Instructional Design Model
ADDIE: Analysis and Design
C. Candace Chou, Ph.D.
University of St.
Analysis (Front-end Analysis)
• Overview of system or process to gain
• Compile task Inventory (if needed)
– Job List (if needed)
– Job Description (if Needed)
– Task Inventory (if Needed)
• Analyze tasks for performance problems (task
analysis) or perform needs analysis
• Select tasks for training
• Build performance measures
• Select instructional setting
• Estimate cost
Task Analysis
• A task is an action designed to
contribute a specified end result to the
accomplishment of an objective. It has
an identifiable beginning and end that is
measurable component of the duties
and responsibilities of a specific job.
• Task example: adjust gears on a 10 speed
Task Statements
• A task statement is composed of an action
and a result (product).
• Examples
– Determines manual ladder type and size needed
at incident scene.
– “Determine” is the action while “identifying the
correct ladder” is the result of the product.
– Carries manual ladder from apparatus to incident
– “Carries” is the action and the “ladder being place
at the scene” is the result of that action.
• Sort the task actions into People, Data, and
Things for clarity.
Task v.s. Objectives
• “Adjust gears on a 10 speed bicycle” is
a task statement
• Given a broken 10 speed bicycle and a
tool kit, adjust gears. Bicycle must be
operable.” is an objective.
• “Practice good safety habits” is not a
task, it cannot be measured.
Task Inventory
• The task inventory consists of all the tasks
that a jobholder requires to perform the job to
standards. Each and every task performed by
the job incumbent must be listed on the task
inventory. It provides vital information about
the skills, knowledge, and abilities required to
perform a job.
• (Clark, 2000)
Needs Analysis and Task Analysis
• A needs analysis provides you with a
complete understanding of the shortcomings
of the system. While a task analysis looks
strictly at the tasks performed on the job, a
Needs Analysis looks not only at the tasks
being performed, but also at other parts of
the system that you might yield clues at what
might be doe to improve it. Depending on
your goals, you might perform one, both, or a
hybrid of the two.
Phases of Needs Assessment
Describe goals of current system
Evaluate goal achievement
Describe gaps
Prioritize gaps
Determine what needs are appropriate
for instructional design
• (Smith and Ragan, 2005)
Context Analysis
Managerial or supervisor support
Physical aspects of the site
Social aspect of the site
Relevance of skills to workplace
Context Analysis of Learning
• Compatibility of site with instructional
• Adaptability of site to simulate
• Adaptability of delivery approaches
• Learning-site constraints affecting
design and delivery
Learner and Context Analysis
• Entry behavior
• Prior knowledge of topic area
• Attitudes toward content and potential
delivery system
• Academic motivation (ARCS): Attention,
relevance, confidence, and satisfaction
(Keller, 1987)
The Design Phase
Entry behaviors
Learning Objectives
Learning steps (performance steps)
Performance test
Structure and sequence program outline
Goal Analysis
• Step One: classify the goal statement
according to the kind of learning that will
occur. (The different categories of
learning are referred to as domains of
• Step Two: to identify and sequence the
major steps required to perform the
• (Dick & Carey, 2001, p. 38)
Goal Statement Examples
• Given a list of cities, name the state of which
each is the capital (verbal information)
• Given a bank statement and a checkbook,
balance the checkbook. (Intellectual skills)
• Set up and operate a videocamera.
(psychomotor skills)
• Choose to make lifestyle decisions that reflect
positive lifelong health concerns. (attitudes)
• There are many ways to teach and to
learn verbal information skill. Verbal
information usually has only one answer
for each question and one basic way to
ask each question.
• Intellectual skills involves problemsolving, including well-structured and illstructured problems. Most instructional
design projects are in the domain of
intellectual skills.
• Psychomoter skills involve the
coordination of mental and physical
• Attitudinal goal is set to have learners
choose to do something. Attitudes are
usually described as the tendency to
make particular choices or decisions.
Sample Instructional Goals and Learning Domain
1. Determine the distance between
Learning Domain
A. Verbal Information
two specified places on a state map.
_____ 2. Putt a golf ball
B. Intellectual skills
_____ 3. Choose to maximize personal
C. Psychomotor skills
safety while staying in a hotel.
_____ 4. Describe the five parts of a
materials safety data sheet (MSDS)
that are most important for job-site safety
D. Attitudes
Definition of Objectives
• A learning objective is a statement of
what the learners will be expected to do
once they have completed a specified
course of instruction. It prescribes the
conditions, behavior (action), and
standard of task performance for the
training setting. (Clark, 2000)
Goals and Objectives
• Goals describe a learning outcome in
– Example, “the learner will successfully complete
the supervisor course, before moving on to the
leadership course.”
• An objective is a specific statement of
instructional intent which attempts to change
knowledge, skills, or attitudes as a result of
learning experience.
– Example: “the learner will use Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs when deciding upon motivators. (Clark,
Performance Objectives
• A performance objective is a detailed
description of what students will be able to do
when they complete a unit of instruction.
• Behavioral objective, performance objective
and instructional objectives are used
synonymously. The latter two are more
popular terms.
• It describes the kinds of knowledge, skills, or
attitudes that the instructor will be attempting
to produce in learners.
Three Main Parts of A Learning Objective
Tasks or
Conditions or
Components of an Objective I
• The first component describes the task, skill
or behavior identified in the instructional
analysis. This component contains both the
observable action and the content or concept.
– Example 1, “identify the location of a point on the
scale in decimal form by estimating between twotenth divisions to the nearest hundredth.”
– Example 2, “type a letter” or “lift a load”
Components of an Objective II
• The second component of an objective
describes the conditions that will prevail
while a learner carries out the task.
• Example, “given a scale marked off in
Components of an Objective III
• The third component describes the criteria or
standard that will be used to evaluate learner
– Example, “report the reading to within +.01 units.”
• Complete example:” Given a scale marked off
in tenths, identify the location of a point on the
scale in decimal form by estimating between
two-tenth divisions to the nearest hundredth,
and report the reading to within +.01 units.”
Learning Objectives Example 2
• Write a customer reply letter with no
spelling mistakes by using a word
• Observable action:
• Measurable criteria:
• Conditions of performance:
Learning Objective Example 3
• Copy a table from a spreadsheet into a
word processor document within 3
minutes without reference to the manual.
• Observable action:
• Measurable criteria:
• Conditions of performance:
Learning Objective Example 4
• After training, the worker will be able to
load a dumptruck within 3 loads with a
scooploader, in the hours of darkness,
unless the work area is muddy.
• Observable action:
• Measurable criteria:
• Conditions:
Designing the Instruction: Sequencing
• Sequencing is the efficient ordering of
content in such a way as to help the
learner achieve the objectives.
• Questions to ponder
– Can sequencing the content improve the learner’s
– What strategies are available to help me
sequence a unit?
– When do I determine the sequencing of the
– What are the benefits of using a sequencing
Sequencing Techniques
• Job Performance Order: The learning sequence is the same as
the job sequence.
• From Simple to Complex: Objectives may be sequenced in
terms of increasing complexity.
• Critical Sequence: Objects are ordered in terms of their relative
• Known to Unknown: Familiar topics are considered before
unfamiliar ones.
• Dependent Relationship: Mastery of one objective requires prior
mastery of another.
• Supportive relationship: Transfer of learning takes place from
one objective to another, usually because common elements are
included in each objective. These should be placed as close
together as possible so that the maximum transfer of learning
can take place.
• Cause to Effect: Objectives are sequenced from cause to effect
Tasks, Objectives and Learning Steps
• A task analysis itemizes each discrete skill found in a job.
• Each goal provides the basis for the terminal objective
• The designer must then determine the prerequisite skills
required for the task and make them into the enabling
• Example:
– Task: “Be familiar with personal computers and know how
to use Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.”
– Course Goal: “The learner will be able to operate a
personal computer and use the three main software
(Clark, 2000,
mple1 )
Learning Steps
• Objective: Given a cash register and at lest
ten products, calculate the exact total for the
purchase transaction
• Steps:
– Enter the sales price and the department key for
each product
– Repeat step one until all products have been
– After all items have been entered, press the
subtotal key.
– Press the Tax key.
– Press the Total key.
Types of Tests
• Criterion Referenced Test: Evaluate the
cognitive domain which include recall or
recognition of specific facts, procedural
patterns and concepts.
• Performance Test: Evaluate the psychomotor
domain that involves physical movement,
coordination, and use of other motor-skills.
• Attitude Survey: Address the affective domain
such as feeling, values, appreciation,
enthusiasms, motivation, and attitudes.
Written Tests
Multiple choices
Open-ended question
Two-way question: yes/no, true/false
Multiple-choice question
Ranking Scales
ISD Development Model:
Design Phase recap
• Analyze the task to determine the objective
• Develop the learning objective fully and determine if it has
any enabling objectives. If it does, then spell them out.
• List the steps required to perform the objectives to
• Build a test instrument to determine if the learner can
perform the steps that are required to reach the objective.
• Construct courseware that will train the learners to
perform the objective. You know the learners can perform
the objective if they can mee the evaluation standards.