Instructional Design Model ADDIE: Analysis and Design C. Candace Chou, Ph.D. University of St. Thomas email@example.com Analysis (Front-end Analysis) • Overview of system or process to gain understanding • Compile task Inventory (if needed) – Job List (if needed) – Job Description (if Needed) – Task Inventory (if Needed) • Analyze tasks for performance problems (task analysis) or perform needs analysis • Select tasks for training • Build performance measures • Select instructional setting • Estimate cost Task Analysis • A task is an action designed to contribute a specified end result to the accomplishment of an objective. It has an identifiable beginning and end that is measurable component of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. • Task example: adjust gears on a 10 speed bike. Task Statements • A task statement is composed of an action and a result (product). • Examples – Determines manual ladder type and size needed at incident scene. – “Determine” is the action while “identifying the correct ladder” is the result of the product. – Carries manual ladder from apparatus to incident scene. – “Carries” is the action and the “ladder being place at the scene” is the result of that action. • Sort the task actions into People, Data, and Things for clarity. Task v.s. Objectives • “Adjust gears on a 10 speed bicycle” is a task statement • Given a broken 10 speed bicycle and a tool kit, adjust gears. Bicycle must be operable.” is an objective. • “Practice good safety habits” is not a task, it cannot be measured. Task Inventory • The task inventory consists of all the tasks that a jobholder requires to perform the job to standards. Each and every task performed by the job incumbent must be listed on the task inventory. It provides vital information about the skills, knowledge, and abilities required to perform a job. • (Clark, 2000) Needs Analysis and Task Analysis • A needs analysis provides you with a complete understanding of the shortcomings of the system. While a task analysis looks strictly at the tasks performed on the job, a Needs Analysis looks not only at the tasks being performed, but also at other parts of the system that you might yield clues at what might be doe to improve it. Depending on your goals, you might perform one, both, or a hybrid of the two. • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat2.ht ml#taskinv Phases of Needs Assessment • • • • • Describe goals of current system Evaluate goal achievement Describe gaps Prioritize gaps Determine what needs are appropriate for instructional design • (Smith and Ragan, 2005) Context Analysis • • • • Managerial or supervisor support Physical aspects of the site Social aspect of the site Relevance of skills to workplace Context Analysis of Learning Environment • Compatibility of site with instructional requirements • Adaptability of site to simulate workplace • Adaptability of delivery approaches • Learning-site constraints affecting design and delivery Learner and Context Analysis • Entry behavior • Prior knowledge of topic area • Attitudes toward content and potential delivery system • Academic motivation (ARCS): Attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction (Keller, 1987) The Design Phase • • • • • Entry behaviors Learning Objectives Learning steps (performance steps) Performance test Structure and sequence program outline Goal Analysis • Step One: classify the goal statement according to the kind of learning that will occur. (The different categories of learning are referred to as domains of learning.) • Step Two: to identify and sequence the major steps required to perform the goal. • (Dick & Carey, 2001, p. 38) Goal Statement Examples • Given a list of cities, name the state of which each is the capital (verbal information) • Given a bank statement and a checkbook, balance the checkbook. (Intellectual skills) • Set up and operate a videocamera. (psychomotor skills) • Choose to make lifestyle decisions that reflect positive lifelong health concerns. (attitudes) • There are many ways to teach and to learn verbal information skill. Verbal information usually has only one answer for each question and one basic way to ask each question. • Intellectual skills involves problemsolving, including well-structured and illstructured problems. Most instructional design projects are in the domain of intellectual skills. • Psychomoter skills involve the coordination of mental and physical activity. • Attitudinal goal is set to have learners choose to do something. Attitudes are usually described as the tendency to make particular choices or decisions. Sample Instructional Goals and Learning Domain Domain ____ Goals 1. Determine the distance between Learning Domain A. Verbal Information two specified places on a state map. _____ 2. Putt a golf ball B. Intellectual skills _____ 3. Choose to maximize personal C. Psychomotor skills safety while staying in a hotel. _____ 4. Describe the five parts of a materials safety data sheet (MSDS) that are most important for job-site safety D. Attitudes Definition of Objectives • A learning objective is a statement of what the learners will be expected to do once they have completed a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. (Clark, 2000) Goals and Objectives • Goals describe a learning outcome in general. – Example, “the learner will successfully complete the supervisor course, before moving on to the leadership course.” • An objective is a specific statement of instructional intent which attempts to change knowledge, skills, or attitudes as a result of learning experience. – Example: “the learner will use Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs when deciding upon motivators. (Clark, 2000) Performance Objectives • A performance objective is a detailed description of what students will be able to do when they complete a unit of instruction. • Behavioral objective, performance objective and instructional objectives are used synonymously. The latter two are more popular terms. • It describes the kinds of knowledge, skills, or attitudes that the instructor will be attempting to produce in learners. Three Main Parts of A Learning Objective Tasks or observable action Conditions or Environment Standard Components of an Objective I • The first component describes the task, skill or behavior identified in the instructional analysis. This component contains both the observable action and the content or concept. – Example 1, “identify the location of a point on the scale in decimal form by estimating between twotenth divisions to the nearest hundredth.” – Example 2, “type a letter” or “lift a load” Components of an Objective II • The second component of an objective describes the conditions that will prevail while a learner carries out the task. • Example, “given a scale marked off in tenth.” Components of an Objective III • The third component describes the criteria or standard that will be used to evaluate learner performance. – Example, “report the reading to within +.01 units.” • Complete example:” Given a scale marked off in tenths, identify the location of a point on the scale in decimal form by estimating between two-tenth divisions to the nearest hundredth, and report the reading to within +.01 units.” Learning Objectives Example 2 • Write a customer reply letter with no spelling mistakes by using a word processor. • Observable action: • Measurable criteria: • Conditions of performance: Learning Objective Example 3 • Copy a table from a spreadsheet into a word processor document within 3 minutes without reference to the manual. • Observable action: • Measurable criteria: • Conditions of performance: Learning Objective Example 4 • After training, the worker will be able to load a dumptruck within 3 loads with a scooploader, in the hours of darkness, unless the work area is muddy. • Observable action: • Measurable criteria: • Conditions: Designing the Instruction: Sequencing • Sequencing is the efficient ordering of content in such a way as to help the learner achieve the objectives. • Questions to ponder – Can sequencing the content improve the learner’s understanding? – What strategies are available to help me sequence a unit? – When do I determine the sequencing of the content? – What are the benefits of using a sequencing scheme? Sequencing Techniques • Job Performance Order: The learning sequence is the same as the job sequence. • From Simple to Complex: Objectives may be sequenced in terms of increasing complexity. • Critical Sequence: Objects are ordered in terms of their relative importance. • Known to Unknown: Familiar topics are considered before unfamiliar ones. • Dependent Relationship: Mastery of one objective requires prior mastery of another. • Supportive relationship: Transfer of learning takes place from one objective to another, usually because common elements are included in each objective. These should be placed as close together as possible so that the maximum transfer of learning can take place. • Cause to Effect: Objectives are sequenced from cause to effect Tasks, Objectives and Learning Steps • A task analysis itemizes each discrete skill found in a job. • Each goal provides the basis for the terminal objective • The designer must then determine the prerequisite skills required for the task and make them into the enabling objectives. • Example: – Task: “Be familiar with personal computers and know how to use Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.” – Course Goal: “The learner will be able to operate a personal computer and use the three main software package.” (Clark, 2000, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/objectives.htm#exa mple1 ) Learning Steps • Objective: Given a cash register and at lest ten products, calculate the exact total for the purchase transaction • Steps: – Enter the sales price and the department key for each product – Repeat step one until all products have been entered. – After all items have been entered, press the subtotal key. – Press the Tax key. – Press the Total key. Types of Tests • Criterion Referenced Test: Evaluate the cognitive domain which include recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns and concepts. • Performance Test: Evaluate the psychomotor domain that involves physical movement, coordination, and use of other motor-skills. • Attitude Survey: Address the affective domain such as feeling, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivation, and attitudes. Written Tests • • • • • • • Multiple choices Open-ended question Checklist Two-way question: yes/no, true/false Multiple-choice question Ranking Scales Essay ISD Development Model: Design Phase recap • Analyze the task to determine the objective • Develop the learning objective fully and determine if it has any enabling objectives. If it does, then spell them out. • List the steps required to perform the objectives to standards. • Build a test instrument to determine if the learner can perform the steps that are required to reach the objective. • Construct courseware that will train the learners to perform the objective. You know the learners can perform the objective if they can mee the evaluation standards.