Health and Movement in Young Children: ‘Fundamental Movement Skills’ Rachael Jefferson-Buchanan, BEd Hons, MA Senior Lecturer in PE, Dance, Education Studies & Primary Professional Practice email@example.com Learning Outcomes: Education Studies Level 6 Module entitled ‘Health and Movement in Young Children’ By the end of the module you will have: 1. Acquired knowledge and understanding of the development of health and movement in young children. 2. Critically evaluated a key educational innovation in Western Australia: Fundamental Movement Skills. 3. Understood the relationship between the health agenda and Physical Education in UK primary schools. 4. Reflected upon your own learning about and experience of health and movement within education. 5. Utilised appropriate methodologies and resources to work independently, researching a study on an aspect of children’s development in relation to health and movement. Learning Outcomes of this PowerPoint • To introduce the module themes, approaches and programme. • To consider health and movement, and the impact of intervention in these domains during early childhood. • To review various government initiatives that focus on health. • To introduce the programme Fundamental Movement Skills. • To encourage reflection on the implications of all of this for teacher training in primary physical education. Reflection Activity for Students Individually: write brief answers to the following questions: 1. Why did you choose this module? 2. Why are you interested in learning about health and movement in young children? 3. What do you want to learn by the end of this module? Share your ‘answers’ with a partner. What is ‘Health’? Reflection Activity • Mind-map in small groups. • Plenary. What do Others say? • Early definitions of health: absence of disease. • WHO definition (1948) introduced the three aspects of health: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”. • Health as a dynamic state (WHO, 1984): “…the extent to which an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to realise aspirations and satisfy needs; and on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities”. Health in your own Back Yard: Practical Activity Encourage students to line up from one side of the room to the other according to their levels of boredom, stress… (see suggested questions below). • How are you feeling today? ...stressed, bored, happy, angry, sad, fed up, relaxed, have a physical ailment, bursting with energy…? • How do you think our own children or a class of children in school would respond to these types of ‘health’ questions? • Various ‘revealing’ health questions: do you have children? Do you have a garden? Do you exercise regularly? Do you sleep well? Do you take time for yourself? Do you have a pet? Young Children’s Health and Well-Being • “The true wealth of a nation can be measured by the health of its youngest citizens, and in the twenty-first century children’s health is still largely determined by social, environmental and economic factors” (UNICEF, 2001 in Underdown, 2007, p. 1). • UNICEF’S 2007 report: six dimensions were taken to measure the well-being of children (material well-being, health and safety, education, peer and family relationships, behaviours and risks, young people’s own subjective sense of well-being). The UK is apparently the worst place for children to grow up in the western world! The “Vital, Vulnerable Years” of Childhood • UNICEF report (2007) refers to childhood as the “vital, vulnerable years”. • Early childhood is a critical period in which the brain and body develop at phenomenal rates; the health and wellbeing of the young child is therefore paramount. • The decline in children’s fitness levels and the high prevalence of childhood obesity are currently ‘hot topics’ in the UK education system and society at large. Government Health Initiatives: The National Healthy Schools Programme • • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. The NHSP (October 1999): http://audit.healthyschools.gov.uk/Themes/default.aspx “An exciting long-term initiative that promotes the link between good health, behaviour and achievement”. Funded by DCSF and DH. Over 10’000 schools involved. The Government vision - half of all schools will be healthy schools by 2006, with the rest working towards healthy school status by 2009. Whole-school approach, whole school community. ‘National Healthy School status’ is awarded for evidence of four core themes: Personal, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) education including Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) and drugs education; Healthy eating; Physical activity; Emotional health and well-being, including bullying. Government Health Initiatives: Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools • • • i. ii. iii. iv. v. http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthyliving/ Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools (September 2004) is linked with the NHSP – offers options and ideas on how schools or early years settings might develop a healthy environment. Five key objectives are: To promote a school ethos and environment which encourages a healthy lifestyle. To use the full capacity and flexibility of the Curriculum to achieve a healthy lifestyle. To ensure the food and drink available across the school day reinforces the healthy lifestyle message. To provide high quality Physical Education and School Sport and promote Physical Activity as part of a lifelong healthy lifestyle. To promote an understanding of the full range of issues and behaviours which impact upon lifelong health (p. 5). Government Health Initiatives: Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Young People • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. • http://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/PH17 (January 2009). Recommendations for local practitioners, local organisations, local strategic planning, high level policy and strategy, national policy. Key themes: Promoting the benefits of physical activity and encouraging participation. Ensuring high-level strategic policy planning for children and young people supports the physical activity agenda. Consultation with, and the active involvement of, children and young people. The planning and provision of spaces, facilities and opportunities. The need for a skilled workforce. Promoting physically active and sustainable travel. Refers to opportunities for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (60 minutes per day). Change4Life (2009) • http://www.nhs.uk/change4life/Pages/Default.aspx • “These days, 'modern life' can mean that we're a lot less active. With so many opportunities to watch TV or play computer games, and with so much convenience and fast food available, we don't move about as much, or eat as well as we used to. Which means that 9 out of 10 kids today could grow up with dangerous amounts of fat in their bodies. This can cause life-threatening diseases like cancer, type 2 diabetes and heart disease - so it’s really important that we do something about it”. • “…all of us need to make small changes to eat well, move more, and live longer”. • ‘Up and about’, ‘60 active minutes’, ‘5 a day’, ‘meal time’, ‘snack check’, ‘me sized meals’, ‘cut back fat’, ‘sugar swaps’. Government Health Initiatives: The National PESSCL Strategy & The PE & Sport Strategy for Young People • http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/teachingandlearning/subjects/pe/nationalstrategy/ • The National PE, School Sport and Club Links Strategy was launched in October 2002 (led by DCSF & DCMS). Over £1.5 billion has been invested in physical education and school sport through a national structure which enables more children and young people to take part in a wider range of sports for more time. Its overall objective is to enhance the take-up of sporting opportunities by 5 to 16-year-olds. The ambitious target was to increase the percentage of schoolchildren who spend a minimum of two hours a week on high-quality PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum to 75 per cent by 2006 and 85 per cent by 2008. Both targets have already been beaten. http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/_doc/12416/PE%20and%20Sport%20Strate gy%20leaflet%202008.pdf ‘PE & Sport Strategy for Young People’ - aim is to create a new '5 hour offer' for all 5-16 year olds, continuing to increase the number of 5-16 year olds taking part in at least two hours high quality PE and sport at school each week, and create new opportunities for them to participate in a further three hours each week of sporting activity, through school, voluntary and community providers. • • • • Government Health Initiatives: Every Child Matters (2003) • http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/everychildmatters/ • Green Paper: government’s proposal for reforming the delivery of services for children, young people, and families. Protect children at risk from harm and neglect, and support all children to develop their potential. Five outcomes: Be healthy Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well-being • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • BE HEALTHY: physically healthy, mentally and emotionally healthy, sexually healthy, healthy lifestyles, choose not to take illegal drugs, parents, carers and families promote healthy choices. Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL), 2005 http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/primary/publications/banda/seal/ 1 - new beginnings 2 - getting on & falling out 7 Themes 3 - say no to bullying 4 - going for goals 5 - good to be me 6 - relationships 7 - changes self-awareness motivation managing feelings empathy Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning social skills Government Health Initiatives: Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier • http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/ PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4094550 • Public Health White Paper (November 2004). • Sets out the key principles for supporting the public to make healthier and more informed choices in regards to their health. • The Government will provide information and practical support to get people motivated and improve emotional wellbeing and access to services so that healthy choices are easier to make. • Section 3: Children and Young People - Starting on the Right Path: “The components of good health will be a core part of children's experience in schools through a coordinated 'whole school' approach to health - in lessons, sport, provision of food, personal advice and support, and travel arrangements”. The UK Primary Education and Physical Education Scene • Shifting aims, historical and socio-political changes during the last 140 years of primary education. • Impact on policy and practices in primary physical education. • Marginalisation of primary physical education in the National Curriculum (now a foundation subject) and at Initial Teacher Education level (national average is 6 hours of physical education training). • Sports coaches leading physical education in many primary schools across the UK as physical education is ‘sold’ and teachers gain PPA time. • Government interest in health and obesity crisis has led to claims there is a link between physical education and health. • Nationwide development of movement programmes and initiatives. Brief History of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) 1992 1994 1997 2001–2 2002 2003 Senate Standing Committee – Review of Physical and Sport Education in Western Australia (WA). Review of Physical Activity in WA schools. Development of initial FMS resource. Redevelopment of the FMS resource. FMS resource and professional development available in WA. FMS resource and professional development available internationally. What are FMS? They are movement patterns that involve different body parts such as the legs, arms, head and trunk, e.g. running, skipping, throwing i.e. foundation movements or precursor patterns to more specialised, complex skills used in games, sports, dance, gymnastics and physical recreation activities. Aims of the FMS Resource i. ii. The Resource supports early childhood teachers, assistants, workers and community helpers in designing learning and teaching programmes that incorporate the development of children’s fundamental movement skills. The Resource emphasises the importance of integration and valuing the social, emotional, linguistic, creative, spiritual and cognitive needs of children as well as their movement skills. FMS Six Key Understandings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FMS are important in the development of the ‘whole child’. FMS, like all learning, is best supported when the school, family and community work together. FMS can be embedded in everyday classroom activities. FMS can be learned through play. Movement skill development is age related not age dependent. Early childhood is the optimal time to teach and learn FMS. FMS all through the school day • “FMS can be embedded in everyday classroom activities” (key understanding no. 3). • “Physical activity should be an intrinsic and integral part of the school program” (FMS Book 1, p. 19). • “FMS activities are ideal as short, transition activities from one experience to another or one space to another, to increase concentrations and energy levels, as short ‘timefillers’ between activities or at the end of the day” (FMS Book 1, p. 60). • Cf. ‘Change4Life’ campaign in which 60 active minutes are the aim. • Need for primary teachers to make their lessons more active throughout the school day. • FMS on Teachers TV: www.teachers.tv/video/31183 FMS Learning, Teaching and Assessment Cycle Identify children’s interests, strengths and needs Choose focus skill(s) and identify possible learning outcomes Assess each child’s level of FMS achievement Plan and implement appropriate learning experiences Continue to assess each child’s level of FMS achievement Share the information gathered FMS Book 1: Learning Teaching and Assessment • About the Resource. • FMS – Overview, Myths, Key Understandings. • Learning, Teaching and Assessing FMS – planning cycle, children with movement difficulties. • Putting It All Together – planning activity sessions, case stories. • Appendices – glossary, games/activities, other resources, blank planning sheets. FMS Book 2: The Tools For Learning, Teaching And Assessment Tools 1 - FMS Descriptions – 22 skills Tools 2 - Assessment Strategies Tools 3 - Learning Experiences Tools 4 - Sharing Information Tools 5 – Stay in Step Screening Test (Developmental Coordination Disorder) FMS CD: “Making The Right Moves” Shows children performing in a smooth and coordinated way as well as children yet to master the skill • • • • • • • Sprint run Hop Jump for Distance Overhand throw Catch Lofted Kick Two-handed strike The 22 FMS in their Categories Body Management Skills • Balance on One Foot • Line or Beam Walk • Climb • Forward Roll Locomotor Skills • Sprint Run • Hop • Jump for Distance • Jump for Height • Skip • Gallop • Side Gallop • Dodge • Continuous Leap Object Control Skills • Catch • Overhand Throw • Underhand Throw • Chest Pass • Kick • Punt Kick • Two-Handed Strike • Hand Dribble • Foot Dribble Discussion Points for Teacher-Trainers… How many hours of physical education training do you have with primary generalist students in your PGCE or BEd programmes? Do you have movement programmes as an integral part of your physical education training or continuous professional development (CPD)? e.g. Fundamental Movement Skills, Developmental Movement Play, Basic Moves, TOP Programmes, Leap into Life, Multi-Skills, Sherborne Developmental Movement, Take 10, Huff and Puff, Brain Gym, SAQ… If you offer training in certain movement programmes, how do you think the trainees’/teachers’ pedagogy in physical education is affected? Could movement programmes such as these provide a solution to some of the ‘problems’ in primary physical education, or are they just sticking plasters? How might the Primary Review affect your current physical education programmes and do you think we will need movement programmes such as FMS less or more in the future? What are the implications of all of this for primary physical education at ITE level and in terms of CPD?