The Periodic Table Notes

```Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements
Date:____________
Section 4: The Periodic Table - Notes
Objectives:
 Identify metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
 Use the periodic table to classify elements by group.
The Periodic Table:
 _____________________________________________________ (1834-1907)
o
Russian chemistry professor
o
proposed from observation that when the elements are arranged in order of increasing
relative mass, certain sets of _____________________________ recur
______________________________.

The color of each element represents its properties.
o

Notice the _________________________________________
We arrange them in rows so that similar _________________________
align in the same ____________________________ columns. This figure
is similar to Mendeleev’s first periodic table.

Mendeleev’s periodic law was based on ___________________________.
o
Like all scientific laws, the ________________________________________ summarized
many observations but did not give the underlying reason for the observation


only ____________________ do that!
Group / Family: a ___________________________________________ in the periodic table.
o
Elements within groups have _______________________________________________.

Period / Row: ________________________________________________ on the periodic table.

The elements in the periodic table can be broadly classified as _____________________,
________________________________, and _____________________________.
Metals:
 Metals occupy the _______________________________ of the periodic table and have similar
_______________________________.
o
____________________________________________ of heat and electricity
o
can be pounded into flat sheets (______________________________)
o
can be drawn into wires (_____________________________)
o
often shiny (________________________)

tend to _________________________________________ when they undergo chemical changes

_____________________________________ at room temperature
o
Except  __________________________________
Nonmetals:
 Nonmetals occupy the __________________________________________ of the periodic table.

The dividing line between metals and nonmetals is the zigzag diagonal line running from
_____________________ to _____________________.

Nonmetals have more ________________________ properties; some are dull, brittle
___________________ at room temperature, while others are _____________________.
o
________________________________________

As a whole, nonmetals tend to be ________________________________ of heat and electricity.

Nonmetals tend to _______________________________ when they undergo chemical changes.
Metalloids:
 Metalloids lie along the _____________________________ line dividing metals and nonmetals.

o
also called ____________________________
o
display ____________________ properties
Metalloids are also called ______________________________________ because of their
intermediate electrical conductivity, which can be ________________________ and
_______________________________.

This property makes semiconductors useful in the manufacture of ________________________
____________________ that are central to computers, cell phones, and other modern gadgets.

Not as __________________________ as metals

Not as __________________________ as nonmetals

_______________________, arsenic, and germanium are good examples of metalloids.
Practice: Classify each element as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.

Ba

O

Br

Te
Groups:
 In main group elements, properties can generally be ____________________________ based
on the element’s position.

In transition elements, properties tend to be __________________________________________
based on the element’s position.


_____________________________ – Group 1
o
The alkali metals include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium.
o
Shared Properties:

_____________________________________ appearance

__________________________

___________________________________________ compared to other metals

_________________________________________________ – Group 2
o
The alkaline earth metals include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and
barium.
o


Shared Properties:

______________________________________________ appearance

Harder and denser than ___________________________, but still relatively soft

_________________________ melting and boiling points than alkali metals

______________________________________ as alkali metals
_____________________________ – Groups 3-12
o
Includes ____________________________ and ______________________________
o
Generally good __________________________________
o
________________ densities and ________________ melting points
o
Properties are ______________________________________ than main group elements
_____________________________ – Group 13
o
Mostly metals that have ______________________________________ appearance

o
____________________ is pure black and is a metalloid
Most are relatively ____________________________ and _____________

Boron is _____________________________________
o
__________________ at room temperature
o
_________________________________________ than the alkaline earth metals

_____________________________ – Group 14
o
Increase in _______________________________ character as you go down the group
o
__________________ can be a black powder, a soft, slippery gray solid, a hard,
transparent solid, or an orange red solid.

o
__________________ can be a brown powder or a shiny gray solid.
o
_______________________ is a shiny gray white solid that breaks easily.
_____________________________ – Group 15
o
Increase in ____________________________ character as you go down the group
o
______________________ is a colorless, odorless gas
o
________________________________ can be found as a white, red, or black solid
o
____________________ is a shiny gray solid that is brittle
o
_______________________ is a shiny silver gray solid that is very brittle
o
______________________ is a shiny gray solid that has pink cast to it. It is one of the
least conductive metals.

_____________________________ – Group 16
o
At room temp, ___________________ is a clear, odorless gas, while the other elements
are _________________.

o
__________________ is pale yellow, odorless, and brittle
o
_______________________ can be a red powder or gray solid
o
____________________________ has 27 known isotopes and all are radioactive
_____________________________ – Group 17
o
The halogens include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
o
At room temperature:
o

____________________ is a pale yellow gas

____________________ is a yellow green gas

____________________ is a red brown liquid

____________________ is a blue black solid that easily sublimes
Form _________________________ molecules

o
__________________________________ with alkali metals and alkaline earth metals
o
____________________________ is the most active of all of the elements
_____________________________ – Group 18
o
The noble gases include helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.
o
___________________________________________________________
o
____________________ boiling and melting points than other groups
o
____________________
o
Mostly ________________ (don’t react)
Practice:

To which group or family does each element belong?
o
Mg
o
K
o
N
o
Br
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