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Candidates for the Post-EPS Observation
Missions, Prioritisation, and
Preliminary Assessment
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
Towards Candidate Observation Missions
•
On the basis of the user needs, candidate observation missions and requirements were
identified with the support of the Post-EPS Mission Experts Team (PMET)
 Post-EPS Mission Requirements Document (MRD), which is contained on the CD-ROM of
in the Workshop hand-outs.
•
Due to the breadth of the user requirements, as many as 21 missions could be
needed!
•
Approach taken to implement of a suite of baseline missions covering a wide range of
applications rather than fewer sophisticated missions, covering only a few applications.
•
The baseline level of performance is determined by the driving requirements and
further moderated by feasibility and maturity of the observation techniques.
•
The primary missions have been identified by extent to which they fulfil the EUMETSAT
mandate and strategy, the maturity of the observation technique, and the continuation
of heritage missions, in particular EPS missions and the mid-morning sounding.
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 2
Prioritisation: ranking of observation missions
•
A prioritisation of observation missions is necessary to focus the Phase 0
studies in a meaningful way
•
The benefit of potential missions is quantified for the following application
areas
– Numerical weather prediction
– Nowcasting
– Climate monitoring
– Atmospheric chemistry
– Oceanography
– Hydrology
•
Further weight is assigned to the continuity of the EPS Programme
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 3
Ranking due to potential data gaps
•
An additional ranking has been suggested to take into account potential future
data gaps in the global observing system
•
Implementation is not straight forward
– Lacking basis in EUMETSAT strategy
– Prediction into the Post-EPS time frame is extremely difficult in view of
lacking information
– Weighting of the gap impact relative to other impact factors can lead to
arbitrary results
– EUMETSAT is not a “gap-filler”
•
Suggestion by mission experts to keep this ranking separate from application
and strategy based ranking
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 4
Mission ranking (1/3)
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
Average Priority (P)
1.43
0.81
1.76
0.90
1.00
0.81
0.86
Adjusted Weight (w = W / P)
2.80
2.47
1.14
1.11
1.00
1.24
1.17
Application Weight (W)
Priority/Contribution (0=none 3=highest)
NWP
NWC
CM
AC
Ocean
Hydro
EPS
cont
Weigh
Av
Rank
incl gaps
Infrared Sounding (IRS)
3
2
2
3
1
1
3
2.3
Very high
Microwave Sounding (MWS)
3
2
3
1
1
2
3
2.3
Very high
VIS/IR Imaging (VII)
2
3
2
1
2
3
3
2.3
Very high
Scatterometry (SCA)
2
3
2
0
3
2
3
2.2
Very high
MW Imaging-Precipitation
(MWI-P)
2
2
2
0
2
3
1.7
Low
MW Imaging-Ocean/Land
(MWI-OL)
2
1
2
0
3
2
1.5
Low
Radio Occultation (RO)
2
1
2
1
0
0
1.4
High
Candidate Mission
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 5
0
0
3
Mission ranking (2/3)
Application Weight (W)
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
Average Priority (P)
1.43
0.81
1.76
0.90
1.00
0.81
0.86
Adjusted Weight (w = W / P)
2.80
2.47
1.14
1.11
1.00
1.24
1.17
Priority/Contribution (0=none 3=highest)
NWP
NWC
CM
AC
Ocean
Hydro
EPS
cont
Weigh
Av
Rank
incl gaps
UVNS Sounding (UVNS)
1
0
2
3
0
0
3
1.1
Medium
Multi-viewing Multipolarisation Imaging (3MI)
1
1
2
2
0
1
1.0
Medium
Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL)
2
1
1
1
0
0
0
0.9
Medium
Dual View Radiometry (DVR)
1
0
3
0
3
0
0
0.9
Low
Radar Altimetry (ALT)
1
0
3
0
3
0
0
0.9
Low
Cloud and Precipitation
Profiling Radar (CPR)
1
1
1
0
0
1
0.7
Medium
MW Imaging-Cloud ( MWI-C)
1
1
1
1
0
0
0.7
Medium
Radiant Energy Radiometry
(RER)
1
0
3
0
0
1
0.7
Low
Candidate Mission
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 6
0
0
0
0
Mission ranking (3/3)
Application Weight (W)
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
Average Priority (P)
1.43
0.81
1.76
0.90
1.00
0.81
0.86
Adjusted Weight (w = W / P)
2.80
2.47
1.14
1.11
1.00
1.24
1.17
Priority/Contribution (0=none 3=highest)
NWP
NWC
CM
AC
Ocean
Hydro
Total Solar Irradiance
Monitoring (TSIM)
1
0
3
0
0
0
Limb Infra-Red Sounding
(LIR)
1
0
1
2
0
0
Limb Millimetre-Wave
Sounding (MMW)
1
0
1
2
0
0
Ocean Colour Imaging (OCI)
0
0
1
0
3
1
Aerosol Profiling Lidar (APL)
1
0
0
1
0
0
Differential Absorption Lidar
(DIA)
1
0
0
1
0
0
Candidate Mission
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 7
EPS
cont
Weigh
Av
Rank
incl gaps
0.6
Low
0.6
Medium
0.6
Medium
0
0.5
Low
0
0.4
Low
0.4
Low
0
0
0
0
Preliminary assessment: selection criteria
•
Contribution of the mission to the fulfilment of EUMETSAT high level
objectives (Convention and Strategy)
•
Preference for solutions that address a broader set of mission objectives,
rather than those which strive for the highest compliance for only the top
priority ones
•
Maturity of the technology, suitability for an operational mission, and
minimisation of development risk
•
Expected data gaps versus similar missions planned by other agencies
•
Compliance with the financial constraints and optimisation of cost/benefit
relationship
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 8
Preliminary assessment (1/3)
Observation Mission
Phase 0 study approach and special cases
High-Resolution Infrared Sounding (IRS)
Retained in phase 0 studies
Microwave Sounding (MWS)
Retained in phase 0 studies
Scatterometry (SCA)
Retained in phase 0 studies
VIS/IR Imaging (VII)
Retained in phase 0 studies
Radio Occultation Sounding (RO)
Retained in phase 0 studies
Microwave Imaging (MWI)
1.4 GHz channel: Assessment based on SMOS await demonstration of SMOS
Channels >18 GHz retained in phase 0 studies
(focus on precipitation and clouds)
Channels < 18 GHz not retained, reliance on MIS to
be flown by NOAA
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 9
Preliminary assessment (2/3)
Observation Mission
Phase 0 study approach and special cases
Nadir viewing UV/VIS/NIR - SWIR Sounding
(UVNS)
Accommodation only, payload defined in Sentinel 5
phase 0 study
Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL)
Await demonstration by ADM and continue
studying improvement of laser lifetime
Aerosol Profiling Lidar (APL)
Await demonstration by ADM and study possible
combination with DWL
Multi-viewing, Multi-channel, Multi-polarisation
Imaging (3MI)
Retained in phase 0 studies
Dual View Radiometry (DVR)
Not addressed, payload of Sentinel 3
Radar Altimetry (ALT)
Not addressed, payload of Sentinel 3 and
Jason follow-on
Ocean Colour Imaging (OCI)
Not addressed, payload of Sentinel 3
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 10
Preliminary assessment (3/3)
Observation Mission
Phase 0 study approach and special cases
Cloud and Precipitation Profiling Radar (CPR)
Not retained, needs separate platform at low
altitude and lacks maturity for operational mission
Radiant Energy Radiometry (RER)
Accommodation of CERES instrument considered,
inviting NOAA to provide payload
Total Solar Irradiance Monitoring Mission (TSIM)
Need for only one instrument in space,
accommodated by NPOESS
Limb Infra-Red Sounding (LIR)
Not retained, lacking maturity for operational
mission
Limb Millimetre-Wave Sounding (MMW)
Not retained, lacking maturity for operational
mission
Differential Absorption Lidar (DIA)
Not retained, lacking maturity for operational
mission
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 11
Mission requirements and prioritisation
•
Mission requirements provide geometric, spectral and radiometric requirements in terms
of threshold, breakthrough, and objective requirements on the basis of user
requirements listed in the AEG Position Papers (user requirements for geophysical
parameters)
•
Mission requirements are prioritised within each mission, giving a ranking among the
requirements (e.g. geometrical versus spectral resolution)
•
Beyond the baseline further prioritised requirements are given
•
Mandatory and desired synergies of observation missions have been identified
•
Observation missions have been prioritised according to their general weight in the
various application areas and the demand for continuity
•
Observation missions which are not further considered due to lacking demonstration
within the coming years are not considered in the following slides
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 12
Priority classes
Priority 1 (Very High):
Mandatory requirements that drive the mission, these requirements are
of utmost importance for the success of the mission and must be
implemented.
Priority 2 (High):
Important requirements that substantially contribute to the success of
the mission. Reasonable effort shall be made to implement them.
Priority 3 (Medium):
Beneficial requirement that has certain value to the success of the
mission, it shall be implemented with minimum effort.
Priority 4 (Low):
Nice to have requirements which are marginally contributing to the
success of the mission. It shall only be implemented on an
opportunistic basis. No dedicated effort will be made to implement
them.
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 13
IRS
High-Resolution Infrared Sounding
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
IRS: heritage and priorities
•
•
Heritage
– Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)
Priority
– Very high
•
Baseline level performance
– That of IASI
– Continuous spectral coverage from 3.62 to 15.5 µm required
•
Priority of requirements
– Radiometric resolution most important for NWP
– Spectral resolution more important for AC, as long as threshold values are
covered
– Spectral and radiometric resolution have priority over spatial resolution, but
latter must be ≤ 12 km
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 15
NWP NEDT Requirements
High-Resolution
Infrared Sounding
Qprof
IASI FM2
Qprof
“IASI-2”
SST,
Cloud
Tprof
Tprof,
Qprof,
SST,
Cloud
O3
Tprof
Tprof
SST,
Cloud
1
2
Qprof
4
1
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 16
1
2
2
1
1
2
NWP Spectral Resolution Requirements
SST,
Cloud
High-Resolution Infrared Sounding
Qprof
Tprof
Tprof,
Qprof,
SST,
Cloud
Qprof
O3
Qprof
Tprof
Tprof
SST,
Cloud
IASI FM2
“IASI-2”
4
1
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 17
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
Atmospheric Chemistry: NEDT Requirements
High-Resolution Infrared
Sounding
O O prof
3
HNO3,
CFC
NH3,
C2H4
3
Volc. SO2
HCOOH
PAN
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 18
PAN,
NH3
Tprof,
N2O,
CH4
Volc. SO2
Atmospheric Chemistry: NEDT Requirements
High-Resolution
Infrared Sounding
CO
COprof
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 19
CH4
CH4
Atmospheric Chemistry: Spectral Resolution Requirements
High-Resolution Infrared Sounding
Tprof,
N2O,
CH4
HNO3,
CFC
PAN
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 20
NH3,
C2H4
O3 O3prof
PAN,
Volc. SO2 NH3
HCOOH
Volc. SO2
Atmospheric
AtmosphericChemistry:
Chemistry:Spectral
SpectralResolution
ResolutionRequirements
Requirements
High-Resolution Infrared Sounding
CO
COprof
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 21
CH4
CH4
IRS: stability
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 22
IRS: requirements
•
Radiometric homogeneity < 0.1 K @ 280 K
– Between spectral samples at same spatial sample
– Between spatial samples at same spectral sample
•
Geometric requirements
– Optimised for operation in Sun-synchronous orbit
– Maximisation of useful viewing angle
– Geolocation < 5/1/0.5 km (T/B/O)
– Spatial sampling distance < 50/15/10 km (T/B/O)
•
Synchronisation with medium-resolution multi-spectral imager ( 6 channels)
– Cloud detection
– Correction of shifts of ISRF in case of scene inhomogeneity
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 23
MWS
Microwave Sounding
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
MWS: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage
– Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A)
– Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS)
•
Priority
– Very high
•
Baseline level performance
– That of AMSU-A plus MHS enhanced by 2 spectral channels
•
Priority of requirements
– Radiometric requirements have priority over geometric requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 25
MWS: requirements
•
Orbit and lifetime stability
– < 0.2/0.15/0.1 K (T/B/O)
•
Radiometric homogeneity < 0.3/0.2/0.1 K @ 280 K (T/B/O)
– Between spectral samples at same spatial sample
– Between spatial samples at same spectral sample
•
Optimisation for operation in Sun-synchronous orbit
•
Maximisation of useful viewing angle
•
Equally spaced views in scan direction
•
Cross-track scanner preferred
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 26
MWS: channel definitions (1/3)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth (MHz)
Utilisation
Priority
MWS-1
23.8
270
Water-vapour column
1
MWS -2
31.4
180
Window, water-vapour
column
1
MWS -3
50.3
180
Quasi-window, surface
emissivity
1
MWS -4
52.8
400
Temperature profile
1
MWS-4/5
53.246  0.08
2x140
Temperature profile
2
MWS -5
53.5960.115
2x170
Temperature profile
1
MWS-5/6
53.948  0.081
2x142
Temperature profile
2
MWS -6
54.40
400
Temperature profile
1
MWS -7
54.94
400
Temperature profile
1
MWS -8
55.50
330
Temperature profile
1
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 27
MWS: channel definitions (2/3)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth (MHz)
Utilisation
Priority
MWS -9
57.290344
330
Temperature profile
1
MWS-10
57.2903440.217
2x78
Temperature profile
1
MWS-11
57.290344 0.32220.048
4x36
Temperature profile
1
MWS-12
57.2903440.32220.022
4x16
Temperature profile
1
MWS-13
57.2903440.32220.010
4x8
Temperature profile
1
MWS-14
57.2903440.32220.0045
4x3
Temperature profile
1
MWS-15
89.0
40002, 3
Window
1
MWS-16
89.0
40002, 3
Window
1
MWS-17
164-167
30002
Quasi-window, water-vapour
profile
1
MWS-18
183.3117.0
2x2000
Water-vapour profile
1
MWS-19
183.3114.5
2x2000
Water-vapour profile
1
MWS-20
183.3113.0
2x1000
Water-vapour profile
1
MWS-21
183.3111.8
2x1000
Water-vapour profile
1
MWS-22
183.3111.0
2x500
Water-vapour profile
1
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 28
MWS: channel definitions (3/3)
Channel
Frequency (GHz)
Bandwidth (MHz)
Utilisation
Priority
MWS-23
229
2000
Cirrus cloud detection
2
MWS-24
118.7503 ± 5.0000
2x2000
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-25
118.7503 ± 3.0000
2x1000
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-26
118.7503 ± 2.1000
2x800
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-27
118.7503 ± 1.5000
2x400
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-28
118.7503 ± 1.1000
2x400
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-29
118.7503 ± 0.7000
2x400
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-30
118.7503 ± 0.4000
2x200
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-31
118.7503 ± 0.2000
2x100
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
MWS-32
118.7503 ± 0.0800
2x20
Temperature profile
(optional)
3
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 29
MWS: radiometric requirements and IPSF (1/3)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
O/B/T
Bias
(K)
O/B/T
Polarisation
Footprint Size at
3dB
(km)
MWS-1
23.8
0.10/0.15/0.4
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
40
MWS -2
31.4
0.15/0.20/0.4
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
40
MWS -3
50.3
0.30/0.40/0.6
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
20
MWS -4
52.8
0.20/0.25/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
20
MWS-4/5
53.246  0.08
0.25/0.30/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H
20
MWS -5
53.5960.115
0.25/0.30/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H
20
MWS-5/6
53.948  0.081
0.25/0.30/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H
20
MWS -6
54.40
0.20/0.25/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H
20
MWS -7
54.94
0.20/0.25/0.4
0.2/0.5/1.0
V (H)
20
MWS -8
55.50
0.25/0.30/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 30
MWS: radiometric requirements and IPSF (2/3)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
O/B/T
Bias
(K)
O/B/T
Polarisation
Footprint Size at
3dB
(km)
MWS -9
57.2903
0.25/0.30/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
MWS-10
57.29030.217
0.35/0.45/0.75
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
MWS-11
57.290.3320.048
0.35/0.45/0.75
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
MWS-12
57.290.3320.022
0.60/0.70/1.2
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
MWS-13
57.290.3220.010
0.80/1.00/1.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
MWS-14
57.290.3220.004
1.40/1.60/2.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
H(V)
20
MWS-15
89.0
0.20/0.25/0.5
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
20
MWS-16
89.0
0.40/0.50/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-17
164-167
0.25/0.30/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-18
183.317
0.30/0.40/0.8
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-19
183.314.5
0.30/0.40/0.8
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-20
183.313.0
0.45/0.60/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-21
183.311.8
0.45/0.60/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-22
183.311.0
0.60/0.75/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 31
MWS: radiometric requirements and IPSF (3/3)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NE T
(K)
O/B/T
Bias
(K)
O/B/T
Polarisation
Footprint Size at
3dB
(km)
MWS-23
229
0.55/0.70/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V
15
MWS-24
118.7503  5.000
0.20/0.25/0.75
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-25
118.7503  3.000
0.30/0.35/0.75
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-26
118.7503  2.100
0.30/0.40/0.8
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-27
118.7503  1.500
0.45/0.55/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-28
118.7503  1.100
0.45/0.55/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-29
118.7503  0.700
0.45/0.55/1.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-30
118.7503  0.400
0.65/0.75/1.3
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-31
118.7503  0.200
0.90/1.10/2.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
MWS-32
118.7503  0.080
2.20/2.45/3.0
0.2/0.5/1.0
V or H
15
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 32
VII
VIS/IR Imaging
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
VII: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
– Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)
– Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)
•
Priority
– Very high
•
Baseline expected performance
– 16 spectral channels between 0.443 and 13.335 µm
– 500 m horizontal sampling (nadir)
•
Priority of requirements (descending order)
– Spatial resolution
– Radiometric noise
– Implementation of priority 2 channels
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 34
VII: channel definitions (1/4)
Channel number
Central
Wavelength
(µm)
FWHM
(µm)
Primary Use
Priority
VII-1
0.33
0.01
Aerosol, with inference of height
3
VII-2
0.37
0.01
3
VII-3
0.405
0.025
3
1
0.03
Aerosol, ‘true colour imagery’ (blue channel),
vegetation
2
0.47
0.02
Aerosol, surface albedo, cloud reflectance, cloud optical
depth, vegetation
VII-6
0.49
0.01
3
VII-7
0.531
0.01
Aerosol, surface albedo, cloud reflectance, cloud optical
depth
1
VII-4
0.43
VII-5
4
0.555
0.02
Clouds, vegetation, ‘true colour imagery’ (green
channel)
VII-9
0.565
0.01
Cloud characterisation
4
VII-10
0.64
0.015
3
VII-11
0.659
0.05
Aerosol, surface albedo, cloud reflectance,sea and land
surface features (snow, ice), vegetation
Clouds, vegetation, ‘true colour imagery’ (red
channel)
1
VII-8
VII-12
0.67
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 35
0.02
4
VII: channel definitions (2/4)
Channel number
Central
Wavelength
(µm)
FWHM
(µm)
Primary Use
Priority
VII-13
0.681
0.01
4
VII-14
0.708
0.02
Atmospheric corrections (aerosol)
vegetation
VII-15
0.763
0.01
2
VII-16
0.763
0.04
Atmospheric corrections (aerosol), optical cloud top
height assignment, vegetation
VII-17
0.865
0.02
Vegetation, aerosol, clouds, surface features
1
VII-18
0.915
0.04
VII-19
0.936
0.01
VII-20
0.94
0.025
VII-21
1.02
0.02
Aerosol correction, water vapour, snow grain size
3
VII-22
1.24
0.02
Vegetation, aerosol
2
1
1.365
0.04
High level aerosol, cirrus clouds, water vapour
imagery
1.63
0.015
Cloud phase, snow, vegetation, aerosol, fire
1
VII-23
VII-24
VII-25
2.25
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 36
0.05
Water vapour imagery
Water vapour total column
2
2
3
4
1
Cloud microphysics at cloud top, vegetation,
aerosol over land, fire (effects)
1
VII: channel definitions (3/4)
Channel number
Central
Wavelength
(µm)
FWHM
(µm)
Primary Use
Priority
VII-26
3.74
0.18
1
VII-27
3.795
0.5
Cloud parameters, cloud microphysics at cloud top,
absorbing aerosol, SST, LST,fire, sea and land ice
VII-28
3.959
0.04
SST, LST, fire
2
0.06
Fire temperature and radiative power (high dynamic
range channel)
4
3.959
VII-30
4.04
0.06
SST, LST fire
2
VII-31
4.465
0.04
Temperature profile (coarse vertical resolution)
3
VII-32
4.515
0.06
VII-33
6.725
0.37
7.325
0.29
VII-35
8.54
0.29
Cirrus clouds, cloud emissivity
1
VII-36
9.73
0.3
Total ozone
1
VII-29
VII-34
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 37
4
3
Water vapour imagery (including wind in polar
regions), water vapour profile (coarse vertical
resolution)
1
1
VII: channel definitions (4/4)
Channel number
Central
Wavelength
(µm)
FWHM
(µm)
Primary Use
Priority
VII-37
10.79
0.5
1
VII-38
11.03
0.3
Cloud parameters including cirrus detection,
surface temperatures and other radiative
parameters, surface imagery (snow, ice etc)
VII-39
12.02
0.5
VII-40
13.345
0.31
VII-41
13.64
0.29
VII-42
13.945
0.29
3
VII-43
14.25
0.29
3
VII-44
18.3
2.1
VII-45
24.6
2.1
VII-46
0.7
0.33
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 38
4
1
CO2slicing for accurate cloud top height.
Temperature profile (coarse vertical resolution)
Thin cirrus cloud detection over ocean and land
1
3
4
4
Day/Night Band
4
VII: radiometric requirements
•
Radiometric requirements currently specified for priority 1 channels, being refined
– Signal to noise ratios, NET
– Dynamic ranges
•
Bias
–
–
Shortwave channels (< 3 µm): <5%, 4%, 3% (T/B/O)
Longwave channels (> 3µm): < 0.5 K @ 280 K
•
Orbit and lifetime stability
– Shortwave channels (< 3µm): < 1%
– Longwave channels (> 3µm): < 0.15 K @280 K
•
Radiometric homogeneity (inter-channel and inter-pixel)
– Shortwave channels (< 3µm): < 1%
– Longwave channels (> 3µm): < 0.1 K
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 39
VII: geometric requirements
•
Polarisation
– Channels < 3 µm shall be insensitive to polarisation: < 5%, 2% (T/O)
•
MTF
–
–
–
•
Isotropic within 10%
> 0.3 below Nyquist frequency
< 0.3 above Nyquist frequency
Geometric requirements
– Optimisation for Sun-synchronous orbits
– Maximisation of useful viewing angle
– Spatial sampling: < 0.5 Km for baseline channels, < 0.25 km for VII-12 (0.670 µm)
and VII-17 (0.865 µm)
– Temporal co-registration of different channels: < 3 s / < 2 s / < 1 s (T/B/O)
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 40
SCA
Scatterometry
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
SCA: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)
– Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT)
•
Priority
– Very High
•
Baseline expected performance
– That of the ASCAT mission
•
Priority of requirements (descending order)
– Swath width shall have priority over horizontal resolution as long as the latter is
< 50 / 25 km (T/B)
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 42
SCA: requirements (1/2)
•
Operating frequency
– C-band
•
Geometric requirements
– Incidence angle > 20°
– Horizontal resolution  25 km
– Horizontal sampling  12.5 km
– Geolocation accuracy  2/1 km (T/O)
– Maximisation of useful viewing angle, 90% coverage within 45 h
•
Radiometric requirements
– Dynamic range to cover wind speeds within 0 – 25/40 km (T/O)
– Radiometric accuracy  0.35 dB peak to peak per beam
– Radiometric resolution  10% / 3% / 1% (T/B/O) at 4 m/s
– Radiometric resolution  4% / 3% / 2% (T/B/O) at 25 m/s
– Stability  0.1 dB over an orbit and over mission lifetime
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 43
SCA: requirements (2/2)
•
Polarisation requirements
– VV polarisation only (threshold)
– VV and HH polarisation (objective)
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 44
RO
Radio Occultation Sounding
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
RO: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS)
– Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate
(COSMIC)
•
Priority
– Medium
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 46
RO: requirements
•
GNSS systems to be used
– GPS
– Galileo
– GLONASS
•
Number of frequencies to be operated
– At least two
– Third frequency would be desirable for better ionospheric correction
•
Coverage
– Maximise the tracked occultation events: > 1000/d, 4000/d, 8000/d (T/B/O)
– Uniformity of sampling in space and time is sought
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 47
RO: channel definitions
Mission Frequencies
Sub-Band
Frequency
(MHz)
System
Priority
RO-1
L1
1575.42
GPS
1
RO-2
L2
1227.60
GPS
1
RO-3
L5
1176.45
GPS
3
RO-4
E5a (GPS L5)
1176.45
Galileo
1
RO-5
E5b
1207.14
Galileo
3
RO-6
E6
1278.75
Galileo
3
RO-7
L1
1575.42
Galileo
1
L1 (*)
F0 = 1602.0
Df = 562.5 kHz
GLONASS
2
L2 (*)
F0 = 1246.0
Df = 437.5 kHz
GLONASS
2
GLONASS-K
3
RO-8
RO-9
RO-10
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 48
L3 (L5) TBC
1164-1215 (TBD)
RO: sampling requirements
Height Range (km)
Atmospheric Regions
Sampling rates (Hz)
0-30
troposphere, lower stratosphere
10, 50, 100,
200
30-150
stratosphere, mesosphere,
Ionosphere E region
10-50
150-to satellite orbit
Ionosphere
0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 49
MWI
Microwave Imaging
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
MWI: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)
– Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS)
– Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – EOS (AMSR-E)
•
Priority
– MWI-Cloud: Medium
– MWI-Precipitation: Low
– MWI-Ocean: Low
•
Baseline expected performance
– 12 channels, of which SSM/I-channels constitute priority 1
•
Priority of requirements (descending order)
– NET
– Bandwidth
– Integration time (horizontal sampling)
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 51
MWI: baseline channel definitions (1/2)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Stability
(MHz)
All TBC
Primary Utilisation
(secondary utilisation in brackets)
Priority
MWI-3
6.9
350
50
SST, (LST, soil moisture)
2
MWI-4
10.65
100
50
Sea surface wind, SST, (surface roughness
correction for SST)
2
MWI-5
18.7
200
50
Sea-surface wind, sea-ice, precipitation,
surface correction for water vapour
1
MWI-6
23.8
400
50
Total column water vapour over sea,
precipitation
1
MWI-7
31.4 or 36.5
1000
50
Sea-surface wind, sea-ice & snow, cloud liquid
water, precipitation
1
MWI-8
50.3
200
10
MWI-9
52.61 or 52.80
400
10
MWI-12
89.0
4000
100
Sea-ice & snow imagery, cloud liquid water,
precipitation
1
MWI-13
100.49
TBC
TBC
Clouds and precipitation over sea and land
2
MWI-19
183.318.4
2x3000
100
MWI-20
183.316.1
2x1500
100
MWI-22
183.313.4
2x1500
100
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 52
Precipitation over sea and land, drizzle, snowfall,
temperature in cloudy areas
2
2
2
Water vapour profile
and snowfall
2
2
MWI: baseline channel definitions (1/2)
Bias (K)
Polarisation (*)
Footprint
Size at 3dB
(km)
(T/B/O)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
(T/B/O)
MWI-3
6.9
0.35/0.3/0.25
0.25
V, H
50/40/30
MWI-4
10.65
0.5/0.44/0.4
0.5
V, H
30/20/15
MWI-5
18.7
0.6/0.5/0.44
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-6
23.8
0.6/0.45/0.3
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-7
36.5 or 31.4
0.6/0.5/0.42
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-8
50.3
0.3/0.2/0.1
0.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-9
52.61 or 52.80
0.3/0.2/0.1
0.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-12
89.0
1.0/0.8/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-13
100.49
TBC
TBC
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-19
183.318.4
0.8/0.6/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-20
183.316.1
1.0/0.75/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-22
183.313.4
1.0/0.75/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 53
MWI: ocean and land (1/2)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Stability
(MHz)
All TBC
Primary Utilisation (secondary utilisation in
brackets)
Priority
MWI-1
1.4
27
1
Ocean salinity, soil moisture
1
MWI-2
2.7
10
1
Soil moisture
3
MWI-3
6.9
350
50
SST, (LST, soil moisture)
1
MWI-4
10.65
100
50
Sea surface wind, (surface roughness correction for
SST)
2
MWI-5
18.7
200
50
Sea-surface wind, (surface roughness correction for
SST), sea-ice
2
MWI-6
23.8
400
50
Total column water vapour over sea
3
MWI-7
36.5
1000
50
Sea-surface wind, sea-ice & snow
2
MWI-12
89.0
4000
100
Sea ice & snow imagery
1
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 54
MWI: ocean and land (2/2)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
(T/B/O)
Bias (K)
Polarisation (*)
Footprint Size
at 3dB
(km) (T/B/O)
MWI-1
1.4
0.15/0.1/0.08
0.5
V, H
100/50/20
MWI-2
2.7
0.15/0.1/0.08
0.5
V, H
50/20/10
MWI-3
6.9
0.35/0.3/0.25
0.25
V, H
50/40/30
MWI-4
10.65
0.5/0.44/0.4
0.35
V, H
30/20/15
0.25/0.22/0.2
0.25
(S3, S4)
0.6/0.5/0.44
0.5
V, H
0.3/0.25/0.22
0.25
(S3, S4)
MWI-5
18.7
20/15/10
MWI-6
23.8
0.6/0.45/0.3
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-7
36.5
0.6/0.5/0.42
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
0.3/0.25/0.21
0.25
(S3, S4)
1.0/0.8/0.5
1.0
V, H
MWI-12
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 55
89.0
25/10/5
MWI: precipitation (1/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Stability
(MHz)
All TBC
Utilisation
Priority
MWI-4
10.65
100
50
Heavy precipitation over sea
2
MWI-5
18.7
200
50
Precipitation over sea
1
MWI-6
23.8
400
50
Total column water vapour over sea
2
MWI-7
36.5
1000
50
Precipitation over sea and (marginally) land
1
MWI-8
50.3
200
10
MWI-9
52.610
400
10
MWI-10
53.24
300
10
MWI-11
53.750
300
10
MWI-12
89.0
4000
100
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 56
1
Precipitation over sea and land including
drizzle, snowfall,
height and depth of the melting layer
1
1
1
Precipitation (sea & land) & snowfall
1
MWI: precipitation (2/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Stability
(MHz)
All TBC
Utilisation
Priority
MWI-13
100.49
4000 (TBC)
100 (TBC)
Precipitation over sea and land
1
MWI-14
118.75032.00
2x1000
10
MWI-15
118.75031.6
2x400
10
MWI-16
118.75031.4
2x400
10
MWI-17
118.75031.200
2x400
10
MWI-18
166.9
1425
100
MWI-19
183.318.4
2x3000
100
1
MWI-20
183.316.1
2x1500
100
1
MWI-21
183.314.9
2x1500
100
MWI-22
183.313.4
2x1500
100
1
MWI-23
183.312.0
2x1500
100
3
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 57
1
Precipitation over sea and land including light
precipitation and snowfall,
height and depth of the melting layer
1
1
1
Quasi-window, water-vapour profile, precipitation
over land, snowfall
Water vapour profile
and snowfall
2
2
MWI: precipitation (3/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
(T/B/O)
Bias (K)
Polarisation (*)
Footprint
Size at 3dB
(km)
(T/B/O)
MWI-4
10.65
0.5/0.44/0.4
0.5
V, H
30/20/15
MWI-5
18.7
0.6/0.5/0.44
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-6
23.8
0.6/0.45/0.3
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-7
36.5
0.6/0.5/0.42
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-8
50.3
0.3/0.2/0.1
0.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-9
52.61
0.3/0.2/0.1
0.5
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-10
53.24
0.3/0.2/0.1
0.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-11
53.75
0.3/0.2/0.15
0.5
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-12
89.0
1.0/0.8/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 58
MWI: precipitation (4/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
(T/B/O)
Bias (K)
Polarisation (*)
Footprint
Size at 3dB
(km)
(T/B/O)
MWI-13
100.49
TBD
TBD
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-14
118.75032.0
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-15
118.75031.6
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-16
118.75031.4
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-17
118.75031.2
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-18
166.9
0.8
1.0
V
15/10/8
MWI-19
183.318.4
0.8/0.6/0.5
1.0
V
15/10/8
MWI-20
183.316.1
1.0/0.75/0.5
1.0
V
15/10/8
MWI-21
183.314.9
1.0/0.75/0.5
1.0
V
15/10/8
MWI-22
183.313.4
1.0/0.75/0.5
1.0
V
15/10/8
MWI-23
183.312.0
1.2/1.0/0.75
1.0
V
15/10/8
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 59
MWI: clouds (1/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Stability
(MHz)
All TBC
Utilisation
Priority
MWI-7
36.5
1000
50
Cloud liquid water
1
MWI-8
50.3
200
10
MWI-11
53.750
300
10
MWI-12
89.0
4000
100
Cloud liquid water
1
MWI-13
100.49
TBC
TBC
Cloud liquid water
1
MWI-15
118.75031.6
2x400
10
MWI-16
118.75031.4
2x400
10
MWI-17
118.75031.2
2x400
10
2
MWI-19
183.318.4
2x3000
100
1
MWI-22
183.313.4
2x1500
100
MWI-23
183.312.0
2x1500
100
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 60
Cloud liquid water
1
1
2
Cloud liquid water
Water vapour profile,
cloud ice water path retrieval
1
2
2
MWI: clouds (2/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Stability
(MHz)
All TBC
Utilisation
Priority
MWI-24
243.2±2.5
2x3000
100
Quasi-window, cloud ice retrieval, cirrus clouds
3
MWI-25
325.15±9.5
2x3000
200
MWI-26
325.15±3.5
2x2400
200
MWI-27
325.15±1.5
2x1600
200
MWI-28
340
8000
400
MWI-29
448±7.2
2x3000
200
MWI-30
448±3.0
2x2000
200
MWI-31
448±1.4
2x1200
200
MWI-32
664±4.2
2x3000
400
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 61
2
Cloud ice effective radius
2
1
Quasi-window, cloud ice and cirrus
1
1
Cloud ice water path and cirrus
2
2
Cirrus clouds,
cloud ice water path
2
MWI: clouds (3/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
(T/B/O)
Bias (K)
Polarisation (*)
Footprint
Size at 3dB
(km) (T/B/O)
MWI-7
36.5
0.6/0.5/0.42
0.5
V, H
20/15/10
MWI-8
50.3
0.3/0.2/0.1
0.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-11
53.75
0.3/0.2/0.15
0.5
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-12
89.0
1.0/0.8/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-13
100.49
TBC
TBC
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-15
118.75031.6
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-16
118.75031.4
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-17
118.75031.2
0.5/0.4/0.3
1.0
V, (H)
15/10/8
MWI-18
166.9
0.8
1.0
V
15/10/8
MWI-19
183.318.4
0.8/0.6/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-22
183.313.4
1.0/0.75/0.5
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-23
183.312.0
1.2/1.0/0.75
1.0
V, H
15/10/8
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 62
MWI: clouds (4/4)
Channel
Frequency
(GHz)
NET
(K)
(T/B/O)
Bias (K)
Polarisation (*)
Footprint
Size at 3dB
(km) (T/B/O)
MWI-24
243.2±2.5
1.1/0.6/0.5
1.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-25
325.15±9.5
1.2/1.0/0.8
1.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-26
325.15±3.5
1.4/1.0/0.8
1.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-27
325.15±1.5
1.1/1.0/0.8
1.5
V, H
15/10/8
MWI-28
340
1.2/1.0/0.8
1.5
V
15/10/8
MWI-29
448±7.2
1.2/1.0/0.8
1.5
V
15/10/8
MWI-30
448±3.0
1.4/1.0/0.8
1.5
V
15/10/8
MWI-31
448±1.4
1.7/1.0/0.8
1.5
V
15/10/8
MWI-32
664±4.2
1.3/1.0/0.6
1.5
V, H
15/10/8
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 63
UVNS
Nadir Viewing UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR Sounding
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
UVNS: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2)
– Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography
(SCIAMACHY)
– Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)
– Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS)
•
Priority
– Medium
•
Baseline expected performance
– Not identified so far
•
Priority of requirements (descending order)
– Spatial resolution has highest priority
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 65
UVNS: channel definitions (1/3)
Channel
Wavelength range
[nm]
Spectral resolution
[nm]
Spectral
oversampling
Target species
UVNS-1
270 – 330
0.5 – 1.0
3–6
O3 profile
(Stratosphere),
UV-B
Tropospheric O3
UVNS-2
308 – 325
0.2 – 0.5
3–6
SO2 and Tropospheric
O3,
UVNS-3
325 – 337
0.2 – 0.5
3–6
O3 total column
UVNS-4
337 – 356
0.2 – 0.5
3–6
HCHO
UVNS-5
345 – 360
0.2 – 0.5
3–6
BrO
3–6
O4 & rotational Raman
scattering (Cloud Top
Height in UV),
OClO, UV-A
NO2 in UV window and
NO2 as function of
altitude.
UVNS-6
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 66
356 – 400
0.2 – 0.5
UVNS: channel definitions (2/3)
Channel
Wavelength range
[nm]
Spectral resolution
[nm]
Spectral
oversampling
Target species
UVNS-7
405 – 500
0.2 – 0.5
3-6
NO2 and NO2 as
function of T
i.e. altitude
UVNS-8
430 – 460
0.2 – 0.5
3-6
Glyoxal (CHO.CHO)
UVNS-9
460 – 490
0.2 – 0.5
3-6
O4 (cloud top height
visible, cloud fraction
visible)
UVNS-10
330 - 640
0.2 – 0.8
3-6
O3 troposphere-B
Aerosol-AOT-(1)
UVNS-11
640 - 730
0.2 – 0.5
3-6
H2O (O2) total column
UVNS-12
755 - 775
0.05 – 0.2
3-6
O2, Aerosol height and
Aerosol- AOT-(2)
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 67
UVNS: channel definitions (3/3)
Channel
UVNS-13
(priority 1)
Wavelength range
[nm]
1400 – 1750
Spectral resolution
[nm]
0.05 – 0.3
Spectral
oversampling
Target species
2-6
CO2 (Total Dry Column
- need O2 UVNS-12),
CH4 (Total Dry Column)
Cloud Phase Index and
Aerosol (AOT-3)
CO2 Profile info to be
coupled with 1.6 micron
band,
Aerosol
UVNS-14
(priority 2)
1940 – 2040
0.05 – 0.3
2-6
UVS-15
(priority 1)
2295 - 2400
0.05 – 0.3
2-6
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 68
CO, CH4, N2O
UVNS: spectral and radiometric requirements
•
Spectral requirements
– Spectral co-registration < 0.01/0.005 (T/O) of a spectral pixel
– Stability of spectral co-registration < 0.05/0.02 (T/O) of a spectral pixel
•
Extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance
– To be measured in all bands once per day for two minutes
•
Radiometric accuracy
– Absolute accuracy < 2% / 1% (T/O)
– Inter-channel relative radiometric accuracy < 0.05/0.02 (T/O)
•
Polarisation sensitivity
– < 1.0% / 0.5%
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 69
UVNS: SNR
(1/2)
Wavelength range
[nm]
Tropical
Dark Case
High-Latitude
Dark Case
Solar Spectral
Irradiance
UVNS-1
270 – 330
100 @ 270 nm
1000 @ 310 nm
1000 @ 330 nm
50 @ 270 nm (TBD)
1000 @ 310 nm
1000 @ 330 nm
1000 @ 270 nm
3000 @ 310 nm
3000 @ 310 nm
UVNS-2
308 – 325
1000
400
3000
UVNS-3
325 – 337
800
400
3000
UVNS-4
337 – 356
1000
400
3000
UVNS-5
345 – 360
1000
400
3000
UVNS-6
356 – 400
1000
400
3000
UVNS-7
405 – 500
1050
450
4500
UVNS-8
430 – 460
1050
450
4500
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 70
UVNS: SNR (2/2)
Wavelength range
[nm]
Tropical
Dark Case
High-Latitude
Dark Case
Solar Spectral
Irradiance
UVNS-9
460 – 490
1500
650
4500
UVNS-10
330 - 640
90 @ 650nm
540 @ 330nm
90 @ 650nm
540 @ 330nm
3000 (TBD)
UVNS-11
640 - 730
700
700
4000
UVNS-12
755 - 775
200 (for lowest
radiance level in
absorption band)
500 (in continuum)
200 (for lowest
radiance level in
absorption band)
500 (in continuum)
1500
UVNS-13 (TBC)
1400 – 1750
1000
100
1500
UVNS-14 (TBC)
1940 – 2040
1000
100
1500
UVNS-15
2295 - 2400
1000
100
1500
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 71
UVNS: geometric requirements
•
Scan pattern
– Ground pixel size < 20 / 10 / 5 km (T/B/O)
– Maximisation of useful viewing angle: 99% coverage within 24 h
– Provision of near-contiguous coverage
•
Spatial co-registration
– All bands co-registered within 5% / 1% (T/O) of the field of view
•
Synchronisation with optical imager
– Synchronisation with imager (~1 km resolution) required for aiding cloud and
aerosol detection
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 72
3MI
Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarisation Imaging
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
3MI: heritage, priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– Polarisation and Directionality of Earth’s Radiation (POLDER)
– Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR)
•
Priority
– Medium
•
Baseline expected performance
– That of POLDER
•
Priority of requirements (descending order)
– Multi-viewing capability
– Multi-polarisation capability
– Extension of spectral range
– Radiometric accuracy
– Relatively narrow spectral bands
– Geometric resolution
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 74
3MI: channel definitions
Mission
BAND
Central
Wavelength
(µm)
FWHM
(µm)
Polarization
Primary Use
Priority
3MI-1
0.342
0.06 (TBC)
Y
Absorbing aerosol
2
3MI-2
0.388
0.06 (TBC)
Y
3MI-3
0.443
0.02
0.490
0.02
3MI-5
0.555
0.02
Y
Surface albedo
3
3MI-6
0.670
0.02
Y
Aerosol properties
1
3MI -7
0.763
0.01
Cloud height
2
3MI -8
0.765
0.04
Cloud height
2
3MI -9
0.865
0.04
Vegetation, aerosol, clouds, surface features
1
3MI -10
1.370
0.04
Cirrus clouds, water vapour imagery,
1
3MI -11
1.650
0.04
Y
Ground characterization for aerosol inversion
1
Y
Cloud microphysics at cloud top, Vegetation,
fire (effects)
Ground characterization for aerosol inversion
1
3MI-4
2.130
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 75
Aerosol absorption and height indicators
Y
3MI -12
0.04
2
Y
Aerosol, surface albedo, cloud reflectance,
cloud optical depth
1
1
3MI: spectral and polarisation requirements
•
Spectral response
– To be known within 1%
•
Spectral stability
– < 0.1 nm over mission lifetime
•
Polarisation
– Three polarisers at 0°, 60°, -60°
– Accuracy of orientation < 1°
– Polarisation sensitivity > 96% for polarised channels, < 5% for non-polarised
channels, knowledge within 0.001
•
Transmittance of polarisation components
– Relative transmittance among polarisation channels must not differ by more
than 1%
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 76
3MI: radiometric requirements
•
Radiometric noise
– NER = sup [5·10-4, 5·10-3 R] for all channels
– NERp = sup [10-3, 10-2 Rp] for all polarised channels
•
Bias error
– < 2% for all channels
•
Inter-calibration bias between different viewing angles
– < 2%
•
Spectral homogeneity
– < 1% in TOA radiance for uniform scene
•
Spatial homogeneity
– < 0.1% within 10 x 10 pixels
•
Co-registration and inter-calibration of 3MI and VII for similar bands
•
RMS stability < 1% over one year
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 77
3MI: geometric requirements
•
Maximisation of useful viewing angle
– 99% global coverage within 24 / 12 h (T/O)
•
Maximisation of measurements in principal plane
– 10 / 14 (T/O) directional measurements
•
On-ground spatial sampling
– < 2 / 1 km (T/O)
•
MTF
–
–
> 0.2 below Nyquist frequency
< 0.2 above Nyquist frequency
•
Spatial co-registration
– < 0.1 SSD for polarisation components
– < 0.2 SSD for multi-spectral components
– < 0.1 SSD for multi-directional components
•
Absolute geolocation
– < 2 / 1 km (T/O) at nadir
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 78
RER
Radiant Energy Radiometry
• Invite NOAA to provide payload
• CERES type instrument fulfils Post-EPS reqs.
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
RER: heritage and priorities
•
Heritage instruments
– Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBE)
– Clouds and the Earth’s radiant Energy System (CERES)
•
Priority
– Low
•
Priority of requirements
– Radiometric accuracy is most important
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 80
RER: channel definitions and requirements
Channel
Bandwidth
Purpose
RER-1
0.2 – 4.0 µm
Total solar radiation at TOA
RER-2
0.2 – 200 µm
Total radiant energy at TOA
RER-3
8 – 12 µm
Emitted radiant energy (TOA) in the main IR window region
Channel
Dynamic Range
Radiometric Noise
Bias
B/T
RER-1
0 - 350 W m-2 sr-1
0.3 W m-2sr-1
0.5/0.8 W m-2sr-1@R<100 W m-2sr-1, else 0.5%/1%
RER-2
0 - 500 W m-2 sr-1
0.3 W m-2sr-1
0.5/0.6 W m-2sr-1 @R<100 W m-2sr-1,
else 0.3%/0.5%
RER-3
0 - 30 W m-2 sr-1
0.3 W m-2sr-1
0.3/0.5 W m-2sr-1
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 81
RER: geometric requirements
•
Angular sampling
– Optimal angular sampling of the entire hemispheric radiative pattern
– Baseline angular sampling: that of CERES
•
Spatial sampling
– < 20 km (threshold), < 10 km (breakthrough) @ nadir
– MTF > 0.6 below Nyquist frequency, < 0.6 above Nyquist frequency
•
Coverage
– 99% global coverage within 48 / 24 h (T/O)
•
Inter-channel co-registration
– < 0.1 spatial sampling distance
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 82
DWL
Doppler Wind Lidar
• Await demonstration of ADM-Aeolus
• To be combined with Aerosol Profiling Lidar
• Study improvement of laser lifetime (already started)
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
APL
Aerosol Profiling Lidar
• To be combined with Doppler Wind Lidar
• Await demonstration of ADM
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
CPR
Cloud and Precipitation Profiling Radar
• Requires dedicated platform in low orbit
• Lacks maturity for operational mission
(no European heritage)
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
ALT
Radar Altimetry
• Implementation by Sentinel-3 and Jason follow-on
• Fulfil Post-EPS requirements
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
DVR
Dual View Radiometry
• Implementation by Sentinel-3
• Fulfils Post-EPS requirements
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
OCI
Ocean Colour Imaging
• Implementation by Sentinel-3
• Fulfils Post-EPS requirements
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
TSIM
Total Solar Irradiance Monitoring
• Need for one instrument in space: NPOESS
• Refer to MRD for requirements
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
Issue 1, 26/01/2009
Consolidation of mission requirements
•
Identify open issues in mission requirements and instigate corresponding
scientific and technical studies
•
Acquire feedback from 2nd Post-EPS User Consultation Workshop
•
Ingest results from industrial Phase 0 studies on sensor and system
architecture
•
Acquire feedback from PMET on results from scientific and technical studies
and ingest consolidated solutions into MRD
•
Assess and ingest EPS commissioning results
•
Mission Definition Review at end of Phase 0
EUM/PEPS/VWG/09/0012
26/01/2009 Slide: 90
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