# Sequential Design

```Sequential Design
Part II
Output
A(t+1)
=DA = AX + BX
B(t+1)
=DB = AX
Y = AX + BX
2-D State Table
Even Easier, State Diagrams:
Using State Diagrams
What about designing a state machine using J-K Flip Flops...
Given
this
state
table
Using J-K Flip Flops
JA = B
JB = X
KA = BX
KB = AX + AX
Recall
Sequential Circuit Design
• Obtain either the state diagram of the state table from the statement of the problem
• If only a state diagram is available from set 1, obtain the state table
• Assign binary codes to the states
• Derive the flip-flop input equations from the next-state entries in the encoded
state table
• Derive the output equations from the output entries in the state table
• Simplify the flip-flop input equations and output equations
• Draw the logic diagram with D flip-flops and combinational gates, as specified
by the flip-flop input equations and output equations
Mealy Machine
Output based on
state and present
input
s(t+1)
C1
x(t)
present
input
next
state
State Register
init
clk
s(t)
present
state
z(t)
C2
Moore Machine
Output base on
state only
s(t+1)
C1
x(t)
present
input
next
state
State Register
init
clk
z(t)
s(t)
present
state
C2
Example: A Sequence Recognizer
Let’s detect the sequence “1101” in a bit sequence
We need to “remember” what bits have passed by.
If the input is a ‘1’ then move to state B and the output
is a 0 (have not yet detected the “1101” sequence
Means first bit
was a ‘1’
If we are at state B (which means
that we have read a ‘1’ immediately
beforehand) and the next input is a ‘1’
then we are making our way towards
a successful “1101” read so move to state
C.
The next bit we would like to read along
our “1101” sequence is a ‘0’. So if
we read a 0, go to State D -- notice output is
still 0, we have not yet read the entire sequence.
After state D we have succeeded if a ‘1’
is read so we will proceed and the output
will now be ‘high’ or ‘1’
We set the output
‘high’ and go to
State B.
We don’t want to proceed to an E state, instead, if we
have detected “1101”, we have not only detected the bit
sequence but we also are on our way to detecting another
“1101” sequence. Consider “1101101”.
Two Sequences
Begins with
‘0’
Second bit is ‘0’
Third bit is a
‘1’ which
means we
“111” seq.
This puts us
waiting for a
‘0’
A ‘0’ is the last bit (“1100”) back to the beginning.
We must also fill in the “unsuccessful” states, ones in which
we have not read a “1101” sequence.
Designing with D Flip-Flops
Given the following:
A(t + 1) = DA(A,B,X) =  m(2,4,5,6)
B(t + 1) = DB(A,B,X) =  m(1,3,5,6)
Y(A,B,X) =  m(1,5)
Y(A,B,X) =  m(1,5)
A(t + 1) = DA(A,B,X) =  m(2,4,5,6)
B(t + 1) = DB(A,B,X) =  m(1,3,5,6)
Using k-maps to reduce the equations:
A(t + 1) = DA(A,B,X) =  m(2,4,5,6)
B(t + 1) = DB(A,B,X) =  m(1,3,5,6)
Y(A,B,X) =  m(1,5)
BX
BX
A
00
0
1
1
01
11
1
A
10
1
1
00
0
1
DA = AB + BX
01
1
1
11
1
10
1
DB = AX + BX + ABX
BX
A
00
0
1
01
1
1
11
10
Y = BX
Logic Diagram for Circuit with D Flip-Flops