Science and PE in the Early Years

Health and Movement in
Young Children:
‘Fundamental Movement Skills’
Rachael Jefferson-Buchanan, BEd Hons, MA
Senior Lecturer in PE, Dance, Education Studies
& Primary Professional Practice
Learning Outcomes:
Education Studies Level 6 Module entitled
‘Health and Movement in Young Children’
By the end of the module you will have:
1. Acquired knowledge and understanding of the
development of health and movement in young children.
2. Critically evaluated a key educational innovation in
Western Australia: Fundamental Movement Skills.
3. Understood the relationship between the health agenda
and Physical Education in UK primary schools.
4. Reflected upon your own learning about and experience of
health and movement within education.
5. Utilised appropriate methodologies and resources to work
independently, researching a study on an aspect of
children’s development in relation to health and movement.
Learning Outcomes
of this PowerPoint
• To introduce the module themes, approaches and
• To consider health and movement, and the impact of
intervention in these domains during early childhood.
• To review various government initiatives that focus on
• To introduce the programme Fundamental Movement
• To encourage reflection on the implications of all of this
for teacher training in primary physical education.
Reflection Activity for Students
 Individually: write brief answers to the following
1. Why did you choose this module?
2. Why are you interested in learning about
health and movement in young children?
3. What do you want to learn by the end of
this module?
 Share your ‘answers’ with a partner.
What is ‘Health’?
Reflection Activity
• Mind-map in small groups.
• Plenary.
What do Others say?
• Early definitions of health: absence of disease.
• WHO definition (1948) introduced the three aspects of
health: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental,
and social well-being, and not merely the absence of
disease and infirmity”.
• Health as a dynamic state (WHO, 1984): “…the extent to
which an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to
realise aspirations and satisfy needs; and on the other
hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is,
therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the
objective of living; it is a positive concept emphasising
social and personal resources, as well as physical
Health in your own Back Yard:
Practical Activity
 Encourage students to line up from one side of the room to the
other according to their levels of boredom, stress… (see
suggested questions below).
• How are you feeling today? ...stressed, bored, happy, angry,
sad, fed up, relaxed, have a physical ailment, bursting with
• How do you think our own children or a class of children in
school would respond to these types of ‘health’ questions?
• Various ‘revealing’ health questions: do you have children? Do
you have a garden? Do you exercise regularly? Do you sleep
well? Do you take time for yourself? Do you have a pet?
Young Children’s
Health and Well-Being
• “The true wealth of a nation can be measured by the
health of its youngest citizens, and in the twenty-first
century children’s health is still largely determined by
social, environmental and economic factors” (UNICEF,
2001 in Underdown, 2007, p. 1).
• UNICEF’S 2007 report: six dimensions were taken to
measure the well-being of children (material well-being,
health and safety, education, peer and family
relationships, behaviours and risks, young people’s own
subjective sense of well-being). The UK is apparently the
worst place for children to grow up in the western world!
The “Vital, Vulnerable
Years” of Childhood
• UNICEF report (2007) refers to childhood as the
“vital, vulnerable years”.
• Early childhood is a critical period in which the
brain and body develop at phenomenal rates;
the health and wellbeing of the young child is
therefore paramount.
• The decline in children’s fitness levels and the
high prevalence of childhood obesity are
currently ‘hot topics’ in the UK education system
and society at large.
Government Health Initiatives:
The National Healthy Schools Programme
The NHSP (October 1999):
“An exciting long-term initiative that promotes the link between good
health, behaviour and achievement”.
Funded by DCSF and DH. Over 10’000 schools involved.
The Government vision - half of all schools will be healthy schools by
2006, with the rest working towards healthy school status by 2009.
Whole-school approach, whole school community. ‘National Healthy
School status’ is awarded for evidence of four core themes:
Personal, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) education including
Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) and drugs education;
Healthy eating;
Physical activity;
Emotional health and well-being, including bullying.
Government Health Initiatives:
Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools
Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools (September 2004) is linked with the
NHSP – offers options and ideas on how schools or early years settings
might develop a healthy environment.
Five key objectives are:
To promote a school ethos and environment which encourages a
healthy lifestyle.
To use the full capacity and flexibility of the Curriculum to achieve a
healthy lifestyle.
To ensure the food and drink available across the school day reinforces
the healthy lifestyle message.
To provide high quality Physical Education and School Sport and
promote Physical Activity as part of a lifelong healthy lifestyle.
To promote an understanding of the full range of issues and behaviours
which impact upon lifelong health (p. 5).
Government Health Initiatives:
Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Young People
• (January 2009).
Recommendations for local practitioners, local organisations, local
strategic planning, high level policy and strategy, national policy.
Key themes:
Promoting the benefits of physical activity and encouraging participation.
Ensuring high-level strategic policy planning for children and young
people supports the physical activity agenda.
Consultation with, and the active involvement of, children and young
The planning and provision of spaces, facilities and opportunities.
The need for a skilled workforce.
Promoting physically active and sustainable travel.
Refers to opportunities for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity
(60 minutes per day).
Change4Life (2009)
• “These days, 'modern life' can mean that we're a lot less
active. With so many opportunities to watch TV or play
computer games, and with so much convenience and fast
food available, we don't move about as much, or eat as well
as we used to. Which means that 9 out of 10 kids today could
grow up with dangerous amounts of fat in their bodies. This
can cause life-threatening diseases like cancer, type 2
diabetes and heart disease - so it’s really important that we do
something about it”.
• “…all of us need to make small changes to eat well, move
more, and live longer”.
• ‘Up and about’, ‘60 active minutes’, ‘5 a day’, ‘meal time’,
‘snack check’, ‘me sized meals’, ‘cut back fat’, ‘sugar swaps’.
Government Health Initiatives:
The National PESSCL Strategy &
The PE & Sport Strategy for Young People
The National PE, School Sport and Club Links Strategy was launched in
October 2002 (led by DCSF & DCMS).
Over £1.5 billion has been invested in physical education and school
sport through a national structure which enables more children and young
people to take part in a wider range of sports for more time.
Its overall objective is to enhance the take-up of sporting opportunities by
5 to 16-year-olds. The ambitious target was to increase the percentage of
schoolchildren who spend a minimum of two hours a week on high-quality
PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum to 75 per cent by
2006 and 85 per cent by 2008. Both targets have already been beaten.
‘PE & Sport Strategy for Young People’ - aim is to create a new '5 hour
offer' for all 5-16 year olds, continuing to increase the number of 5-16 year
olds taking part in at least two hours high quality PE and sport at school
each week, and create new opportunities for them to participate in a
further three hours each week of sporting activity, through school,
voluntary and community providers.
Government Health Initiatives:
Every Child Matters (2003)
Green Paper: government’s proposal for reforming the delivery of
services for children, young people, and families.
Protect children at risk from harm and neglect, and support all
children to develop their potential.
Five outcomes:
Be healthy
Stay safe
Enjoy and achieve
Make a positive contribution
Achieve economic well-being
BE HEALTHY: physically healthy, mentally and emotionally healthy,
sexually healthy, healthy lifestyles, choose not to take illegal drugs,
parents, carers and families promote healthy choices.
Social and Emotional
Aspects of Learning (SEAL), 2005
1 - new beginnings
2 - getting on & falling out
7 Themes
3 - say no to bullying
4 - going for goals
5 - good to be me
6 - relationships
7 - changes
managing feelings
Social and
Aspects of
social skills
Government Health Initiatives:
Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier
• Public Health White Paper (November 2004).
• Sets out the key principles for supporting the public to make
healthier and more informed choices in regards to their health.
• The Government will provide information and practical support
to get people motivated and improve emotional wellbeing and
access to services so that healthy choices are easier to make.
• Section 3: Children and Young People - Starting on the Right
Path: “The components of good health will be a core part of
children's experience in schools through a coordinated 'whole
school' approach to health - in lessons, sport, provision of
food, personal advice and support, and travel arrangements”.
The UK Primary Education
and Physical Education Scene
• Shifting aims, historical and socio-political changes during the last
140 years of primary education.
• Impact on policy and practices in primary physical education.
• Marginalisation of primary physical education in the National
Curriculum (now a foundation subject) and at Initial Teacher
Education level (national average is 6 hours of physical education
• Sports coaches leading physical education in many primary schools
across the UK as physical education is ‘sold’ and teachers gain PPA
• Government interest in health and obesity crisis has led to claims
there is a link between physical education and health.
• Nationwide development of movement programmes and initiatives.
Brief History of
Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS)
Senate Standing Committee – Review
of Physical and Sport Education in
Western Australia (WA).
Review of Physical Activity in WA schools.
Development of initial FMS resource.
Redevelopment of the FMS resource.
FMS resource and professional
development available in WA.
FMS resource and professional
development available internationally.
What are FMS?
They are movement patterns that involve
different body parts such as the legs, arms,
head and trunk, e.g. running, skipping, throwing
i.e. foundation movements or precursor
patterns to more specialised, complex skills
used in games, sports, dance, gymnastics and
physical recreation activities.
Aims of the FMS Resource
The Resource supports early childhood teachers,
assistants, workers and community helpers in
designing learning and teaching programmes that
incorporate the development of children’s fundamental
movement skills.
The Resource emphasises the importance of
integration and valuing the social, emotional, linguistic,
creative, spiritual and cognitive needs of children as
well as their movement skills.
FMS Six Key Understandings
FMS are important in the development of the ‘whole
FMS, like all learning, is best supported when the
school, family and community work together.
FMS can be embedded in everyday classroom
FMS can be learned through play.
Movement skill development is age related not age
Early childhood is the optimal time to teach and learn
FMS all through the school day
• “FMS can be embedded in everyday classroom activities”
(key understanding no. 3).
• “Physical activity should be an intrinsic and integral part of
the school program” (FMS Book 1, p. 19).
• “FMS activities are ideal as short, transition activities from
one experience to another or one space to another, to
increase concentrations and energy levels, as short ‘timefillers’ between activities or at the end of the day” (FMS Book
1, p. 60).
• Cf. ‘Change4Life’ campaign in which 60 active minutes are
the aim.
• Need for primary teachers to make their lessons more active
throughout the school day.
• FMS on Teachers TV:
FMS Learning, Teaching and
Assessment Cycle
Identify children’s interests, strengths and needs
Choose focus skill(s) and identify possible learning outcomes
Assess each child’s level of FMS achievement
Plan and implement appropriate learning experiences
Continue to assess each child’s level of FMS achievement
Share the information gathered
FMS Book 1: Learning Teaching
and Assessment
• About the Resource.
• FMS – Overview, Myths, Key
• Learning, Teaching and Assessing FMS –
planning cycle, children with movement
• Putting It All Together – planning activity
sessions, case stories.
• Appendices – glossary, games/activities,
other resources, blank planning sheets.
FMS Book 2: The Tools For Learning,
Teaching And Assessment
Tools 1 - FMS Descriptions – 22 skills
Tools 2 - Assessment Strategies
Tools 3 - Learning Experiences
Tools 4 - Sharing Information
Tools 5 – Stay in Step Screening Test
(Developmental Coordination Disorder)
“Making The Right Moves”
Shows children performing in a smooth and coordinated
way as well as children yet to master the skill
Sprint run
Jump for Distance
Overhand throw
Lofted Kick
Two-handed strike
The 22 FMS in their Categories
Body Management
• Balance on One
• Line or Beam Walk
• Climb
• Forward Roll
Locomotor Skills
• Sprint Run
• Hop
• Jump for Distance
• Jump for Height
• Skip
• Gallop
• Side Gallop
• Dodge
• Continuous Leap
Object Control Skills
• Catch
• Overhand Throw
• Underhand Throw
• Chest Pass
• Kick
• Punt Kick
• Two-Handed Strike
• Hand Dribble
• Foot Dribble
Discussion Points for
 How many hours of physical education training do you have with primary
generalist students in your PGCE or BEd programmes?
 Do you have movement programmes as an integral part of your physical
education training or continuous professional development (CPD)? e.g.
Fundamental Movement Skills, Developmental Movement Play, Basic
Moves, TOP Programmes, Leap into Life, Multi-Skills, Sherborne
Developmental Movement, Take 10, Huff and Puff, Brain Gym, SAQ…
 If you offer training in certain movement programmes, how do you think
the trainees’/teachers’ pedagogy in physical education is affected?
 Could movement programmes such as these provide a solution to some
of the ‘problems’ in primary physical education, or are they just sticking
 How might the Primary Review affect your current physical education
programmes and do you think we will need movement programmes such
as FMS less or more in the future?
 What are the implications of all of this for primary physical education at
ITE level and in terms of CPD?