What is Wrong With Common Core?

The Purpose of Education
(according to our Founding Fathers)
"It is an object of vast magnitude that systems of education
should be adopted and pursued which may not only diffuse
a knowledge of the sciences but may implant in the
minds of the American youth the principles of virtue
and of liberty and inspire them with just and liberal ideas
of government and with an inviolable attachment to their
own country.“
Noah Webster, On the Education of Youth in America, (circa 1788)
The U.S. Constitution left that responsibility up to the states:
LOCAL control of education was necessary to preserve freedom!
On October 17th, 1979, Pres. Jimmy Carter signed a bill that
established a cabinet level U.S. Department of Education.
Prior to this, the U.S.A had the finest education system in the
In 1980, Ronald Reagan ran on the promise to
abolish the U.S. Department of Education
Bob Dole also ran on that same premise in 1996:
“The federal government has no constitutional
authority to be involved in school curricula or
to control jobs in the workplace. That is why we
will abolish the Department of Education, end
federal meddling in our schools, and promote
family choice at all levels of learning.” --Bob Dole
Why Couldn’t the U.S. Department of
Education be abolished?
“No government ever voluntarily reduces itself in size.
Government programs, once launched, never
disappear. Actually, a government bureau is the
nearest thing to eternal life we'll ever see on this
--Ronald Reagan
Once created, hard to get rid of:
However, the U.S. Department of Education was
not allowed to dictate school curriculum:
Instead other outlets were used for control over schools.
Grants & money were given if state participated in
federal programs:
 Title I Funding (1965 – Improving the academic
achievement of the disadvantaged)
 No Child Left Behind (2001)
 Race to the Top (2010)
Title I
(Started in 1965)
 Started off as a very good program
 Asserted that students of all races should have the
same opportunity to get a good education
 Other programs followed:
 As money hand-outs increased, so did the federal
 Used as a device to control schools.
No Child Left Behind
(in 2001)
In 2001, the U.S. Department of Education dangled an
enormous sum of money in front of states. States could
receive that money if they participated in the “No Child
Left Behind” program that required states to administer
high stakes testing in their schools.
Arizona had already created their own state AIMS program in
1999 (which tested only grades 3, 5, 8, and 10). But, with
AIMS already in place, our state simply transformed it into
a federal program to satisfy NCLB requirements
–testing all grades 3 through 8, and 10.
Problems with NCLB:
 Dumbing down of tests –not an accurate way to measure
 The loss of valuable learning time due to teachers preparing students for the
 Puts unnecessary pressure and students and teachers. There is no benefit of
administering a standardized test more than a total of total of 4 times during
K-12. Schools can get a clear enough picture of how students are doing with
testing grades 3, 6, 8, and once more during high school;
 Reduces the importance of other educational enriching activities such as
music, art, P.E. and even history;
 Undermines American ideas of free thinking, creativity, experimentation,
freedom of expression and diversity in education;
 Has the potential to increase bullying in schools and suicide rates (as seen in
Japan, China, and South Korea)
The No Child Left Behind/ AIMS program was far from
perfect and our state wanted to jump ship.
In 2010, Arizona had another carrot dangled in front of
them: a possible $250 million Race to the Top Grant.
This was the grant that bound us to the Common Core
Standards and exams which now tested ALL grades 3
through 12. The $25 million dollar carrot also
included a No Child Left Behind waiver.
We bought into it, hook, line, and sinker and got rid of
the NCLB/AIMS octopus
–and we pulled up a sea monster!
The Race to the Top Monsters
(created in 2010):
What is so bad about the Common Core
State Standards?
1. It is unconstitutional: Article I, Section 8 &
10th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
“If Congress can apply money indefinitely to the general welfare,
and are the sole and supreme judges of the general welfare, they may
take the care of religion into their own hands; they may establish
teachers in every State, county, and parish, and pay them out of
the public Treasury; they may take into their own hands the
education of children establishing in like manner schools
throughout the Union; they may undertake the regulation of all roads,
other than post roads. In short, everything, from the highest object
of State legislation, down to the most minute object of police,
would be thrown under the power of Congress; for every object I
have mentioned would admit the application of money, and might be
called if Congress pleased provisions for the general welfare…I venture
to declare it as my opinion, that were the power of Congress to be
established in the latitude contended for, it would subvert the
very foundation, and transmute the very nature of the limited
Government established by the people of America…”
--James Madison
2. It is NOT state led.
 It was initiated and created by private interests in
Washington, DC, without any true representation
from the states.
 Standards were “written with minimal public
awareness or participation”. There are almost 14,000
school boards in the U.S. and only 1,000 responders
commented during the one month public feedback
window in 2009.
Standards were led by:
 Achieve, Inc. (a nonprofit organization comprised of education
reformers who have been advocating national standards and
curriculum for decades.)
National Governors Association (NGA –a trade association that doesn’t
include all governors.)
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO –another DC based
trade association), partnered with the following:
AIR (American Institute for Research –“a global leader in P-20
Textbook companies such as McGraw Hill, Pearson, & Scholastic.
Corporations such as Microsoft, Knewton, and the Data Recognition
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
The William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
And many other “Philanthropy groups” and Corporations
Take Note:
 The AZMerit was not a state created test. It was created
by AIR (American Institute for Research). AIR is a partner
of Smarter Balanced who was given over $175 million by the
U.S. Department of Education to create standardized tests
for Common Core along with PARCC. Both AIR and
SMARTER Balanced have also received millions from the
Gates Foundation.
 Secretary Duncan’s chief of staff wrote, “…the Common
Core was intended to create a national market for
book publishers, technology companies, testing
corporations, and other vendors.”
Some say that businesses brought us these standards to
help our nation to be able to compete in the global
& Bill Gates, by far, is the largest leader in developing
and implementing the Common Core Standards and
has donated (ahem, invested) over $2.3 billion dollars.
“For the first time, there will be a large uniform base of
customers eager to buy products that can help every
kid learn and every teacher get better.” –Bill Gates [49]
3. Loss of local control.
 States must accept the standards word for word. Districts
and teachers cannot modify the standards if they find
them developmentally inappropriate. Standards are fixed
and inflexible. States only have “the option to identify as
much as 15% in additional standards once they’ve adopted
Common Core verbatim.” [33] [34]
 Our state adopted the standards in May 2010 and
committed to follow them verbatim even before they were
finalized and published the following month. [38]
 AZ parents and teachers are over 2,000 miles away from
DC. This distance makes it difficult for us to have a say, if
not impossible.
“As the ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
process explains, every set of genuine standards
must have a process by which aggrieved parties
may make their case and be heard, and by which
those in charge may hear their grievances and make
adjustments when necessary. In the case of the
Common Core, there is no such process, nor is
there anyone or any organization to appeal to.”
–Diane Ravitch, a historian of education, an educational policy analyst, and a
research professor at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture,
Education, and Human Development. [3]
Standards Do Dictate
The Gates Foundation has funded Edreports.org to help
school districts choose textbooks. [4]
The EdReports website states:
“These Consumer Reports-style reviews will highlight
those instructional materials that are aligned to the
higher standards states have adopted so that teachers,
principals and district and state officials charged with
purchasing materials can make more informed
 School districts were even given a book by Achieve to
tell them HOW to implement Common Core in their
4. The standards are of mediocre quality.
Dr. Sandra Stotsky and Dr. James Milgram
were on the Common Core Validation Committee
and declined to sign off on the standards.
Statement by Dr. Stotsky:
“ What are the chief deficiencies of Common Core’s standards?
A. The standards are not internationally benchmarked.
B. The standards are not research-based.
C. The standards are not rigorous.
“They omit high school mathematics standards leading to STEM careers, stress
writing over reading, reduce literary study in grades 6-12, use an unproven
approach to teaching Euclidean geometry, defer completion of Algebra I to grade
9 or 10, are developmentally inappropriate in the primary grades, and use the
high school English class for informational reading instruction.” [16]
“Common Core’s ‘college readiness’ standards for English language arts and
reading do not aim for a level of achievement that signifies readiness for
authentic college-level work. They point to no more than readiness for a
high school diploma (and possibly not even that, depending on where the
cut score is set). Despite claims to the contrary, they are not
internationally benchmarked. States adopting Common Core’s standards will
damage the academic integrity of both their post-secondary institutions and
their high schools precisely because Common Core's standards do not
strengthen the high school curriculum and cannot reduce the current amount of
post-secondary remedial coursework in a legitimate way. Their standards may
lead to reduced enrollment in advanced high school courses and to weakened
post-secondary coursework because Common Core's ‘college readiness’ ELA/R
standards are designed to enable a large number of high school students to be
declared ‘college ready’ and to enroll in post-secondary institutions that will
have to place them in credit-bearing courses. These institutions will then likely
be under pressure from the USDE to retain these students in order to increase
college graduation rates. [14]
--Dr. Sandra Stotsky
Dr. Milgram testified before the Indiana State Senate
"The Common Core standards claim to be 'benchmarked
against to international standards' but this phrase is
meaningless. They are actually two or more years
behind international expectations by eighth
grade, and only fall further behind as they talk
about grades 8-12. Indeed, they don't even fully
cover the material in a solid geometry course, or
in the second year algebra course."
CCSS --no better than AIMS:
 The Fordham Institute has rated the Common Core Standards with a B+ in
English and an A- in Math despite receiving money from the Gates Foundation
(AZ’s previous standards were given the same rating –and we were ranked as
one of the lowest states in education.) [20] They even state on their website
the following:
 “…California, Indiana and the District of Columbia had ELA (English Language
Arts) standards clearly superior to those of the Common Core. And nearly a
dozen states had ELA or math standards in the same league as Common
 The Fordham Institute rated Arizona’s previous state standards with a B+ in
English and an A- in Math. [21] This is obviously not an improvement for
education in Arizona.
 Even the Common Core establishment is no longer
claiming that the standards are “internationally
benchmarked” --the website now states that they are
“informed by” the standards of “other top performing
countries.” [19]
What are Some Specific
Common Core Standard
Problems with Some of the English
Language Arts Standards:
 ELA Standards of 70% informational text and 30%
classic literature studies.
(See “The Value of Literature Study” by Wisconsin’s Polytechnic University, Stout)
 CCSS.ELA. Literacy. 9-10. 1 --On demand writing
analysis of an article. Does not allow students to think
for themselves and state an opinion or use outside
(This flaw makes it impossible for students to repudiate a
teacher’s philosophy such as “God Does Not Exist” and
“Why Suicide is Preferred in Some Cases”.)
David Coleman,
lead writer of the
ELA Common Core
“As you grow up
in this world,
you realize
people really
don’t give a s—
about what you
feel or what you
David Coleman, now is President of the College Board.
He has now redesigned the SAT to follow the Common Core
The new SAT essay writing portion also has the same
“on demand writing” standard with no opinion allowed.
And for creating this, Coleman earns a base salary of
with a total compensation of nearly $750,000.
Math Standards Problems:
 The Math CCSS are overly prescriptive and convoluted.
Many math teachers cannot understand what is expected
of them.
 Mixing ELA with Math = Disaster
Math wiz kids usually LOVE math, but not ELA.
ELA wiz kids usually LOVE ELA, but not math.
Everyone is unique,
That is what makes
the world go round!
5. The Cost $$$
 It is required by Arizona State Statute ARS 15-203(A)(10)
that a cost analysis be performed before new standards are
adopted in this state and presented to the AZ Legislature.
No cost analysis was done prior to the adoption to see
what impact it would have on our local school
districts. The statute reads:
“The State Board of Education shall...Prepare a budget for
expenditures necessary for proper maintenance of the board
and accomplishment of its purposes and present the budget
to the legislature.”
 After the adoption of the standards, The State Board of Education
(SBE) estimated that it would cost $131 million over 2 years (FY14 and
FY15) to implement “Common Core,” not including related costs for
additional Internet access and computers needed for testing.
Corresponding Arizona Association of School Business Officials
(AASBO) estimates are $157 million for instruction-related costs plus
$230 million for additional Internet access and computers ($387 million
total). [13]
 Arizona only received $25 million out of the $250 million Race To The
Top (RTTT) grant incentive to implement Common Core. $12.5 million
was kept by the AZ Education Department. The remaining $12.5
million made it to the schools. [40]
 The cost of the AZMerit test will be about $19 million
the first year. The AZ Department of Education is
unsure of how much the test will cost in subsequent
years. [30]
These costs come at a time when school districts say they are
Voters in various municipalities have already approved of two
different temporary 1% tax increases to help schools
through the recession.
Are we going to be asked for a third tax 1% tax increase to
cover Common Core implementation costs too?
Will another 1% tax increase be enough to cover the cost of
continuing on with Common Core?
6. Data Collection
 Under the Race to the Top agreement, states are
obligated to “implement a State Longitudinal
Database System (SLDS) used to track students by
obtaining personally identifiable information.” [25]
How is the data collected?
As of 2015, the Arizona Department of Education is
continually putting information into a database,
called the “AZDash”.
What type info is put into AZDash?
We do not know exactly what type of info is put into the Statewide Database.
However , in 2012 Pres. Obama made and executive order that changed FERPA
(student privacy laws) so that they may obtain the following [48]:
 The student’s name;
 The name of the student’s parent or other family members;
 The address of the student or student’s family;
 A Personal Identifier, such as the student’s SSN, student number or biometric
record (“biometric record” as used in the definition for “personally identifiable
information” means a record of one or more measurable biological or behavioral
characteristics that can be used for automated recognition of an individual.
Examples include fingerprints; retina and iris patterns; voiceprints; DNA
sequence; facial characteristics; and handwriting);
 The student’s date of birth, place of birth, and mother’s maiden name;
What info will be collected on my
child specifically from the AZMerit?
AIR (American Institute for Research) is a behavioral testing company.
 They created the test (with Smarter Balanced),
 AIR will have access to your schools’ wifi
 AIR grades the test & reports info into database
No one knows what type of information they will collect, not even the Arizona
Department of Education.
However we do know that they will be gathering information from your child’s test
question answers.
A behavioral research company can also easily gather very personal and sensitive
information via psychoanalysis of what your child writes.
(See http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED434337)
(Sensitive info such as religious beliefs, party affiliation, views on gun control, population
control, environmental issues, sexual preferences, etc.)
Testing companies are also know for starting their tests off with a survey.
The White House Hosted a “Datapalooza” in
2012 that described other information that
they would like to obtain, such as:
 How your child is feeling a certain day? [31]
 What did your child eat for breakfast?
 What types of educational material help your child learn best? Videos,
books, digital devices?
 At what times of the day does your child learn best?
 How does your child feels about himself/herself?[31]
Don’t Believe It?
Hear it straight from the horse’s mouth:
In 2012, the White House hosted a “Datapalooza” --no joke, that’s
what they really called it!
“The human race is about to enter into a totally data-mined existence, and it’s
going to be really fun to watch…
…Knewton students today (we have 180,000 right now, by December it will be
about 650,000 and by next year it will be in the millions and then the next year
it will be close to 10 million. And that’s just through our Pearson partnership)…
…we literally have more data on our students than any company has about
anybody else about anything –and that’s not even close…
…and when we go take that whole combined data power, that whole network of
millions, soon to be tens of millions, and eventually hundreds of millions of
people and for every single concept that your child learns… we will take that
combined power of that data network to find the perfect plan for that kid to
learn that concept.”
--Jose Ferreira, CEO of Knewton at 2012 White House Datapalooza [31]
Data, data, & more data…
In addition to traditional data points, the current P-20 system can collect
more than 400 individual pieces of data on students, including:
Medical Conditions
Learning Disabilities
Religious Affiliations
Family Income
Behavioral Problems
At-Risk Status
Homework Completion
Overall Health Status
Dwelling Arrangements
Career Goals
Also, under the new FERPA laws, student data can be
shared with companies and organizations that helped
develop and implement the Common Core Standards,
related exams, and databases.
(This violates the 4th Amendment of the U.S.
Who can info be shared with?
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (the biggest in Common Core);
Achieve, Inc. (Intel, Pearson, Harcourt, McGraw-Hill, Scholastic, Microsoft, HP,…);
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation;
National Governors Association (this is a trade organization & does not have to answer to
Council of Chief State School Officers (another trade organization);
American Institute for Research (AIR is a behavioral research company);
SMARTER Balanced (SBAC) and PARCC (received over $330 million of tax payer money
to develop CC tests);
The SAT College Board and ACT;
Pearson (wants to shift learning from tangible textbooks to online sources);
Knewton (“data mining children” –CEO, Jose Ferreira);
Gallup (known for national political polls);
Agilix (talks about collecting data even on a child’s feelings);
Personal.com (storing personal information to help you apply for future scholarships);
 And many, many more…
How do these companies get this
The Data Review Board meets 4 times per year to review data requests.
The meetings are closed to the public.
7. High Stakes Testing Has Many
Negative Consequences.
 The loss of valuable learning time due to teachers preparing
students for the test.
(Some schools are spending the entire month of March to prepare for the test.)
 Can only produce a snap shot of how a student performs that day.
(Portfolio assessments are much more effective on determining a student’s progress and
 Reduces the importance of other educational enriching activities such
as music, art, P.E., and even history;
 Undermines American ideas of free thinking, creativity,
experimentation, freedom of expression and diversity in education;
 Has the potential to increase bullying in schools and suicide rates (as
seen in Japan, China, and South Korea);
The National Education Association (NEA) has signed
on to a resolution that calls for a reduction of
standardized mandates and base school accountability
on multiple forms of measurements. [46]
“The overuse of standardized tests for high stakes
decisions has shortchanged students, teachers and our
education system in too many ways for far too long,”
said Dennis Van Roekel. “We’ve lost sight of the
reason tests were designed—to help gauge
students’ comprehension and progress.”
 High-stakes testing is particularly unfair to under-
privileged schools…
These children should not be compared to areas where
more advantaged children live.
You may be able to compare apples to apples, but
children are people –not fruit.
--Diane Ravitch,
(A historian of education, an educational policy analyst,
and a research professor at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture,
Education, and Human Development) [42]
“What the advocates ignored is that test scores are heavily
influenced by socioeconomic status.
Standardized tests are normed on a bell curve. The upper half of the
curve has an abundance of those who grew up in favorable
circumstances, with educated parents, books in the home, regular
medical care, and well-resourced schools. Those who dominate
the bottom half of the bell curve are the kids who lack those
advantages, whose parents lack basic economic security, whose
schools are overcrowded and under-resourced.
To expect tougher standards and a renewed emphasis on
standardized testing to reduce poverty and inequality is to
expect what never was and never will be.”
We are a very diverse nation and
all have different needs:
 One size does not fit all!
8. Teachers, principals, school board members, and even parents
face retaliation if they criticize Common Core.
 Tucson teacher, Brad McQueen, “was removed from several state
committees he was paid to serve on after speaking on media outlets
against Common Core and the accompanying standardized test.” [28]
(He was even called a “f---tard” by Angela Escobar of the AZ Dept. of Ed. [27})
 An AP Calculus teacher was given a gag order that came from his
district administration through his principal last year (2013-2014). It
was made clear that he was not allowed to speak about it publically.
Teacher Unions are falsely claiming that the majority of their teachers
approve of Common Core. [29]
 Parents are afraid to voice their opinions in fear that their student will
face retaliation from teachers or other school employees.
So, if not Common Core, what should we
put in its place?
 In all honesty, we do not need national standards.
Scientific evidence shows education standards do not
improve student achievement. [45]
Our nation put a man on the moon without any type of
mandated standards!
However, if Arizona feels the need to have standards to
satisfy political public opinion, then we should put in
 A true Arizona State led set of standards!
 We can bring back the previous AZ State standards that were just
as good as the Common Core standards, without all the
problems mentioned above. This will give our state time to
research other solutions. We really do have some very brilliant
educators within our own state!
 Other states like Massachusetts and California had previous
superior state standards that we could imitate and adopt. [43]
 Dr. Sandra Stotsky has offered Arizona the previously rated #6 in
the world ELA standards for FREE!
 We can use past assessments such as the Iowa & Standford 9.
Districts should be the ones to decide on which
standardized test to use.
How can we get rid of Common
Core & associated data mining?
Join in the effort!
Opt out of the AzMerit (Boston Tea Party Style!)
Go to www.OptOutAZ.org
Through Legislation
Through our Governor
Through our School Boards
Sign up for email action alerts
(email us at: join@OptOutAZ.org)
Our kids are worth it!
1. Common Core fact sheet by Dr. Sandra Stotsky (CC Validation Committee Member):
2. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/ALEC_Corporations
3. Diane Ravitch’s blog (a historian of education, an educational policy analyst, and a research professor at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.)
4. http://cnmnewz.com/gates-funded-non-profit-to-oversee-common-core-aligned-curriculum/
5. Common Core ELA Standards:
6. https://www.edreform.com/2013/02/whats-wrong-with-common-core-ela-standards/
11. http://www.azleg.state.az.us/ars/15/00203.htm
12. http://www.accountabilityworks.org/photos/Cmmn_Cr_Cst_Stdy.Fin.2.22.12.pdf
13. http://www.azgovernor.gov/AzReady/documents/Materials/2012/AREC_111312_ACCSEstCost.pdf http://www.azsba.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/ASBA_Report_Card_3-5-13.pdf
14. http://coehp.uark.edu/colleague/9863.php
15. http://hoosiersagainstcommoncore.com/james-milgram-testimony-to-the-indiana-senate-committee/
16. http://pioneerinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/Common-Core-Fact-Sheet_new.pdf
17. Dr. Sandra Stotsky’s testimony before the Texas Legislature: http://coehp.uark.edu/colleague/9863.php
18. http://edexcellence.net/publications/the-state-of-state-of-standards-and-the-common-core-in-2010.html
19. http://www.corestandards.org/about-the-standards/
20. http://edexcellence.net/commentary/education-gadfly-daily/common-core-watch/2013/a-testimony-on-the-common-core-standards.html
21. Fordham Institute rating of Arizona’s previous standards: http://edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2010/201007_state_education_standards_common_standards/Arizona.pdf
22. Former AZ School Superintendent, John Huppenthal’s letter to parents on November 3, 2014: http://www.azed.gov/assessment/files/2014/11/parent-letter.pdf
23. AIR partners with SMARTER Balanced: http://www.air.org/resource/air-partners-smarter-balanced-assessment-consortium-create-online-test-delivery-system
24. US Dept. of Education award letter to SMARTER Balanced: http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-assessment/sbac-award-letter.pdf
25. Letter to Arne Duncan from Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (MO-03) about concerns over student data collection: http://www.scribd.com/doc/136746087/Congressman-Blaine-Luetkemeyer-s-Letter-to-U-SEducation-Secretary-Arne-Duncan
26. White House hosts 2012 Datapalooza: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhdwy3ASoEfm1QeH0kfNnLWUqv4lE1pPs
27. Arizona Daily Independent article: http://www.arizonadailyindependent.com/2014/06/30/az-dept-of-education-to-anti-common-core-teacher-what-a-fcktard/
28. Arizona Daily Star: http://tucson.com/news/local/education/tucson-teacher-claims-reprisals-for-criticizing-common-core/article_7458be56-1b35-597b-b6a2-cb86e5237167.html
29. http://dailycaller.com/2013/12/11/teachers-face-retaliation-for-criticizing-common-core/
30. http://www.azed.gov/assessment/files/2014/11/award-specific-qa.pdf
31. 2010 White House Datapalooza, Agilix presentation:
32. CCSSO Corporate Partners: http://www.ccsso.org/Who_We_Are/Business_and_Industry_Partnerships/Corporate_Partners.html
33. The 15% Rule: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544664.pdf
34. Common Core Copyright: http://www.corestandards.org/public-license/
35. http://dianeravitch.net/2014/06/08/the-inside-story-of-how-bill-gates-bought-the-common-core-standards/ (Diane Ravitch is a a historian of education, an educational policy analyst, and a research
professor at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.)
36. Common Core Public Feedback:
37. “What is Achieve Inc.?”:
38. Memorandum of Understanding, RTTT Waiver & Implementation of Common Core, May 2010:
39. Common Core Standards published in June 2010:
40. Race To The Top Grant: http://www.azed.gov/racetothetop/
41. NEA calls for Arne Duncan’s resignation: http://www.nea.org/grants/33354.htm
42. Diane Ravitch’s Speech to the Modern English Association:
43. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQoEvDS3ZX8&list=PL0BWHvcPmNxssijjl-YafOo4D3cQWu3wN
44. Fordham State ratings prior to Common Core implementation: http://edexcellence.net/publications/the-state-of-state-of-standards-and-the-common-core-in-2010.html
45. Scientific evidence shows education standards do not improve student achievement:
46. http://www.nea.org/home/51693.htm
47. The Absurdity of High-stakes testing: http://www.schoolleadership20.com/profiles/blogs/testing-testing-testing
48. http://www.ed.gov/edblogs/whiaiane/files/2012/04/2012DOIEDMOU.pdf
49. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/media-center/speeches/2009/07/bill-gates-national-conference-of-state-legislatures-ncsl