# pptx

```Accelerating Gibbs sampling
of Gaussians using
matrix decompositions
Al Parker
January 18, 2009
Acknowledgements
• Colin Fox, Physics,
University of Otago
• New Zealand Institute of Mathematics,
University of Auckland
• Center for Biofilm Engineering,
, Bozeman
The multivariate Gaussian distribution
1
 1

T
1
N ( , )  n
exp   ( y   )  ( y   ) 
1/ 2
2 det( )
 2

How to sample from a Gaussian N(&micro;,Σ)?
• Sample z ~ N(0,I)
• y = Σ1/2 z+ &micro;
~ N(&micro;,Σ)
(eg y = WΛ1/2z + &micro;)
Example: From 64 faces, modeling “face space”
with a Gaussian Process N(μ,Σ)
Pixel intensity at the ith
row and jth column is
y(s(i,j)),
y(s) є R112 x R112
μ(s) є R112 x R112
Σ(s,s) є R12544 x R12544
~N( ,Σ)
A bigger example:
data = SPHERE + ε,
ε ~ N(0,σ2I)
Sample from π(SPHERE|data)
The problem
• To generate a sample y = Σ1/2 z+ &micro; ~ N(&micro;,Σ),
how to calculate the factorization Σ =Σ1/2(Σ1/2)T ?
• Σ1/2 = WΛ1/2 by eigen-decomposition, 10/3n3 flops
• Σ1/2 = C by Cholesky factorization, 1/3n3 flops
LARGE
For
Gaussians (n&gt;105, eg in image analysis
and global data sets), these approaches are not possible
• n3 is computationally TOO EXPENSIVE
• storing an n x n matrix requires TOO MUCH MEMORY
Some solutions
Work with sparse precision matrix Σ-1 models (Rue, 2001)
Circulant embeddings (Gneiting et al, 2005)
Iterative methods:
– COST: n2 flops per iteration
– MEMORY: Only vectors of size n x 1 need be stored
– If the method runs for n iterations, then there is no cost
savings over a direct method
Gibbs: an iterative sampler of
N(0,A) and N(0, A-1 )
Let A=Σ or A= Σ-1
1. Split A into D=diag(A), L=lower(A), LT=upper(A)
2. Sample z ~ N(0,I)
3. Take conditional samples in each coordinate
direction, so that a full sweep of all n coordinates is
yk =-D-1 L yk - D-1 LT yk-1 + D-1/2 z
yk converges in distribution geometrically to N(0,A-1)
Ayk converges in distribution geometrically to N(0,A)
Gibbs: an iterative sampler
Gibbs sampling from N(&micro;,Σ) starting from (0,0)
Gibbs: an iterative sampler
Gibbs sampling from N(&micro;,Σ) starting from (0,0)
Solving Ax=b is equivalent to minimizing an ndimensional quadratic (when A is spd)
1 T
f ( x)  x Ax  bT x
2
f ( x)  b  Ax
A Gaussian is sufficiently specified by the same quadratic
(with A= Σ-1and b=Aμ):
1
 1

T
1
N ( , )  n
exp

(
y


)

(
y


)


1/ 2
2 det( )
 2

Gauss-Siedel Linear Solve of Ax=b
1. Split A into D=diag(A), L=lower (A), LT=upper(A)
2. Minimize the quadratic f(x) in each coordinate
direction, so that a full sweep of all n coordinates
is
xk =-D-1 L xk - D-1 LT xk-1 + D-1 b
xk converges geometrically A-1b
Gauss-Siedel Linear Solve of Ax=b
Gauss-Siedel Linear Solve of Ax=b
xk converges geometrically A-1b,
(xk - A-1b) = Gk( x0 - A-1b) where ρ(G) &lt; 1
Theorem: A Gibbs sampler is a
Gauss Siedel linear solver
Proof:
• A Gibbs sampler is
yk =-D-1 L yk - D-1 LT yk-1 + D-1/2 z
• A Gauss-Siedel linear solve of Ax=b is
xk =-D-1 L xk - D-1 LT xk-1 + D-1 b
Gauss Siedel is a Stationary Linear Solver
• A Gauss-Siedel linear solve of Ax=b is
xk =-D-1 L xk - D-1 LT xk-1 + D-1 b
• Gauss Siedel can be written as
M xk = N xk-1 + b
where M = D + L and N = D - LT , A = M – N,
the general form of a stationary linear solver
Stationary linear solvers of Ax=b
1. Split A=M-N
2. Iterate Mxk = N xk-1 + b
1. Split A=M-N
2. Iterate xk = M-1Nxk-1 + M-1b
= Gxk-1 + M-1b
xk converges geometrically A-1b,
(xk - A-1b) = Gk( x0 - A-1b)
when ρ(G) = ρ(M-1N)&lt; 1
Stationary Samplers from
Stationary Solvers
Solving Ax=b:
1. Split A=M-N
2. Iterate Mxk = N xk-1 + b
xk  A-1b if ρ(M-1N)&lt; 1
Sampling from N(0,A) and N(0,A-1):
1. Split A=M-N
2. Iterate Myk = N yk-1 + ck-1
where ck-1 ~ N(0, MT + N)
yk  N(0,A-1) if ρ(M-1N)&lt; 1
Ayk  N(0,A) if ρ(M-1N)&lt; 1
How to sample
ck-1 ~ N(0, MT + N) ?
• Gauss Siedel
M = D + L,
ck-1 ~ N(0, D)
• SOR (successive over-relaxation)
M = 1/wD + L, ck-1 ~ N(0, (2-w)/w D)
• Richardson
M = I,
ck-1 ~ N(0, 2I-A)
• Jacobi
M = D,
ck-1 ~ N(0, 2D-A)
Theorem:
Stat Linear Solver converges iff Stat Sampler converges
and
the convergence is geometric
• Proof: They have the same iteration operator:
For linear solves:
xk = Gxk-1 + M-1 b
so that (xk - A-1b) = Gk( x0 - A-1b)
For sampling:
yk = Gyk-1 + M-1 ck-1
E(yk)= Gk E(y0) Var(yk) = A-1 - Gk A-1 GkT
Proof for Gaussians given by Barone and Frigessi, 1990. For arbitrary distributions
by Duflo, 1997
Acceleration schemes for
stationary linear solvers can be used to
accelerate stationary samplers
Polynomial acceleration of a stationary solver of
Ax=b is
1. Split A = M - N
2. xk+1 = (1- vk) xk-1 + vk xk + vk uk M-1 (b-A xk)
which replaces
(xk - A-1b) = Gk( x0 - A-1b)
with a kth order polynomial
(xk - A-1b) = p(G)( x0 - A-1b)
Chebyshev acceleration
xk+1 = (1- vk) xk-1 + vk xk + vk uk M-1 (b-A xk)
where vk , uk are functions of the 2 extreme eigenvalues of G
(not very expensive to get estimates of these eigenvalues)
Gauss-Siedel converged like this …
Chebyshev acceleration
xk+1 = (1- vk) xk-1 + vk xk + vk uk M-1 (b-A xk)
where vk , uk are functions of the 2 extreme eigenvalues of G
(not very expensive to get estimates of these eigenvalues)
… convergence (geometric-like) with
Chebyshev acceleration
xk+1 = (1- vk) xk-1 + vk xk + vk uk M-1 (b-A xk)
where vk , uk are functions of the residuals b-Axk
… convergence guaranteed in n finite
steps with CG acceleration
Polynomial accelerated sampler of
N(0,A-1)
if vk , uk are independent of the iterates yk ,ck
1. Split A = M - N
2. yk+1 = (1- vk) yk-1 + vk yk + vk uk M-1 (ck -A yk)
where ck ~ N(0, (2-vk)/vk ( (2 – uk)/ uk M + N)
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs sampler
in 2D
Gibbs sampler
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs sampler
in 100D
Covariance
matrix
convergence
||A-1 – Sk||2
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs sample
in 106 D
~N(0,Laplacian-1)
• The polynomial accelerated sampler presented here
does not apply since the parameters vk , uk are
functions of the residuals ck - A yk
• Colin devised an approach called the
conjugate direction sampler
Lanczos sampler
Iterative eigen-solvers can also be hijacked to
produce samples as well as eignenvalues.
One extremely effective sampler for
LARGE Gaussians
Use a combination of the ideas presented:
• Use the Lanczos or CD sampler to generate
samples and estimates of the extreme
eigenvalues of G.
• Seed these samples and extreme eigenvalues
into a Chebyshev accelerated SOR sampler
Conclusions
Common techniques from numerical linear
algebra can be used to sample from Gaussians
• Cholesky factorization (precise but expensive)
• Any stationary linear solver can be used as a
stationary sampler (inexpensive but with geometric convergence)
• Polynomial accelerated Samplers
– Chebyshev
• Lanczos Sampler
Estimation of Σ(θ,r) from the data
using a a Markov Chain
Marginal Posteriors
Simulating the process:
samples from N(μ,Σ|data)
~N(μ,
TOO COURSE OF A
GRID
x = Σ1/2 z + &micro;
)
Why is CG so fast?
Gauss Siedel’s Coordinate directions
CG’s conjugate directions
Simulating the process:
samples from N(μ,Σ)
~N(μ,
y = Σ1/2 z + &micro;
)
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs sampler
in 106 D
b = SPHERE + ε, ε ~ N(0,σ2I), SNR=.5
N (  , ) 
n
1
 1

T
1
exp

(
y


)

(
y


)


1/ 2
2
2 det( )


  [100 200]T
 2
 11  9  2



 9 11   2
 2
 WW T

 2
1
/
2
0


 2
2 




 2   0 1 / 20  2
2
 2
2

2 

 2 
2
2
T
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs sampler
in 106 D
CD sampler (CG accelerated Gibbs)
• A GOOD THING: The CG algorithm is a great linear solver! If
the eigenvalues of A are in c clusters, then a solution to Ax=b
is found in c &lt;&lt; n steps.
• A PROBLEM: When the CG residuals get
small , the CD sampler is forced to stop
after only c &lt;&lt; n steps.
Thus, covariances with
well separated
eigenvalues work well.
• The covariance of the CD samples yk ~ N(0,A-1) and Ayk ~
N(0,A) have the correct covariances if A’s eigenvectors in the
Krylov space spanned by the residuals have small/large
eigenvalues.
Another example: Interpolation
One can assume a covariance function which has
some parameters θ
I used a Bayesian posterior
for θ|data to construct μ|data
Simulating the process:
samples from N(μ,Σ|data)
~N(μ,
y = Σ1/2 z + &micro;
)
Gaussian Processes
modeling global ozone
Cressie and Johannesson, Fixed rank kriging for very large spatial datasets, 2006
Gaussian Processes
modeling global ozone
Chebyshev accelerated Gibbs sampler
in 106 D
data = SPHERE + ε
Sample from π(SPHERE|data)
```