The West After the Enlightenment


The West After the


The American Revolution Period


The American Revolution Period

American religion shifted from Revivalism to

Revolutionary Politics

The Great Awakening was an “ Americanizing ” phenomena

Dominant Libertine Agenda of Revolution— political and religious

The American Churches at War





New England Congregationalism Patriots

Anglicans of NE / Middle colonies Tory oriented

Southern colonies were complicated array of

Patriots and Tories

Historic Peace Churches: Quakers and Mennonites

The American Revolution Period

Revolutionary impact on religion in America

Christian losses due to the Revolutionary War

Revolution ended censorship

Conservative reactions to Christian losses

Establishing and securing Disestablishment

Nationally: religious liberties legally secured from outset

Denominationalism framed to insure religious liberties

Incipient Anti-denominationalism in response

Disciples of Christ: Thomas & Alexander Campbell

Christian Church (or Disciples of Christ)

The West After the


The French Revolution & Conquests


The French Revolution

Background: The Perils of Louis XVI’s Reign

Philosophe ideology popularizing new republican ambitions

King Louis XVI popularity declining

Initiation of Revolt: Calling of the Estates General

Storming of the Bastille , July 14, 1789

Reorganizing governance / religion under Republic

National Convention


Reign of Terror (1793-95) in France under

Maximilian Robespierre

The French Revolution

Impact of “Reign of Terror” on the Church

Completely severed church and state relationship

Created national religion: “Cult of Reason ” (1793)

Final chapters in the Revolution

Execution of Maximilian Robespierre

Government persisted in Christian persecution

Napoleon Bonaparte , a rising figure in military

Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte as French “Consul”

Resurrection of French Catholicism

Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Notre Dame, 1806)

The West After the


Restoration of R.C. Papal Power


Restoration of R.C. Papal Power

Tensions in 19th century European attitudes toward Catholicism

Struggles between Ultramontanism and

Galicanism / Febronianism (German)

Factors restoring authority of church in Europe


Effects of Romanticism


Restoration of Jesuit Order (1814)


Removal of nationally instituted political disabilities


Oxford Movement’s defectors to RC. (1833-45)

Restoration of R.C. Papal Power

Reign of Pius IX


Doctrine of Immaculate Conception of Mary

Syllabus of Errors


Vatican I: Declaration of Papal Infallibility


Decline in papal political influence/power after Vatican I

Anticlerical hostility emerged in many countries

“Iron Chancellor Bismarck” initiated May Laws

France’s “Separation Law”

Papal problems in Italy

Italian armies captured Rome


Law of the Papal Guarantees


The West After the



Cultural Response to Rationalism


Cultural Response to Rationalism

What is Romanticism?

Intellectual and literary movement at the end of the 18th c.

(ca. 1780-1830)

Diverse 18th c. sources

Intellectual fruit of post-enlightenment philosophers

Kant Critique of Practical Reason

Rousseau Social Contract


Renewed emphasis on ethnic history

(feature in German Idealism)

Influence of Hegel



Cultural Response to Rationalism

Romanticism’s Impact on Religion

Reassigned roots of Christian religion

Potentiality of human goodness and achievement emphasized

New theological approach

Altered the historic doctrine of God

Friedrich Schleiermacher

(1768-1834) defined the new Romantic theology

Speeches on Religion to its Cultured Despisers (1799)

The Christian Faith (1821) [his magnum opus]

The West After the



Political Fruit of Romanticism


Political Fruit of Romanticism

Colonization erupted as consequence of several factors

Napoleonic Wars (turned Britain’s attention toward its opponents’ colonies)

Industrial revolution

Political ambitions for imperial world domination

Consequences of European colonization were widespread

Latin America

Asia (military colonialism of China & Japan)

Sub-Sahara Africa (imperialistic colonialism)


Political Fruit of Romanticism

America’s “ Manifest Destiny”: Popular Ethos of

“naked political aggression”

Apologetic for colonization on grounds of

“ benevolent ” development

James Monroe’s platform: No toleration of European ventures in western hemisphere

By close of 19th century, US secured entire continental land mass now held

Churches’ reaction to such expansionism

The West After the


Second Great Awakening in America

Second Great Awakening in America

New England Congregational Phase –

Conservative / Collegiate basis

Began at Yale under President Timothy Dwight

Spread to Dartmouth, Williams, and other colleges

American Frontier Phase – Camp Meeting basis

Protracted meetings attracted large crowds

Because of sparse populations, denominational barriers reduced

James McGready

Barton Stone and the Cane Ridge Revival (1801)

Spiritual fruit harvested along with suspicions

Groundwork of Francis Asbury

(d. 1816)

Second Great Awakening in America

Urban Phase – Charles G. Finney

Prominence as Presbyterian revivalist in

Rochester NY campaigns

Published Lectures on Revival (1834-35)

“ New Measures ” for conducting of revivals

Oberlin college

Lectures on Systematic Theology

Second Great Awakening in America

Holiness Phase: The Third Awakening


Phoebe Palmer : Methodist lay theologian

Developed “ altar theology”


Emphasized role of women in ministry

(“Promise of the Father”)

Centrality of necessity of a “ second work of grace” in revival preaching

Spawning of distinctly holiness camp-meetings throughout America and Europe

Second Great Awakening in America

Effects of the Second Great Awakening

Benevolent Empire of multiple voluntary societies

Memberships mushrooming in support / effectiveness

Denominational Splintering and Restructuring

Congregational: Liberal vs. Conservative

Presbyterian: Old School vs. New School

Theological conflicts over soteriology and free will

New School theology represented by Taylor

Conservative Calvinists (Old School) feared New

Haven Theology

Horace Bushnell: Criticized excessive revivalism in

Christian Nurture

Second Great Awakening in America

Effects of the Second Great Awakening

Emergence of new anti-denominationalism

Disciples movement: Thomas & Alexander Campbell

Swelling of evangelically aggressive denominations

Methodist soar to prominence

Baptists increase

New colleges and seminaries

Hundreds of new denominational colleges

Cults / alternative religions (“ burned over district”)

Millenarian groups / Perfectionist groups / Revelatory groups

The West After the


Aberrant Religious Expressions

Aberrant Religious Expressions

Utopian Communities (Perfectionist or Millenarian)

Oneida Community (1846) of John Noyes transcendental perfectionism

Ephrata Community (PA) (German Anabaptists)

Shakers of Ann Lee Stanley (Mother Ann Lee)

Spiritualist Church

Fox sisters (Kate and Margaret) of Hydesville, NY

Aberrant Religious Expressions


Joseph Smith with his golden plates in Palmyra NY

Brigham Young moved group to Salt Lake City, Utah

Seventh Day Adventists

Hermeneutics of William Miller

Adventist denomination

Merged with Seventh Day Baptist

Influence of Ellen Harmon White

Jehovah’s Witnesses of Charles Taze Russell

Restorationist group focused on hidden clues within scriptures concerning future

The West After the


American Civil War Era

American Civil War Era

Grounds for an American Civil War

Aggravated cultural disparities

Consequence of disparity—Ideological differences in both politics and religion

Pulpits on both sides defended justice of their cause

The slavery issue in American churches

Early voices against slavery in America (18th c.)

Such positions were modified with passage of time

Entrenchment of Southern attitudes by 1830

Northern campaigns against slavery

American Anti-Slavery Society organized (1833) as part of benevolent empire

American Civil War Era

Splitting churches on geographical fault line N-S

(Mason-Dixon Line)

Only Episcopalians and Catholics weathered the storm without long-term divisions

New denominations emerged

Wesleyan Methodist Church of America (1843)

Free Methodist Church (1860)

Division among existing denominations

Methodist Episcopal Church South (1845)

Southern Baptist Convention (1845)

Presbyterian Churches split as Civil War approached

American Civil War Era

Emergence of Black American churches

Early separations from mainline churches in the North

African Methodist Episcopal Church

(Richard Allen) [Philadelphia]

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

[New York City]

After Civil War, separations in the South

National Baptist Convention

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church

The West After the


Challenges Facing the 19


c. Church

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Social Issues

Evangelicals popularized Christian moral standards as a civic duty to aid mankind

Influential Clapham Sect

Multiple societies emerging to improve society

Legislation enacted to ensure proper behavior

Abolitionism coming of age and achievement

In England: Woolman, Wesley, and Wilberforce

Voices from American Abolitionists (including Lane

Seminary and Oberlin College)

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Social Issues

Industrial revolution and urban plight

Groundwork for new social order

Ideas led to Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto

Many (in Victorian England) leveraged evangelicalism to resolve problems

Salvation Army of William Booth

The Ragged Schools Union (Lord Shaftesbury)

Anti-Prostitution Campaign of William Gladstone

Women’s Christian Temperance Union of Frances


Cadbury brothers Bournville village

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Social Issues

American churches responded to inner city social ills / exploitation

City rescue missions (since 1850)

Christian social relief work (YMCA / YWCA /

Salvation Army)

Institutional church models providing for holistic human needs

Goodwill Industries (est. ca. 1900)

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Crises of Faith: Modernity & Religion

Christianity responded on multiple fronts

Liberals: German theology ( Tübingen School ) and biblical criticism

The Broad Church Movement in Anglicanism

Fundamentalists: Taking cue from English evangelicalism and Princeton theology

The Fundamentalist Movement in America

J. Gresham Machen: Christianity and Liberalism

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Crises of Faith: Modernity & Religion

New sciences / scientific philosophies

- Earth sciences (geology)

- Biological sciences: Charles Darwin

Scopes Monkey Trial

(Clarence Darrow vs. William J. Bryan)

Biblical Criticism

Hermann Reimarus

Johann Eichhorn

Ferdinand Baur: Leader of the Tübingen School

Julius Wellhausen: JEPD theory

J.B. Lightfoot: An English conservative

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Crises of Faith: Modernity & Religion

Liberal Theology

Schleiermacher the “Father of Liberalism”

David Strauss

Albrecht Ritschl

The Social Gospel

Walter Rauschenbush

[American Apostle of Social Gospel]

Challenges Facing the 19 th c. Church

Crises of Faith: Modernity & Religion

Responding to Christian liberalism

Catholics: shut and bolted door against liberalism

Protestants: largely entrenched against slippery slope of liberalism

High Church (Tractarians)

Low Church (evangelicals) emphasized scriptural authority

Princeton Theology of Charles Hodge, Benjamin Warfield

Dogmas developed in 12 volume

The Fundamentals ”


Resources Drawn From…

Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church,

Third Edition, Revised and Expanded. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.

Dowley, Tim, ed. The History of Christianity: A Lion Handbook. Oxford: Lion Publishing,


Gonzalez, Justo. The Story of Christianity Vol. 2: Reformation to the Present Day. San

Francisco: Harper, 1985.

Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Grand Rapids:

Zondervan, 2006.

Kagan, Donald, S. Ozment and F. Turner, eds. The Western Heritage. New York:

Macmillan Pub. Co., 1987.

Miller, Glenn T. The Modern Church. Nashville: Abingdon Press: 1997.

Needham, N.R. 2,000 Years of Christ’s Power Pt. 3: Renaissance and Reformation.

London: Grace Publications Trust, 2004.

Noll, Mark . Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. Leicester,

England: IVP, 1997.

Walker, Williston A History of the Christian Church. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,