Chapter 12—Personality Theory


Chapter 12—Personality Theory

Carl Jung

Analytic Psychology

Carl Jung—Introduction

Originally trained with Freud

Broke from Freudian analysis

Event  Freud and Jung analyzing each others’ dreams

– Freud showed resistance to Jung’s analysis

– Freud stopped, saying he would lose authority

Felt Freud overemphasized sexual aspects

Experience with developing sciences of

Anthropology and Sociology

Spent time living in different cultures


Basic Principles

(part of his theory)

Principle of opposites: Our personality consists of opposing/competing forces that we strive to balance.

– Examples

Conscious versus unconscious

Introversion versus extraversion

– Opposition creates energy (concept of energy is similar to Freud’s libido)

Propels movement forward


Basic Principles

Principle of equivalence: Energy created by opposites is given to both sides equally.

– Each pair in opposite has = amts of energy

– Increase in one area pulls energy from other area

– Too much on one side =>

May spur growth

When problem, complex is said to develop


Basic Principles

Principle of entropy: Tendency for opposites to come together—be less extreme opposites

– When younger, degree of opposites tends to be extreme

– As one grows, able to tolerate differences/opposites

(doesn’t have to be one or the other—can be both)

– We strive toward balancing these opposites

Natural tendency for growth

Balance  not free of conflict

Individuation = term used for goal of unity of our personality (unification of opposing forces into whole)

Core Concepts—


Ego = conscious mind

– Center of consciousness

– Characterized by one dominant attitude


– Characterized by two functions:

Thinking or feeling

Sensing or intuiting

Core Concepts—

Personal Unconscious

Personal unconscious

– Similar to Freud’s conception of preconscious and unconscious

– Contains memories that can be recalled as well as those that have been repressed

– Complex: cluster of emotionally-charged memories that influence behavior

Arise from need to adapt and inability to meet that need/challenge

Develop over time

Examples  mother complex, guilt complex, hero complex

Identified through word association tests

Core Concepts—

Collective Unconscious

Collective unconscious

– Definition—Psychological residue of man’s ancestral past

Reservoir of mankind’s experiences as species

Accumulated memories of mankind’s experiences

Seen in themes and symbols in cultures (why we respond to them):

– Parallels in myths, fairy tales, literature, art, etc.

– Dreams

– Déjà vu experiences

– Near death experiences

Core Concepts—

Collective Unconscious

Collective unconscious (cont’d)

Archetypes: inherited predisposition to experience things in certain ways

More like an emotion

Jung described them as “thought-forms”  implied as much feeling as thought

Unlearned tendencies to experience things

Organizing principle (similar to Freud’s conception of instincts) for our behavior

Collected deposits of mankind’s repeated exp’s with events such as birth, death, mother, father, evil, etc.

Core Concepts—

Archetypes of Coll. Uncon.

Main archetypes of collective unconscious

Persona: public personality (mask) worn to win society’s approval

Our instinctual knowledge that we have to act certain way in society

Way we present ourselves

The good impression we hope to make

Starts as archetype, but becomes farther removed from collective unconscious

Comprised of attitudes taken from social class, occupation, ethnic heritage, religion, etc.

When people associate entire personality with persona  potential problems

Core Concepts—

Archetypes of Coll. Uncon.


– Lower, animal side of our behavior

– Represents socially unacceptable beh

– Derives from prehuman, animal past—when we were not self-conscious

– Dark side  evil we are capable of

– Shadow is amoral

– Also has positive side  spontaneity, creativity, healthy mistrust, humor

– Where do we see shadow? Dreams, fantasies, slips of tongue, jokes, etc.

– Symbols  snakes, monsters, demons, etc.

Core Concepts—

Archetypes of Coll. Uncon.


Anima = female archetype in males

Animus = male archetype in females

– Spirit of opposite sex in us

– Trace of mankind’s experience of living with opposite sex

– Societal stereotypes and expectations cause us to develop only half of our potential

Core Concepts—

Archetypes of Coll. Uncon.


– Center of psyche

– Represents our striving for unity of opposing forces

– Most central and influential archetype

– Represents transcendence of opposites—all aspects of personality expressed

– You are neither and both persona and shadow, neither and both conscious and unconscious  what comes together is self

Core Concepts—

Archetypes of Coll. Uncon.

Self (cont’d)

Individuation = process by which ind integrates opposing tendencies


Contradictions do not overwhelm

– Personified by Jesus

Christ and Buddha

– Perfection only completed at death

– Symbolized in mandala

New Topic—

Theory of Psychological Type


– Attempt to explain individual differences

– Began with concepts of introversion and extraversion

– Added functions (thinking-feeling, sensingintuiting) later

– Represents preferences rather than exclusive talents

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Psychological Type (cont’d)

Attitudes (orientations): our tendency to act in certain; how we orient to the world


Oriented toward inner world (Object  ego)

Prefer inner world of thoughts, feelings, dreams, etc.

Focus on concepts, ideas, internal expressions

More oriented to collective unconscious and archetypes

Psychological Type (cont’d)

Attitudes (cont’d)


Oriented to outer world (Ego  object)

Prefer world of things and people

Focus on others and thinks aloud

More oriented toward persona and outer reality

Psychological Type (cont’d)

Functions: mental activity

Perceiving: how we gather or take in information


– Pay attention to observable facts or events through five senses (seeing, hearing, touching, etc.)

– Good at looking and listening


– Focus on meanings, relationships, possibilities

– Unconscious sensing—knowing w/o sensing

– Unconscious processing

Psychological Type (cont’d)

Functions (cont’d)

Judging: how we come to conclusions about what we perceive


– Decide impersonally on basis of logical conclusions

– Tell what it is

– Evaluates information rationally


– Decisions based on personal and social values

– Tell what it is worth

– Evaluates by looking at overall picture

Psychological Type (cont’d)

Types (see MBTI and handout)

– Each type represents preferences for one over the other

– Dominant function => function used most enthusiastically

– Development and type

Youth and adolescence

– Develop dominant function >

– Most natural – feels most comfortable


– People tend to be motivated toward completion of personality

– Begin to add neglected functions