Key Concept Notes for Period 5

Period 5
1844 – 1877
The New Curriculum
 Key Concept 5.1 “The United States became more connected
with the world as it pursued an expansionist foreign policy in
the Western Hemisphere and emerged as the destination for
many migrants from other countries.”
 Page 54 of the Curriculum Framework
 Big ideas:
 What were the social, economic, and political impacts of Manifest
Destiny and westward expansion?
 What impact did the Mexican-American War have on politics?
 What were reasons for, and goals on the nativist movement that
emerges during this time?
What is “Old Immigration?”
• What is it?
• Immigrants that came from Northern and Western Europe
• Specific countries?
• Ireland, Germany, England
• When did it occur?
• 1820s – 1870s
• What group made up the largest prior to the Civil War?
• Irish
Why did they come here?
Where did they settle?
• Why they came here?
• Germans – farmers looking for land
• Irish – Potato Famine (1840s) “Black Forties”
• Settled in large cities in the Northeast
• Boston and New York
• Where did they settle?
• Germans – on the frontier and the Midwest and Northwest
• Ohio, Wisconsin, etc.
• Kindergarten
• What is it?
• Fear, distrust, and hatred of foreigners
• Reasons for nativism:
Different cultures
Different languages
Irish and Germans “stole” elections
• Tended to vote Democratic
• Tammany Hall – NYC
• Immigrants “took” jobs
• Work for less money
• Would not unionize
The “Know-Nothing” Party
• What is it?
• Political party formed due to nativism
• Originated as the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
• Wanted to ban Catholics from holding offices
• Called for tougher immigration and naturalization laws
• In 1856, Ex-President Millard Fillmore ran for President the
Know-Nothing Party
• Won 21% of the popular vote
• By 1860, they were no longer a political threat
» James K. Polk becomes the 1st “Dark-Horse”
Candidate in US History
˃ Surprise candidate at the Democratic Convention
˃ Only wants a 4 year term and no re-election
» Henry Clay was nominated by the Whigs
» Polk was an avid expansionist
» Defeats Clay
˃ “Young Hickory” becomes president
» Check out They Might Be Giants’ “James K. Polk”
1. Lower the tariff.
2. Restore the independent treasury.
3. Resolve the Oregon boundary
4. Acquire California.
» Remember, Polk was a Democrat
˃ Democrats want to see the tariff rates go Down
» Walker Tariff:
˃ Reduced the tariff rates substantially
˃ Helped lead to an increase in trade with other countries
» Independent Treasury:
˃ Democrats answer to not having a BUS
˃ All government money would be held in the Treasury building and subtreasuries in cities
˃ No government money would be held in banks
What is it?
o Belief that it was America’s “God-Given” right to expand from coast to
o Term that was created by John O’Sullivan
What time period is associated with it?
o 1840s and 1850s
o Although it has roots in the LA Purchase and Indian Removal Act
Key Associations:
o Oregon
o Texas
o Mexican-American War
At one time, four countries claimed Oregon:
o Spain
o Britain
o Russia
o US
The boundary was not settled between US and Great Britain
Polk campaigned on “54°40’ or Fight”
Eventually, the two sides settle on the 49th parallel
Mexico had recently become independent from Spain… needed
people/money in their Northern area that was mostly empty.
Americans (mostly Southern) are offered a nice package deal if they
move to Texas… many do, and by 1935 Texans outnumber Mexicans in
that region 10-1.
Austin asks Santa Anna to allow Texas Independence… he is thrown in
In 1836, Texas (led by Houston) declared independence from Mexico
Alamo & Treaty of Velasco
Republic of Texas votes to join USA!
1844 presidential campaign focused on the issue of Texas
In 1845, Texas is annexed via a joint resolution
Southerners favored the admission as a way to expand slavery
The boundary was not settled by both US and Mexico
Helps lead to the……. Mexican-American War
o Slidell Mission… money offered to Mexico for the West
o Texas boundary @ the Rio Grande River
o “American blood on American soil”
Battle of Buena Vista
o General Zachary Taylor becomes a hero… president in 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo:
o U.S. gained California, and modern-day NM, AZ, UT and NV -- ½ of Mexican
o U.S. to pay $15 million
o Mexico loses over 80% of its troops
US gains Mexican Cession
Land increases by 1/3
US now expands from Atlantic to the Pacific
Future Civil War generals get experience in this war
Gadsden Purchase later…
Debate over slavery would be #1 topic until the Civil War
Native Americans:
Homestead Act (1862): 160 acres of land would be given for a small fee to anyone that moved west
State and federal governments often gave subsidies ($ and land) to railroad companies to build
Railroad construction, new cities
Gold Rush/California, Mining – Comstock Lode – Silver settlements
Cattle Ranching
Trade with Asia
1870s decline of Buffalo
Removing grass to plant crops led to erosion of soil… future consequences
They continually lost land and were pushed further and further west
Eventually, they were forced on reservations… or massacred (Sand Creek Massacre & Custer’s Last Stand
Manifest destiny thrust the issue of slavery into the national spotlight
Debate over whether new land should be slave or free
Wilmot Proviso
Republican Party:
One of the platforms was to keep slavery from expanding
» Few Presidents have done as much in one term
» Manifest Destiny is complete
» Tensions between the North and South increase
˃ Wilmot Proviso
˃ Compromise of 1850
Taylor: Old Rough and Ready
• Popular Sovereignty
• Compromise of 1850
(5.1.II.B) Gold Rush
• Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
– Britain and
Nicaragua… later
Test Tips
 Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Questions:
 Impacts of Mexican-American War
 Nativism and characteristics of immigrants
 Economic opportunities out west
 Essay Questions:
 Manifest Destiny and its impacts (Native Americans, slavery, Civil
War, etc.)
 How the government contributed to settlement out west
Period 5: 1844 – 1877
Everything You Need To Know About Key
Concept 5.2 To Succeed In APUSH
 Key Concept 5.2 “Intensified by expansion and deepening
regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic,
cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.”
 Page 46 of the Curriculum Framework
 Big ideas:
 What were different factors that led to an increase in sectionalism?
 What were different methods abolitionists used to achieve their
 Why did proposals to resolve the issue of slavery in territories
ultimately fail?
 “ T h e i n s t i t ut i o n o f s l av e r y a n d i t s a t te n d a n t i d e o l og i c al d e b a te s , a l o n g w i t h r e g i o n a l
e c o n o m i c a n d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s , te r r i to r i a l ex p a n s i o n i n t h e 1 8 4 0 s a n d 1 8 5 0 s , a n d
c u l t ur a l d i f fe r e nc e s b et w e e n t h e N o r t h a n d t h e S o u t h , a l l i n te n s i fi e d s e c t i o n a l i s m . ” – p g 4 6
o f t h e c u r r i cul um f r a m ewo rk
 Northern v. Southern economies:
 North:
 Manufacturing – use of free labor
 Population grew rapidly - immigration
 South:
 More reliant on agriculture and slavery
 Slow population growth
 Abolitionism:
 Minority in the North
 Very noticeable campaign
 William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator called for the IMMEDIATE end to slavery
 Underground RR helped slaves escape – 1,000/ year
 Some used violence to achieve goals:
 Nat Turner’s Rebellion
 David Walker’s Appeal
 John Brown’s Raid
Many in the South defended slavery as a positive
 John C. Calhoun
Arguments used to defend slavery:
 States’ Rights:
 States could create laws to determine what’s in their own best
 Nullification:
 VA and KY Resolutions, SC Exposition and Protest – belief that
states could nullify (void) federal laws
 Racist Stereotypes:
 Minstrel Shows:
 White actors used blackface in shows that promoted racism and stereotypes
 “Jim Crow” was a major character
Most intense debate in U.S. History
•John C. Calhoun
•North should honor the Constitution
and enforce the Fugitive Slave Law
•South wanted California
•threatened to secede from U.S.
•U.S. should have two Presidents--one from the North and one for the
•Daniel Webster
•Henry Clay
•The Great Compromiser, with
John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster
and Stephen Douglas, propose
this compromise.
•Secession is impractical &
•How would we split the land?
•The military?
•Compromise at all cost
•Preserve the Union
•U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois
•Solve the slavery issue was through Popular
•let the people in each territory decide through
the process of voting whether they want slavery or
 “ R e p e a te d a t te m p t s a t p o l i t i c al c o m p ro m i s e f a i l e d to c a l m te n s i o n s o v e r s l av e r y a n d o f te n
m a d e s e c t i o n a l te n s i o n s w o r s e , b r e a k i n g d o w n t h e t r u s t b et w e e n s e c t i o n a l l e a d e r s a n d
c u l m in a t i n g i n t h e b i t te r e l e c t i o n o f 1 8 6 0 , f o l l owe d b y t h e s e c e s s i o n o f s l av e r y a n d
s o u t h e r n s t a te s . ” – p g 4 6 o f t h e c u r r i cul um f r a m ewo rk
 Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery that ultimately failed to
reduce tensions:
 Compromise of 1850: (Introduced by Henry Clay at age 72)
 Major Parts:
CA was added as a free state
Tips the balance in favor of free states
Slave Trade was abolished in DC
Slavery remained, just not the trade
Popular Sovereignty (Douglas) in land gained from Mexican Session
Those living in territories could decide status of slavery
More strict Fugitive Slave Act – will infuriate Northerners
Requires Northerners to aid in catching and return of slaves
Leads to Personal Liberty Laws
 Kansas-Nebraska Act:
 1854 Law that allowed for popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska Territories
 The expectation was that Kansas would be slave, Nebraska would be free
 Overturned the Missouri Compromise
 Many in the North were upset
 Helped lead to the creation of the Republican Party
Denounced by
Harriet Beecher
Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s
Cabin is published
Abolitionists refuse to
enforce the law
Underground Railroad
becomes more active
Southerners threatened
secession and war
Believed it should be
enforced because the
Constitution protects
property and Federal law is
over State law.
5th Amendment
Impact of Compromise
 Demonstrates tension in Congress – sign of things to
 Civil War was averted
 North had more time to industrialize
 Most Northerners did not support war in 1850
 Many in the North move towards the abolitionist
 Personal Liberty Laws are not enforced in the North
 Essentially nullification
Past Essay Topics
 Analyze the effectiveness of political compromise in reducing
sectional tensions in the period 1820 to 1861. (2004 Free
 In the early nineteenth century, Americans sought to resolve
their political disputes through compromise, yet by 1860 this no
longer seemed possible. Analyze the reasons for this change.
Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 18201860 in constructing your response. (2005 Form B DBQ)
 Analyze how western expansion contributed to growing
sectional tensions between the North and the South. Confine
your answer to the period from 1800 to 1850. (2012 Free
Multiple-Choice and Short Answer
 Abolitionists’ methods
 Defenses of slavery
 Failed attempts at resolving slavery issues: Compromise of 1850, KS NB, and Dred Scott
 Republican Party and Lincoln’s election platform
Essay Questions:
 Increase in sectional tensions
 1860 election as a turning point
 Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery that ultimately failed to
reduce tensions:
 Dred Scott v. Sanford:
African Americans (regardless if they were free or slave) were NOT citizens and
could not sue in court
Slaves were considered property and could not be taken away without “due
process” (5 th amendment)
Congress could not regulate slavery in territories
Tensions between the North and South increase
Democratic Party splits along sectional lines
 The end of the Second Party System was caused by:
 Issues of slavery and nativism -> helped lead to sectional parties (see
election of 1860)
 Republican Party emerged in the North and Midwest:
 Made up of Free-Soilers and some former Whigs
 Lincoln’s Presidential Platform in 1860 was the NONEXTENSION of slavery
 Ultimately, this would lead to many southern states seceding, causing the Civil War
Uncle Tom’s
 Sold 300,000 copies in the
first year.
 2 million in decade!
So this is the lady who started the Civil
-- Abraham Lincoln
• Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Republican Party
• American Party
-- Nativists.
– Anti-Catholics.
– Anti-immigrants.
•Build a transcontinental
connecting California to the
East Coast either in the
South or North
•Stephen Douglas wanted
the railroad built in the North
but had to convince the
South otherwise.
•Proposed a plan that
Kansas and Nebraska
territories be opened up to
slavery in return for building
the railroad in the North.
•Popular Sovereignty
After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a
battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The
territory was torn by battles and massacres. The issue also bitterly divided the nation
and led to the formation of the Republican Party. The first shots of the Civil War were in
Bleeding Kansas.
• Free-Soil city
• Burned by pro-slavery individuals
• Exhibited the tensions in KS over popular sovereignty and
“Bleeding Sumner”
Sen. Charles
Congr. Preston
• John Brown (Harpers Ferry fame) and his sons plot revenge for
Lawrence and Charles Sumner
• He and his followers kill 5 pro-slavery individuals
• Brown and his followers leave Kansas
• Fighting continues throughout the 1850s
Foreign Policy (5.1.I.D)
• Gadsden Purchase – bought a
little more of land from Mexico.
• Japan
– Kanagawa (first treaty between
Japan and US)
• Ostend Manifesto - was a
document written in 1854 that
described the rationale for the
United States to purchase Cuba
from Spain while implying that
the U.S. should declare war if
Spain refused.
James Buchanan
Lecompton Constitution
Dred Scott (5.2.II.A)
Panic of 1857
– Hinton Helper-Impending
Crisis (5.2.I.B)
– Lincoln-Douglas Debates
– Harpers Ferry (5.2.I.B)
• Kansas applied for statehood
• Voters could vote for a constitution with or without slavery
• HOWEVER, if they voted without slavery, those slaves that were already
in Kansas could stay and be slaves
• Sham election
• Free-Soilers refuse to vote
• President Buchanan supports the Constitution
• Kansas does not become a state until early 1861, as a free
•Slave from Missouri traveled with
his owner to Illinois & Minnesota
both free states.
•His master died and Scott wanted
to move back to Missouri---Missouri
still recognized him as a slave.
•He sued his master’s widow for his
freedom since he had lived in a free
state for a period of time.
•Court case went to the Supreme
Court for a decision-----National
•Can a slave sue for his freedom?
•Is a slave property?
•Is slavery legal?
•Supreme Court hands down
the Dred Scott decision
•North refused to enforce
Fugitive Slave Law
•Free states pass personal
liberty laws.
•Republicans claim the
decision is not binding
•Southerners call on the North
to accept the decision if the
South is to remain in the
•Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their
freedom because they are property.
•They are not citizens and have no legal
right under the Constitution.
•Supreme Court legalized slavery by
saying that
•Congress could not stop a slaveowner
from moving his slaves to a new territory
•Missouri Compromise and all other
compromises were unconstitutional
•In order for African Americans to become
citizens, a new court case, or amendment
would be needed
•14th amendment (granted citizenship)
Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777
to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott
referred to the status of slaves
when the Constitution was adopted.
“They had (slaves) for more than a century before
been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and
altogether unfit to associate with the white race,
either in social or political relations; and so far
inferior that they had no rights which the white
man was bound to respect. This opinion was at
that time fixed and universal in the civilized
portion of the white race.”
• Quakers
• Colonial Era abolitionists
• American Colonization Society
• Founded in 1817
• Goal was to send former slaves to Africa (Liberia)
• Prominent members included Henry Clay, Abraham Lincoln
(early on) and many others
• Most African – Americans did NOT want to go
• Harriet Beecher Stowe
• Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Showed the evils of slavery and breaking up families
• Theodore Dwight Weld:
• American Slavery As It Is
• Married Angelina Grimké
• Angelina and Sarah Grimké
• Southern women that advocated abolitionism and
women’s rights
• Harriet Tubman:
• Former slave, helped other slaves escape via the
Underground Railroad
• Helped over 300 slaves
• David Walker
• Called for unity among blacks, violence to end slavery
• Elijah Lovejoy
• Minster and newspaper editor from Illinois
• A mob burned his warehouse where his printing press was;
shot and killed
• Helped inspire John Brown
• John Brown:
• Part of “Bleeding Kansas” and architect of the raid at
Harpers Ferry
• William Lloyd Garrison:
• The Liberator
• Called for the immediate end to slavery without
• Disliked the Constitution since it allowed slavery; urged
secession by the North
• Frederick Douglass
• Former slave, great orator, published The North Star
• Traveled to Europe to speak against slavery
• Attended the women’s rights movement at Seneca Falls
•Violent abolitionist
•Involved in the Bleeding
•Murdered 5 pro-slavery men
in Kansas
•Wanted to lead a slave revolt
throughout the South by raising
an army of freed slaves and
destroying the South.
•Attacked a U.S. Ammunition
depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia
in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons
and begin his slave revolt.
•Unsuccessful and captured by troops under the
leadership of Robert E. Lee
•Put on trial for treason.
•He was found guilty of treason and
sentenced to death.
•His last words were to this effect: “I
believe that the issue of slavery will
never be solved unless through the
shedding of blood.”
•Northerners thought of John Brown
as a martyr to the abolitionist cause.
•Southerners were terrified that if
John Brown almost got away with
this, there must be others like him in
the North who are willing to die to
end slavery.
•South’s outcome: To leave the U.S.
and start their own country.
The Election of 1860
Everything You Need To Know About The
Election Of 1860 To Succeed In APUSH
Background Info
James Buchanan (incumbent) is NOT
running for re-election
 Democratic Party was split along sectional
lines – Douglass’ “Freeport Doctrine”
 John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry took
place one year before
◦ The South fears Republicans and the North are
“John Brown loving abolitionists”
The Candidates
Democratic Candidate:
◦ North – Stephen Douglass – advocate of
popular sovereignty
◦ South – John C. Breckenridge – Buchanan’s VP
Republican Candidate:
◦ Abe Lincoln – free-soil platform – nonextension of slavery
Constitutional Union Party:
◦ John Bell – hoped to preserve the union
•Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S.
Senate in Illinois.
•The debates were followed by the country.
•Slavery was the issue
•Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself
cannot stand. Either we become one or the other.
•was against the expansion of slavery
•Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by
the people.
•Popular sovereignty
Lincoln got Douglas to admit that Popular Sovereignty
could work against the expansion of slavery…..
Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency
in 1860
√ Abraham Lincoln
Stephen A. Douglas
Northern Democrat
John Bell
John C.
Southern Democrat
Republican Party Platform in 1860
1. Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers.
2. Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].
3. No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a
disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].
4. Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the
5. Internal improvements [for the West] at federal
6. Free homesteads for the public domain [for
Country is polarized
(divided) over the issue
of slavery.
Lincoln will win without
a single southern vote.
•303 total electoral
votes and 152 to
Once Lincoln is elected
as president, South
Carolina will secede
from the U.S. along with
several other Southern
They will form the
Confederate States of
Lame Duck Time
• South Carolina and 6 others
• Crittenden Compromise (5.2.II.A)
• Buchanan sits
John J.
Lincoln’s Inauguration
No compromise
No expansion
Death Threats
Fort Sumpter
Immediate cause of the Civil War
Southern states begin to secede before Lincoln’s
inauguration on March 4, 1861
SC (12/20/1860)
MS (1/9/1861)
FL (1/10/1861)
AL (1/11/1861)
GA (1/19/1861)
LA (2/1/1861)
Buchanan did NOTHING to stop the secession!
VA (4/17/1861)
AR (5/6/1861)
TN (5/7/1861)
NC (5/20/1861)
More secede after the war starts on 4/12/1861
When the Confederate
States of America was
formed, its founders
wrote a constitution
similar to the United
States Constitution. Its
differences, however,
indicate how the South
Wanted to change their
structure of government.
•State’s rights
•Tariffs are equal
throughout the CSA
•Slavery is legal and is
allowed to expand!
Test Tips
 Multiple-Choice
and Short Answer
◦ Lincoln’s platform was for the NON-EXTENSION of
◦ Immediate cause secession and Civil War
 Essay
◦ Failures of compromises
◦ 1860 election as a turning point
Causes of the War
Expansion of slavery
Popular Sovereignty
States’ Rights vs. Federal Power
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
◦ Election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
 Lincoln wanted to PRESERVE the Union in the
April 12, 1861:
◦ Fort Sumter
The New Curriculum
Key Concept 5.3 “The Union victory in the Civil War and
the contested Reconstruction of the South settled the issues
of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many
questions about the power of the federal government and
citizenship rights.”
 Page
46 of the Curriculum Framework
Big ideas:
 Why
did the North ultimately prevail in the Civil War?
 How did Reconstruction affect the relationship between
Congress and the presidency?
 What impacts did the 14th and 15th amendments have on
women and African Americans?
•Born in Kentucky
•Born in Kentucky
•Served as Secretary of War
•Congressmen from Illinois
•Senator from Mississippi
•First Presidential candidate
for the Republican Party
•Served as Secretary of State
•Minority president
•First and only President of the
“The North’s major advantage would be its
economy and the South’s main disadvantage
was its economy”
The Union and Confederacy in 1861
The Border States
What were border states?
◦ Slave states that did NOT secede during the
Civil War
◦ Many fought on BEHALF of the Union.
Which states did this include?
◦ Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and
West Virginia (later)
Suspended “civil liberties” or parts of the
• writ of habeas corpus: Protects from unfair
arrest and trial by jury… only Congress can do
• Ex Parte Merriman (1861): Court ruled
President could not suspend Habeas Corpus,
Lincoln ignored the decision
• Occupation of Baltimore: Controlled by
military---- “martial law”
• Arrested over 15,000 civilians: Without
“probable cause”---suspicious “Rebel”
• Closed “rebel” newspapers: Violated 1st
amendment rights of “free speech and
First Income Tax
• 1st paper money
Key Terms To Know
◦ Draft (forced enlistment)
 Substitutes could be hired for people that were
 NYC Draft Riots (1863)
◦ 100s of people were killed
◦ Escaped slaves that crossed over into the Union
◦ Worked at camps and fought in the war
◦ Democrats that spoke out against the war
Phase One
Anaconda Plan
 Bull Run
 Antietam:
◦ Bloodiest day of the war
 South withdraws
◦ Helped persuade Europe to NOT intervene on
behalf of the South
◦ Helps lead to the issuance of the Emancipation
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued on January 1, 1863
Freed slaves only in areas of rebellion
◦ Not in Border States
◦ Not in areas under Union control
 New Orleans
Helped change the goal(s) of the war
◦ Originally, the war was fought to preserve the
•Abolitionists pressured Lincoln
to free the slaves.
•After the Battle of Antietam, he
announced that the slaves would
be freed.
•Became effective on Jan. 1,
1863, in those states still in
•Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in US
•Lincoln’s “first” step towards ending slavery.
•“Final step” 13th Amendment to the Constitution on Dec.
1865 would legally and constitutionally abolish slavery.
•Freed all slaves in
states in rebellion
against the US
•Did not apply to
slaves in border states
fighting for US
•No affect on southern
areas already under
US control.
•Kept Great Britain
from siding with the
and becoming an ally.
African Americans in the War
Beginning in 1862, African Americans could enlist
in the war
54th Regiment… organized by Frederick Douglass
◦ See the movie “Glory”
Fought in segregated units
Often did manual labor
African Americans were paid less than whites
Over 200,000 freed slaves fought for the US
Women in the War
As men fought in the war, women’s
employment opportunities increased
◦ Teachers, factories, and nursing
National Woman’s Loyal League:
◦ Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
◦ Hoped to abolish slavery and gain female
Clara Barton:
◦ Helped distribute medical supplies during the
◦ Later founded the Red Cross
Phase Two
Gettysburg Address
Issued on November 19, 1863
◦ Dedicated the battlefield as a cemetery
Referenced the Declaration of
◦ 4 score and 7 years ago (87 years ago)
“we here highly resolve that these dead
shall not have died in vain—that this
nation, under God, shall have a new birth
of freedom—and that government of the
people, by the people, for the people,
shall not perish from the earth.”
Feb. 1862
Fort Donelson
Controlled the Ohio River
March 1862
Fort Henry
Controlled Cumberland River
April 1862
Controlled Tennessee River
April 1862
New Orleans
Controlled mouth of
July 1863
Controlled Mississippi River *
split Confederacy in half
*Turning Point Battle
•Grant captures
Vicksburg, splits
the CSA in half.
•USA controls
the Mississippi
The End and Effects of the War
April 9, 1865, Lee surrenders to Grant in
Virginia at Appomattox.
April 14, 1865, Lincoln is watching a play
and assassinated by Booth
◦ Presidential v. Congressional
◦ Amendments: 13th, 14th, and 15th
Key Questions
1. How do we
bring the South
back into the
2. How do we
rebuild the
South after its
during the war?
4. What branch
of government
should control
the process of
3. How do we
integrate and
protect newlyemancipated
black freedmen?
Reconstruction: An Intro
• What was it?
▫ Attempting to achieve national unification after
the Civil War
• Key questions regarding Reconstruction:
▫ Who would control it? Congress? President?
▫ How would South be treated?
Lincoln vs. Congressional
• Lincoln: Favorable to the South
• Lincoln’s 10% Plan:
▫ If 10% of voters in 1860 election pledged loyalty to
US, state could be readmitted
▫ Congress felt it was too lenient
• Wade-Davis Bill:
▫ Congress (Republicans) sought 50% of voters in
1860 election to pledge allegiance
▫ Pocket-vetoed by Lincoln
President Andrew Johnson
 Jacksonian Democrat.
 Anti-Aristocrat.
 White Supremacist.
 Agreed with Lincoln
that states had never
legally left the Union.
Damn the negroes! I am
fighting these traitorous
aristocrats, their masters!
President Johnson
• His Reconstruction Plan was similar to Lincoln
▫ 10%
▫ Ratification of the 13th Amendment
▫ Confederates could appeal to him for a pardon… gave
amnesty to most Southerners
▫ Republicans were outraged that planter elite
were back in power in the South!
• Disliked by “Radical Republicans”
▫ Johnson was a Democrat from the South
• Impeached for violating Tenure of Office Act
▫ Secretary of War Stanton
▫ Johnson was not removed
Why did “Radical” Reconstruction occur?
• Congress (Republicans) wanted to maintain
their power
▫ 2 key Congressmen: Thaddeus Stevens and
Charles Sumner
• Former Confederate officials ran for federal
▫ Former CSA VP Alexander Stevens
• Black Codes
▫ Regulated affairs of freedmen; conditions similar
to slavery
• South was divided into 5 military zones
Effects of Republicans to reconstruct the South?
 Change
in the balance of power between the Presidency and
 Presidential
v. Radical Reconstruction – Congress determined when to
re-admit states
Johnson’s vetoes and Congressional overrides
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
 Reunited
the Union
 Political and leadership opportunities for former slaves:
 Rearranged relationships between whites and blacks in the
South (albeit temporarily)
 Hiram
Revels – Senator from MS (Jefferson Davis’ former seat), first
African American to serve in the Senate
Freedmen’s Bureau
• Goal:
▫ Help former slaves survive and adjust
▫ Food, medicine, and clothing were provided to
former slaves and poor whites
▫ Johnson vetoes and Congress overrides
• Promised “40 Acres and a Mule”
▫ Rarely happened
• Biggest Success of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
• The Emancipation Proclamation gave a moral cause to the Civil War
• Lincoln worried that it would not be applicable post-Civil War
• Republicans wanted to gain power in the South post Civil War
• Radical Republicans sought to punish former Confederate leaders
• 13th Amendment = What the amendment did:
• Abolished slavery EVERYWHERE in the US
• Huge economic and social implications for the country
• 14th Amendment = What it did:
• Section 1 – Born in the US? You’re a citizen (Overturned Dred Scott decision);
equal protection of laws – used frequently in the future
• Section 3 – Confederate officials could not hold US office – sorry Alexander
• 15th Amendment = What it did:
• Provided suffrage for African American males
• Helped provide for large Republican support from blacks in the South
• Women’s Rights Movement:
• The 14th and 15th amendments divided the group
• Frederick Douglass and others favored black suffrage PRIOR to women’s suffrage
• Lucy Stone and the American Women Suffrage Association hoped to achieve
suffrage after Reconstruction
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton feared suffrage was not likely near, National Woman
Suffrage Association advocated an amendment for women’s suffrage
• Ways Southern states got around the amendments:
Segregation – Jim Crow laws
Violence – KKK intimidated many southern blacks and discouraged voting
Supreme Court decisions:
• Civil Rights Cases – Congress could not prohibit discrimination by private
businesses and individuals
• Plessy v. Ferguson – upheld separate but equal facilities
Local political tactics:
• Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
• Eventually, these amendments were used in court decisions that upheld civil
• Brown v. Board of Education, court cases of the 1960s (Warren Court) that increased
rights of the accused
• Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Questions:
• Ways Southern states got around the 14th and 15th amendments
• Impact of the 14th amendment on women’s rights groups
• Essay Questions:
• Comparing the effectiveness of amendments over time (how the Civil Rights
Era of the 1950s and 1960s completed the goals of the amendments)
Key Reconstruction Terms
• Scalawags:
▫ Southerners that favored
• Carpetbaggers:
▫ Northerners that moved South
during Reconstruction
• Force Acts:
▫ Passed in response to KKK,
Federal troops used to quell
As southern states were restored to the Union
under President Johnson’s plan, they began to
enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s
The black codes established virtual slavery with
provisions such as these:
 Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset.
 Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not
working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor.
 Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a
year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the
wages they had earned.
 Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in
rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.
President Johnson’s Impeachment
 Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.
 Johnson replaced generals in the field who
were more sympathetic to Radical
 The House impeached him on February 24
before even
drawing up the
charges by a
vote of 126 – 47!
The Senate Trial
 11 week trial.
 Brought up on
11 charges of
high crimes and
 Johnson
35 to 19 (one
short of
required 2/3s
 Edmund Ross
Waving the Bloody Shirt!
Republican “Southern
Grant presided over an era
of unprecedented growth
and corruption.
Credit Mobilier Scandal.
Whiskey Ring.
Salary Grab
•Corrupt political leader put New
York City in debt
•1851 elected to city council
•1852 served in Congress
•Kept Democratic Party in power
in NYC called Tammany Hall
•Formed the Tweed Ring
•Bought votes, encouraged
corruption, controlled NYC politics
•Later exposed of his corruption
First Black
Senators and
in the 41st and
42nd Congress.
Senator Hiram
Revels, on the
left was elected
in 1870 to
replace the seat
vacated by
Jefferson Davis.
Blacks in Southern Politics
Core voters were black veterans.
 Blacks were politically unprepared.
 Blacks could register and vote in states
since 1867.
The 15th
voting. 1870
Legal Challenges
Bradwell v. IL (1873) (5.3.III.B)
-Rule against Anthony for voting
The Failure of Federal Enforcement
 Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871
[also known as the KKK Act].
 “The Lost
 The rise of the
 Redeemers
Dems. and Union
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
 Crime for any individual to deny full &
equal use of public conveyances and
public places.
 Prohibited discrimination in jury
 Shortcoming  lacked a strong
enforcement mechanism.
 No new civil rights act was attempted
for 90 years!
Key Concept 5.3 II Cont.
Why did Radical Republicans not succeed in changing
racial attitudes, culture, and establishing a base for their
 Determined
Southern Resistance:
 “Redeemer”
Local and state governments that ousted Republican governments
Often done through violence and intimidation
terrorized blacks and Republicans
 North’s
 Death
waning resolve:
of Charles Sumner in 1874
 Panic of 1873 tainted Republican Party and many began to call for
a smaller government
Northern Support Wanes
 “Grantism” & corruption.
 Panic of 1873 [6-year
 Concern over westward
expansion and Indian wars.
 Key monetary issues:
should the government
retire $432m worth of
“greenbacks” issued during the Civil War.
should war bonds be paid back in specie or
End of Reconstruction
• Why did it end?
▫ Compromise of 1877
• The compromise settled the disputed 1876
▫ Hayes (Republican) became President
▫ Southerner appointed to cabinet
• Impact of end of Reconstruction?
▫ Jim Crow Laws
 Upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson
▫ Disenfranchisement for blacks
Test Tips
Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Questions:
 Reasons
for the Union’s victory in the Civil War
 Ways the South resisted Reconstruction Amendments
 How Reconstruction changed relationship between Congress
and the presidency
Essay Questions:
 Connecting
Reconstruction Amendments to Civil Rights
Movement of the 1950s-60s
 Political and Social impacts of Reconstruction on American
Compromise of 1877
Background Info
• Election of 1876:
▫ Samuel Tilden (Democrat from NY)
▫ Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican from Ohio)
• Samuel Tilden received more popular votes
• To receive an electoral majority, one needed 185
electoral votes
▫ Tilden – 184
▫ Hayes - 165
• However, 3 states had disputed election returns:
▫ FL, LA, SC
• 20 electoral votes were up for grabs
The Commission
• A commission is set up to settle the electoral
▫ 8 Republicans, 7 Democrats
• On March 2, 1877 (2 days before the
inauguration) all 20 votes were awarded to
• Hayes wins 185 - 184
The Compromise…..
• In return for Hayes becoming President, the
following conditions were met:
1. All remaining federal troops were withdrawn from
the South (Reconstruction ENDS!!!!!)
As a result, African American rights decrease
“The Great Betrayal”
2. Hayes would appoint a southerner to his cabinet
David McKendree – TN, Postmaster General
3. The South would receive $ for a railroad
The Great Compromise (1787)
 The issue:
 How would representation in Congress be determined?
 The views:
 Small State (NJ)
Favored 1 house legislature, based on equal representation
 Large State (VA)
 Favored bicameral legislature, representation would be based on
 The result:
 Bicameral (2-house) legislature
 One house would be based on population (House of Reps)
 One house would be equal representation (Senate)
The 3/5 Compromise (1787)
 The issue:
 How would slaves be counted towards representation in
 The views:
 North: Slaves should not count since they are not
 South: Slaves should count since they are a large portion
of population
 The result:
 3/5 slaves (60%) will count towards representation in
the House
Compromise of 1820
 The issue:
 MO wanted enter union as a slave state
 Would upset the balance of free and slave
 Three aspects:
 Missouri would enter as a slave state
 Maine would enter as a free state (carved from MA)
 3630 – every future state above would be free, every state
below would be slave The result:
 Increase sectional tensions between North and South
 Eventually overturned by Kansas-Nebraska Act
Compromise of 1850
 The issue:
 What would happen to land gained from Mexican Cession?
Would it be free or slave?
 Five Parts:
 Popular Sovereignty in Mexican Cession
 Fugitive Slave Law (more harsh)
 Abolition of slave trade in D.C.
 California is admitted as a free state
 Texas paid $10 for boundary dispute
 Significance:
 Avoided Civil War for 10 years
 Last hurrah for Great Triumvirate (Clay, Webster, Calhoun)
Compromise of 1877
 The issue:
 Who won the presidential election of 1876
Tilden (Democrat)
Hayes (Republican)
 Three states had conflicting electoral results (20 votes)
 Tilden needed only 1
 The result:
 Hayes is declared the winner in return for:
 Removal of troops from the South (Reconstruction IS OVER!)
 Southerner must be named to Hayes’ cabinet
 $ to South
APUSH Review:
Key Documents To Know
From Period 5
Everything You Need To Know About Period 5 Documents To Succeed
William Lloyd Garrison
Who was he?
Publisher of The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper
“I am aware, that many object to the severity of my
language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as
harsh as truth, and as un-compromising as justice. On
this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with
moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to
give a moderate alarm;….. – but urge me not to use
moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest - I
will not equivocate - I will not excuse - I will not retreat a
single inch - and I will be heard.”
Possible multiple-choice and short answer tips:
Example of abolitionism in North, although a minority
Used fierce arguments against the institution of slavery
Manifest Destiny
What do we notice?
Columbia is moving westward with telegraph lines
Many Americans are moving westward - towards darkness
Native Americans are moving further west
Implications of the cartoon?
Manifest Destiny is seen as positive
Possible multiple-choice and short answer tips:
Environmental transformation
Impact on groups of people
near-extinction of the buffalo
Native Americans, families, etc.
Ways the government encouraged expansion
Homestead Act (1862), RR subsidies
John Gast, American Progress,
Wilmot Proviso
What was it?
What did it say?
An amendment to a bill that proposed banning
slavery in the Mexican Cession land
“Provided, That, as an express and fundamental
condition to the acquisition of any territory from the
Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of
any treaty which may be negotiated between them,
and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein
appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory,
except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly
Possible multiple-choice and short answer tips:
Impact of the Mexican American War
Example of heated controversy over slavery in newly
acquired territories
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Louis Cass
James Buchanan
What do we notice?
4 Democrats
Slave being forced down a
free-soiler’s throat
Implications of cartoon?
KS-NB Act is seen as negative
Democratic Party is the culprit
Possible multiple- choice and
KS-NB was a proposal to
issue of slavery in
short answer
Franklin Pierce
Overturned the MO Compromise
Instituted popular sovereignty in KS and NB
Violence soon emerged in “Bleeding Kansas”
The Caning of Charles
Why did this happen?
Charles Sumner criticized slavery and its
supporters (Andrew Butler)
Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston
Brooks took exception to Sumner’s speech
Possible multiple-choice and short answer
Example of breaking down of trust
between leaders
Demonstrates tensions between North and
Helped inspire violent abolitionism (John
Southern Chivalry – Argument versus Club’
The Election of 1860
What do we notice?
Lincoln won, without carrying a single
southern state
Democratic Party was split along
sectional lines: North - Douglas, South
- Breckinridge
Multiple-Choice and Short Answer tips:
Lincoln’s campaigned on a Free-soil
platform - Nonextension of slavery
Impact of Election?
Southern states began to secede
from the Union
Electoral map of the
Election of 1860
Lincoln’s Letter to Horace
Greeley, April 22, 1862
Message of the excerpt?
Lincoln, in the beginning,
sought to preserve the union
at all costs
Multiple-choice and short
answer tips:
How Lincoln’s war goals
changed as time elapsed
Proclamation, Gettysburg
“I would save the Union. I would
save it the shortest way under the
Constitution. The sooner the
national authority can be restored;
the nearer the Union will be "the
Union as it was." If there be those
who would not save the Union,
unless they could at the same time
save slavery, I do not agree with
them. If there be those who would
not save the Union unless they
could at the same time destroy
slavery, I do not agree with them.
My paramount object in this struggle
is to save the Union, and is not
either to save or to destroy slavery.”
Reconstruction: 15th
What do we notice?
African American males are lining up to
Military official - impact of Emancipation
Implications of the cartoon?
Black suffrage is seen as positive
Multiple-choice and short answer question
Southern resistance to 15th amendment
Impacts of the amendment on the
Women’s Rights groups
The First Vote, 1867
Reconstruction: Resistance
to Civil Rights
What do we notice?
KKK and White League are joining hands
“Worse than slavery”
Implications of cartoon?
KKK, White League, and other organizations
terrorized African Americans
Would use violence to meet their goals
Multiple-choice and short answer tips:
Organizations were formed to resist the 13 15 amendments
Southern resistance to Radical Republicans
and Reconstruction was strong
Now It’s Your Turn…
On the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all
persons held as slaves within any State in rebellion against the United States, shall be forever free. . .
Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested
as Commander- in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States. . .do order and designate [appoint]
the following States as being in rebellion:
Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina,
and Virginia.
And I hereby call upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in
necessary self-defense; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully
for reasonable wages.
And I further declare and make known, that such persons will be received into the armed service of the
United States.
And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military
necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God.
By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN