Creating an Effective Presentation

Creating an Effective
General Information
 You are now ready to begin work on the presentation of your
 Unlike a written paper, giving a presentation has a built-in
audience, those sitting right in front of you.
 You will know immediately if your audience is responsive by
their expressions and their body language.
You will know whether they are paying attention or losing interest.
You will see them actively listening or passively falling asleep.
 Some of the most effective planning you can do for a
presentation is to be aware of how much you can say, what
you might show in a visual, and how to organize a tentative
 You will not be reading your script, but it will be a reminder
for the important parts of your presentation.
Audience Analysis
 Audience Awareness
 At this point, you should identify who might be interested in
the information you gather and interpret.
 That is, who would most likely be affected by your topic?
 It is a good idea to select an audience with which you are very
familiar, such as a group from your workplace or a group who
is involved in this particular issue, or the general public.
Within these larger categories, you should identify a smaller group
who will be relatively easy to access.
Know Who You’re Talking To
Audience Analysis (cont.)
How To Determine Your Audience Interest
In order to prepare a speech that will interest a particular audience, you need to describe your audience,
which may differ from the audience of your research paper.
To make this task as authentic as possible, invite someone to listen to your presentation. If
you are not able to invite someone, imagine and plan concretely about who you might want
to present your research to.
Just keep in mind that you will need to have at least one adult in your audience for actual
Questions to Consider:
Is this audience likely to be interested in your topic?
How might you increase their interest?
What does your audience already know about this topic?
What else would you like them to learn from you?
What concepts or key terms will need to be explained?
In what ways might your audience disagree with you?
What questions might your audience ask after your presentation?
After you have answered these questions about your intended audience, think of a different
audience to whom you might present.
How would your responses to these questions differ for this second audience?
Checklist for Audience Analysis
 Have you noted the following directions: “In order to prepare a speech that will
interest a particular audience, you need to describe your audience, which may differ
from the audience of your research paper?”
Have you kept in mind that you can prepare your presentation for an “ideal”
audience--not necessarily for the audience that you will actually have while
performing your presentation?
Have you provided a description of your audience and the level of their expertise for
the presentation?
Have you described your audience's attitudes, your tone, level of approach, style and
need for formality/informality in regard to them?
Have you provided an explanation of your desired audience response?
Have you provided an explanation of your audience expectations regarding
demeanor, approach, and level of formality in your presentation?
Can you name an alternative audience that might be interested in your
Can you predict what differences you would make between the two audiences you
might present to--the actual audience and an alternative audience?
Does your work contain any incomplete sentences and any mechanical and
grammatical errors?
Presentation Outline
 To continue preparation for your presentation you
will need an outline or script that you will refer to as
you speak.
This outline or plan will have some cues for you embedded in
the margins or some large-typed words to remind you what to
say at a certain point.
You will give yourself cues to turn to the audience to
emphasize a certain point or to ask them if they are clear on a
certain complex concept.
In other words, the script tells you exactly what to do when you
going to face an audience, with all the possible anxious
moments that might accompany you.
Differences with Paper Outline
 It is not the same as your research paper outline because it will need
to include more detail to prompt you to important points.
It should contain key words or phrases to refresh your memory as
well as essential statistics and quotations that you do not want to
risk forgetting.
Remember that if your notes are too detailed, you will have
difficulty maintaining eye contact with your audience, so you
should make your outline as brief as possible to prevent
yourself from reading rather than presenting to your
You should also give yourself cues for delivering the presentation—
when to speak more softly or more slowly, when to pause, etc.
Keep in mind that your presentation should be within the range of
time you are required to fill.
What To Do
 Include 3-4 main points with supporting details,
examples or facts, and memory cues.
 Remember, you will still have in-text citations and
an accompanying reference list since presentation,
like paper, is based upon research (depending on
 Use either a Roman numeral or Arabic number
 Type your presentation outline into a word
processing program and save it as an acceptable file
(or put it on note cards)
Creating the Presentation Outline
 To create your script, follow these steps:
1. Start by making a list of the key points of your research paper. Once
you have a list, think about the best order for presenting your key
2. Next, plan your introduction.
How will you capture your audience’s attention at the start?
How will you introduce your topic?
How will you convince your audience this is an important
topic for them?
How will you introduce your main idea or thesis, and how
will you forecast the direction of the rest of your speech?
Creating the Presentation Outline (cont.)
3. Then work on the body of your presentation.
What will be the main points of your presentation?
How will you organize the body of your presentation?
What theories or research will you present in this section of
your presentation?
4. Think about how you might conclude.
Remember, simply summarizing what you’d said can be
To end on a strong note, think of an idea, image, or example
that your listeners will be able to remember.
This idea, image, or example should bring them to think
about your main point after your speech has concluded.
Creating a Presentation Outline (cont.)
 Then, don’t forget about:
5. Have you included three possible questions your
audience might ask during your presentation?
6. Have you attached a reference list of your resources?
7. Have you indicated memory cues on your script, to
remind you of times to look at your audience, point to
your chart, or take a step forward?
Memory Cues
 One big issue that always comes up deals with creating
memory cues.
 For the memory cues, these are informal reminders to
yourself in your script, so things like, "look at the graph"
or "look at the audience" or "ask audience questions."
 Consider putting the cues in boldface so they stand
 They are "stage directions," essentially: notes to yourself
that will not be read aloud.
They won't need to be cited.
What will need to be cited is any information you have used to
develop your ideas--just like your paper outline. Be sure to plug in intext citations and have a corresponding reference list (if required).
Some Additional Resources
 The University of Wisconsin/Madison has some tips
for presentation effectiveness at
 There are suggestions for a script and even an
example of how to give an ineffective presentation.
 Here is a sample presentation script from the
University of Washington at
The Visual Aid
 Keep in mind that whatever visual support you choose, it
should be informative and not just decorative.
 Use PowerPoint! PowerPoint may seem like a good solution
for a visual aid, but if you’re trying to project it on video, it
won’t work very well
Why? PowerPoint slides require the use of a laptop projector or school
―Smart Board‖ in order to be seen on video.
If you have these, great; if not, avoid PowerPoint.
 Do Use the following: charts, graphs, posters, and
photos that can be documented in appropriate style (must be
These options may seem low-tech, but they show up best on film (if
using video).
Do not use a prop as your only visual aid; if you want to include a
physical prop, you must also include another visual aid of the type listed
Additional Tips/Suggestions for Visual Aid
 Observe the ‘6 by 6’ rule which means no more than
six lines, no more than six words per line.
Always proofread--typos can be distracting.
Use high contrasting colors --dark text on a light
background is best.
Avoid using distorted enlarged visuals.
Avoid visual elements which might distract from the
presentation of your content. Presentations that
include a lot of special effects but little content are
ultimately ineffective.
Additional Resources to Examine
 Media at Purdue University is an actual course on
how to use visuals effectively at
 A set of tips from the University of Newcastle gives
you some important pointers for visuals, posters and
presentation skills at
Checklist for Outlining & Visual Aids
Have you created a clear outline for your presentation that contains four main points to support your
Does your outline format consist of a topic sentence with keywords?
Have you provided an introduction to your presentation that captures the audience's attention?
Have you written your thesis statement within the presentation script?
Does your outline contain enough details for each main point but not every detail that your paper
Have you provided a conclusion that provides an effective closing to your presentation?
Does your outline contain memory cues?
Have you provided a list of more than three relevant potential questions that the audience may ask
during the presentation?
Have you proofread your outline for grammatical and mechanical errors?
Have you described your visual aid(s) and how it (they) support(s) the main points of your
Is/are your visual aid(s) easy to understand and have you provided a good explanation why you chose
to use the visual(s) and how it/they will be incorporated into your presentation?
Have you provided a citation(s) for the source of your visual aid(s)?
Have you decided how you will photograph and/or do screen shots in order to submit your visuals for
the assignment?
Have you checked all these assignments for grammar, appropriate style, punctuation, and all writing
Video/In-Person Presentation
 Presentation Delivery
 In order to deliver your presentation in a natural and engaging way, practice
is critical.
Keep in mind that you need to be conversational with your audience rather
than reading to them.
It is also important to practice your presentation so that it fits in a given time
Therefore, it is best to practice or rehearse as if you were doing the actual
presentation. The more you practice, the better you’ll perform.
It can be advantageous to use stories, narratives and examples to illustrate main
points of your presentation.
Remember to forecast what you are going to cover in your introduction.
Focus on your main points by incorporating your visual aids and using voice
Stop and make eye contact, and stand as you present. When it is appropriate,
use gestures to emphasize your points. Think about speaking clearly and
loud enough for your audience to hear everything you say. Finally,
summarize your main points and leave your audience with an image,
example or key idea to remind them of your thesis
Key Points
 Keep your presentation simple.
 You will be evaluated on body language and delivery,
as well as your presentation content.
 Maintain eye contact with the camera or audience.
 Don’t read your presentation—use note cards or cue
cards to help you remember main points.
What Your Video Should Look Like
 A simple approach is best. Aim your camera so that it
films you from the waist up, preferably with your
visual aid attached to the wall next to you.
 Make sure AHEAD OF TIME that your visual aid is
 Film in adequate light.
 Do not show the audience. Use a close-up of YOU
and the visual aid
Looking the Part
 You do not need to wear a suit or dress clothing for
the presentation
 Please wear something that you would wear to work
or to a restaurant.
 As long as your clothing is not distracting from the
presentation (like wearing a swimsuit!), you should
be fine.
 Consider the audience and venue, though: if this
presentation is formal, then you may need to dress
Elements of Your Presentation
 Start with your “attention-getter” and introduction.
Make sure your thesis is clear and main points are
 Present the body of your presentation and your
visual aid.
 End with your conclusion, which re-states your
thesis and main points.
 Ask the audience for questions and respond.
Verbally Citing Your Sources
 Your presentation outline contained in-text citations,
some of which you will want to mention during the
presentation itself.
 Include a verbal citation for all direct quotations,
statistics, and major examples.
 Generally you will not need to announce the date of
the publication, just the author/corporation/website
and the name of the article or study.
 And since you used outside information to create
your visual aid, announce the source there as well.
Time Requirements
 Practice, Practice, Practice!
 Suggestions:
 Spend the first few minutes on the material you planned on
your outline.
 Leave the last couple minutes for audience questions.
Choosing a Camera
 You should use a camera that records at the lowest
resolution possible while maintaining “decent” sound
and audio quality (which means you can be clearly seen &
heard, and visual aid is readable)
 Most students already own a camera they can use for the
 These are the best options, in order:
Web camera (costs around $30)
Audio/video feature on a still-shot digital camera
Disposable digital video camera (costs around $30)
Digital video camera
Tape-based video camera (will require a DVD transfer)
Preparing Your Camera
 First, set your camera at the lowest possible
 You might want to run the camera for 8 minutes to
see what file size is produced.
The file size of your video will determine how you submit it.
Recording Your Presentation
 Practice, Practice, Practice!
 Make sure you know ahead of time how long your
presentation will last.
 Be prepared to re-shoot the presentation if your
sound or audio is faulty, if you forget to include
audience questions, or if you run over the time
 Your audience member can be the “camera person.”
 You must be SEEN and HEARD at all times in the
Uploading Your Video: General Info
 Options
 Elluminate (can just utilize web cam and synchronous sharing
 YouTube (can provide a unique password so only you and
instructor can view it, or anyone you give info to)
 FaceTime (for students with iPhone or iPads)
 Skype
Uploading to YouTube
 Set up an account, then click on “upload.” You can
then browse and choose your correct video to upload.
Once uploaded, you will name your video.
 If you do not want others to view your presentation,
simply give it a nonsense name (like “lkjadfoolfj”)
and it will not appear in search results. You can also
use the “private” feature described on the site to
block your video from search results.
Uploading to Snapfish
 Click “Start here,” set up an account, and go to your
home page. On the right you will see an orange box—
Click on upload photos; you will then need to name
your album and follow the instructions. (You can
choose to have a free “home video” account for 1
month.) Your video must be in MPG format.
Use the “Any Video Converter” program at if you need to convert your file type.
Remember to discontinue your video account when your task
has passed so that you will not incur any charges in the future.
Video Recording Checklist
Have you provided a video-recorded presentation that is within appropriate time frame?
Have you used an attention-getting introduction in your presentation?
Have you previewed the main points of your presentation in your introduction?
Have you effectively discussed at least three main points in your presentation?
Have you provided details for your main points in the presentation?
Have you provided an effective conclusion to your presentation?
Have you incorporated an effective visual aid(s) in your presentation?
Have you responded to at least three audience questions?
Are you clear and speaking loud enough for your presentation to be clearly recorded?
Did you pace yourself throughout the presentation?
Did you use effective emphasis to enhance your presentation when discussing major points?
Did you use appropriate gestures and body language throughout the presentation?
Did you use appropriate eye contact throughout the presentation?
Did you plan ahead and procure a video camera to use for your presentation?
Did you ask a friend or family member to listen to your practice presentation?
Did you videotape your presentation with a friend present to handle the mechanical aspects so
you are not distracted?
 Did you compress your videotape, upload your presentation (to a site like YouTube or Snapfish
etc.) and send a link, username and password for your presentation?