For
strength levels in the 260 - 280 ksi range temper at 450 F. For
strength in the 125 - 200 ksi range temper at 950 F. Do NOT temper
the alloy if it is in the 220 - 260 ksi strength range as tempering can
result in degradation of impact resistance for this level of strength.
The alloy will harden by cold working or by heat treatment -- see
"Heat Treatment" and "Tempering".
AISI 4340 is considered to be a "through hardening" steel such that
large section sizes can still be heat treated to high strength.
Physical Data :
Density (lb / cu. in.)
Specific Gravity
Specific Heat (Btu/lb/Deg F [32-212 Deg F])
Melting Point (Deg F)
Thermal Conductivity
Mean Coeff Thermal Expansion
Modulus of Elasticity Tension
Mechanical Data : [top]
MSO currently has no data available for this grade.
Videos :
MSO currently has no videos available for this grade.
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information contained herein.
This publication may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes may be periodically made to
the information herein.
6160 – T6 Aluminium
Basic properties[edit source | editbeta]
6061 has a density of 2.70 g/cm³ (0.0975 lb/in³).
Chemical composition[edit source | editbeta]
The alloy composition of 6061 is:
Silicon minimum 0.4%, maximum 0.8% by weight
Iron no minimum, maximum 0.7%
Copper minimum 0.15%, maximum 0.40%
Manganese no minimum, maximum 0.15%
Magnesium minimum 0.8%, maximum 1.2%
Chromium minimum 0.04%, maximum 0.35%
Zinc no minimum, maximum 0.25%
Titanium no minimum, maximum 0.15%
Other elements no more than 0.05% each, 0.15% total
Remainder Aluminium (95.85%–98.56%)
Mechanical properties[edit source | editbeta]
The mechanical properties of 6061 depend greatly on the temper, or heat treatment, of the material.[2]
Young's Modulus is 10×106 psi (69 GPa) regardless of temper.[3]
6061-O[edit source | editbeta]
Annealed 6061 (6061-O temper) has maximum tensile strength no more than 18,000 psi (125 MPa), and
maximum yield strength no more than 8,000 psi (55 MPa). The material has elongation (stretch before
ultimate failure) of 25–30%.
6061-T4[edit source | editbeta]
T4 temper 6061 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and yield strength of at
least 16,000 psi (110 MPa). It has elongation of 16%.
6061-T6[edit source | editbeta]
T6 temper 6061 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 42,000 psi (300 MPa) and yield strength of at
least 35,000 psi (241 MPa). More typical values are 45,000 psi (310 MPa) and 40,000 psi (275 MPa),
respectively.[4] In thicknesses of 0.250 inch (6.35 mm) or less, it has elongation of 8% or more; in thicker
sections, it has elongation of 10%. T651 temper has similar mechanical properties. The typical value for
thermal conductivity for 6061-T6 at 80°C is around 152 W/m K. A material data sheet [5] defines the fatigue
limit under cyclic load as 14,000 psi (100 MPa) for 500,000,000 completely reversed cycles using a standard
RR Moore test machine and specimen. Note that aluminum does not exhibit a well defined "knee" on its S-n
graph, so there is some debate as to how many cycles equates to "infinite life". Also note the actual value of
fatigue limit for an application can be dramatically affected by the conventional de-rating factors of loading,
gradient, and surface finish.
Uses[edit source | editbeta]
6061 is commonly used for the following:
construction of aircraft structures, such as wings and fuselages, more commonly in homebuilt aircraft
than commercial or military aircraft.[6] 2024 alloy is somewhat stronger, but 6061 is more easily
worked and remains resistant to corrosion even when the surface is abraded, which is not the case for
2024, which is usually used with a thin Alclad coating for corrosion resistance.[7]
yacht construction, including small utility boats.[8]
automotive parts, such as wheel spacers.
the manufacture of aluminium cans for the packaging of foodstuffs and beverages.
SCUBA tanks (post 1995)
6061-T6 is used for:
the construction of bicycle frames and components.
many fly fishing reels.
The famous Pioneer plaque was made of this particular alloy.
the secondary chambers and baffle systems in firearm sound suppressors (primarily pistol
suppressors for reduced weight and functionality), while the primary expansion chambers usually
require 17-4PH or 303 stainless steel or titanium.[9][10]
The upper and lower receivers of many AR-15 variants.
Many aluminum docks and gangways are constructed with 6061-T6 extrusions, and welded into
Welding[edit source | editbeta]
6061 is highly weldable, for example using tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) or metal inert gas welding
(MIG). Typically, after welding, the properties near the weld are those of 6061-O, a loss of strength of
around 80%. The material can be re-heat-treated to restore -T4 or -T6 temper for the whole piece. After
welding, the material can naturally age and restore some of its strength as well. Nevertheless, the Alcoa
Structural Handbook recommends the design strength of the material adjacent to the weld to be taken as
11,000 psi without proper heat treatment after the weld.[citation needed] Typical filler material is 4043 or 5356.
7075 aluminium alloy
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Aluminium alloy 7075 is an aluminium alloy, with zinc as the primary alloying element. It is strong, with a
strength comparable to many steels, and has good fatigue strength and average machinability, but has less
resistance to corrosion than many other Al alloys. Its relatively high cost limits its use to applications where
cheaper alloys are not suitable.
7075 aluminum alloy's composition roughly includes 5.6–6.1% zinc, 2.1–2.5% magnesium, 1.2–1.6%
copper, and less than half a percent of silicon, iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, and other metals. It is
produced in many tempers, some of which are 7075-0, 7075-T6, 7075-T651.
1 Basic properties
2 Mechanical properties
o 2.1 7075-0
o 2.2 7075-T6
o 2.3 7075-T7
o 2.4 7075-T651
o 2.5 7075-RRA
3 Uses
o 3.1 History
o 3.2 Trade names
4 References
5 Further reading
Basic properties[edit source | editbeta]
Aluminium 7075A has a density of 2.810 g/cm³[1] (0.1015 lb/in³).
Mechanical properties[edit source | editbeta]
The mechanical properties of 7075 depend greatly on the temper of the material.[2]
7075-0[edit source | editbeta]
Un-heat-treated 7075 (7075-0 temper) has maximum tensile strength no more than 40,000 psi (276 MPa),
and maximum yield strength no more than 21,000 psi (145 MPa). The material has an elongation (stretch
before ultimate failure) of 9–10%.
7075-T6[edit source | editbeta]
T6 temper 7075 has an ultimate tensile strength of 74,000–78,000 psi (510–572 MPa) and yield strength of
at least 63,000–69,000 psi (434–503 MPa). It has a failure elongation of 5–11%.[3]
The T6 temper is usually achieved by homogenizing the cast 7075 at 450C for several hours, and then
ageing at 120C for 24 hours. This yields the peak strength of the 7075 alloy. The strength is derived mainly
from finely dispersed eta and eta' precipitates both within grains and along grain boundaries.[4]
7075-T7[edit source | editbeta]
T7 temper has an ultimate tensile strength of 73,200 psi (505 MPa) and a yield strength of 63,100 psi (435
MPa). It has a failure elongation of 13%.[5]
T7 temper is achieved by overageing (meaning ageing past the peak hardness) the material. This is often
accomplished by ageing at 100C-120C for several hours and then at 160C-180C for 24 hours or more. The
T7 temper produces a micro-structure of mostly eta precipitates. In contrast to the T6 temper, these eta
particles are much larger and prefer growth along the grain boundaries. This reduces the susceptibility to
stress corrosion cracking. T7 temper is equivalent to T73 temper.[6]
7075-T651[edit source | editbeta]
T651 temper 7075 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 67,000–78,000 psi (462–538 MPa) and yield
strength of 54,000–67,000 psi (372–462 MPa). It has a failure elongation of 3–9%.
The 51 suffix has no bearing on the heat treatment but denotes that the material is stress relieved by
controlled stretching.
7075-RRA[edit source | editbeta]
The retrogression and reage (RRA) temper is a multistage heat treatment temper. Starting with a sheet in the
T6 temper, it involves overageing past peak hardness (T6 temper) to near the T7 temper. A subsequent
reaging at 120C for 24 hours returns the hardness and strength to or very nearly to T6 temper levels.[7]
RRA treatments can be accomplished with many different procedures. The general guidelines are
retrogressing between 180C-240C for 15min-10s.[8]
Uses[edit source | editbeta]
7000 series alloys such as 7075 are often used in transport applications, including marine, automotive and
aviation, due to their high strength-to-density ratio.[2][9] Their strength and light weight is also desirable in
other fields. Rock climbing equipment, bicycle components, inlineskating-frames and hang glider airframes
are commonly made from 7075 aluminium alloy. Hobby grade RC models commonly use 7075 and 6061 for
chassis plates. One interesting use for 7075 is in the manufacture of M16 rifles for the American military. In
particular high quality M16 rifle lower and upper receivers as well as extension tubes are typically made
from 7075-T6 alloy. Desert Tactical Arms and French armament company PGM use it for their precision
rifles. It is also commonly used in shafts for lacrosse sticks, such as the STX sabre, and camping knife and
fork sets.
Due to its strength, high density, thermal properties and its ability to be highly polished, 7075 is widely used
in mold tool manufacture. This alloy has been further refined into other 7000 series alloys for this
application, namely 7050 and 7020.
History[edit source | editbeta]
The first 7075 was developed in secret by a Japanese company, Sumitomo Metal, in 1936.[10] 7075 was used
for the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter's air frame for the Imperial Japanese Navy starting in 1940.
Trade names[edit source | editbeta]
7075 has been sold under various trade names including Zicral, Ergal and Fortal Constructal.
Some 7000 series alloys sold under brand names for making moulds include Alumec 79, Alumec 89, Contal,
Certal, Alumould, and Hokotol.
References[edit source | editbeta]
^ Material Properties Data: 7075-T6 Aluminum
^ a b Alcoa 7075 data sheet (PDF), accessed October 13, 2006
^ Park, J. K., and A. J. Ardell. "Microstructures of the Commercial 7075 AI Alloy in the T651 and T7 Tempers." Metall.
Trans. A. 14A (1983): 1957. Print.
5. ^
6. ^ Park, J. K., and A. J. Ardell. "Microstructures of the Commercial 7075 AI Alloy in the T651 and T7 Tempers." Metall.
Trans. A. 14A (1983): 1957. Print.
7. ^ Park, J. K., and A. J. Ardell. "Microstructures of the Commercial 7075 AI Alloy in the T651 and T7 Tempers." Metall.
Trans. A. 14A (1983): 1957. Print.
TO STRESS CORROSION CRACKING. Isreal Aircraft Industries Ltd., assignee. Patent 3856584. 24 Dec. 1974. Print.
9. ^ T Hashimoto, S Jyogan (Showa Aluminium), K Nakata, Y G Kin and M Ushio (Osaka University): FSW joining of
high strength Al alloy