A keynote speech
Fifth EDEN Research Workshop
Organized by EDEN in collaboration with CNED & UNESCO
20-22 OCTOBER, 2008
Paris, France
ICT and quality assurance to support
ubiquitous access to distance education:
Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs
Insung Jung
International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan
International Christian University
Tokyo, Japan
Liberal Arts College
About 3,000 students from
40 countries
158 full-time faculty
Accredited by MOE (Japan)
and the American
Academy for Liberal
Education (AALE, USA)
Blended learning
My experiences
 Korea National Open University
 Ewha Woman’s University, Multimedia
Education Institution
 Distance Education/E-learning field/ICT use
– UNESCO, WB, APEC consultant
 Research –policy, quality assurance,
evaluation, instructional design, Asian
distance education
 Teaching – instructional design, distance
education, e-learning research, media
 (homepage)
Latchem, C. & Jung, I.S. (2009).
Distance and blended learning:
Opening up Asian education and
training. New York & London:
Routledge (Distance Education
Today’s Presentation
ICT integration in Distance Education
- Background changes
- Promises
- Realities
Recent breakthroughs
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
2. Psychological changes
ICT Integration
3. Social, behavioral changes
4. Changes in learning paradigm
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Source -
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Source -
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Internet users (Least developed countries)
Internet Users
Internet Users
Latest Data
Internet Users
Latest Data
Source -
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Source -
Why ICT integration in DE?
2. Psychological changes
•Computers aren’t new technology anymore.
•The Internet is better than TV
•Reality is no longer real - more than one identity
•Multitasking, a way of life
•Typing is preferred to handwriting
•Web, indispensable
•Zero tolerance for delays
•Consumer and creator are blurring
•Network-enabled mobile phones become necessity
Sources - Oblinger, 2002; Jung, 2003
Why ICT integration in DE?
3. Social, behavioral changes
-- Over
-- Over
- Over
- Over
- Over
Use the Internet for new information
use instant messaging to keep in touch
contact strangers on the net
post own information online to be contacted
experienced cyberbullying
- 25% of retail stock trades on the Internet
- Over 90% Internet users, online shopping
(Korea, UK, Germany, Japan, US)
- 87% of print journalists connected to the Internet
-Sources - Lenhart, Simon & Graziano, 2001; Jung, 2003; 2007 Pew/Internet research; 2008 Nielsen
Why ICT integration in DE?
4. Changes in learning paradigm
ICT adoption ; E-learning development
Lifelong Learning
Singapore: Thinking School, Learning Nation
Korea: Edutopia
Germany: Lifelong education for everyone
1) Pedagogical innovation
2) Quality improvement
3) Ubiquitous access
4) High market value
1) Pedagogical innovation
From teacher-centered to learner-centered
“A truly learner-centered approach to education will be
realized.” “The teacher will facilitate learning. ”
Social constructivistic learning environment
“Learning would be engaged in authentic tasks or real world
problem solving situations.” “New knowledge will be constructed
Global learning community building
“Learning communities will be formed to create knowledge.”
Full of multimedia resources
(Bates, 1995; 2005; Harasim, 1993; Khan, 1997; Zemsky & Massy, 2004)
2) Quality improvement
Improved teaching quality
“Application of learner-centered instructional design; best
teaching practices”
“Better adaptation to individual needs.”
“Better management of learning processes.”
Improved learning effectiveness
“Communication will be improved.”
“Students will be more actively engaged in learning.”
“Higher level skills will be acquired.”
Improved support
“24/7, individualized support.”
“Added values - ICT skill improvement, collaboration, efficiency….”
3) Ubiquitous access
Ubiquitous access
“People would be able to learn anywhere, any time.”
Expanded learning opportunities
“There will be a boom in adult education.”
“Lifelong society will be realized.”
Bridging the Gap
“Quality education will be delivered to remote areas,
underdeveloped regions”
“ICT can lessen the gender gap in education.”
“E-learning will bring about educational equity.”
4) High market value
Improved cost-efficiency
“It is a cost-efficient approach to education.”
“Economies of scale will be achieved.”
Revenue-generating; profit-making potentials
“E-learning market opportunity will grow
“It would generate revenue for an organization.”
“There is a global market for e-learning.”
Realities – Access
Mega Universities
 From 10 (1996) to over 20 Mega Universities
Cross-border DE
 Australia, UK, USA, and Canada (Exporting Countries) - China,
India, Malaysia and Singapore (Importing Countries in Asia)
 Indira Gandhi National Open University - Abu Dhabi, Dubai,
Sharjah, Doha, Kuwait and Sultanate of Oman, Maldives,
Mauritius and Seychelles, Vietnam, Myanmar and Singapore
Daniel, 2003; Jung & Latchem, 2007
Realities – Access
 Rise of Virtual Universities
Jones International University, University of Phoenix Online
U21Global, Cardean University, Global University Alliance
Open University of Catalonia
Finnish Virtual University
Virtual University of Pakistan
Syrian Virtual University, Arab Open University
Mexico’s ITESM Virtual University by Tecnológico de Monterrey
 Master’s degrees and doctorate programs
 Mexico, other Latin countries, USA and Canada
 from 29,887 in 1999 to 85,000 in 2008
 Korea’s 17 Virtual Universities since 2001
 Undergraduate, totally online
 from 6,220 in 2001 to 23,550 in 2006
Studies in the Context of the E-learning Initiative: Virtual Models of European Universities
Realities – Access
 E-learning in Conventional Universities
 68 e-colleges in China;
 Over 80 % universities in USA
 Europe (UK, Spain, Finland, France, Germany and more),
Asia (Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan…)
 Consortia
 Sweden Net University; Le Campus Numérique
 Thailand Cyber University
 For-Profit DE Providers
 Global - Thomson Learning (U21Global), Apollo
International (India & China)
 Local - Kenichi Omae Graduate School of Business in
Japan; Online cram school industries
Realities – Access
1) Most e-education has taken place within national
2) Digital Divide
- within country; between countries
- Gender gap; Generation gap
3) Lack of Regulatory Mechanism
- Quality issues; Mutual Recognition issues
Realities -
Resource sharing
High level of mutual support among students
Greater dialogue when shared perspectives
Sense of community and lower attrition rates
when support interactivity, reflection, and sharing
when careful instructional design applied
Learning by doing; e-moderating
Bakardjieva and Harasim, 1999; Bonk, 2002; Harnishfeger, 2003; Jung, 2008; Salomon, 2002; Shank, 2001; many others
Realities -
1. Innovative teachers
- Microsoft Innovative Teachers Network
- UNESCO ICT in Education Awards
2. Case-based, project-based, resource-based
- Case-based e-learning group Univ of Georgia
3. Competency-based/story-based e-learning program
- Kumamoto University in Japan
4. Simulations/virtual lab experiments
- Virtual Tel-Aviv University
Nachmias, Ram, & Mioduser, 2006; Suzuki, 2006
Realities -
• Time-honored instructional model prevails
• Still teacher-centered – Focus on information dissemination
• Text-based, online versions of lectures, textbooks and notes
• 70% providing BBS, but not integrated, closed, meaningless..
• Personal learning style, not accommodated
• Limited interaction due to lack of interaction design skills,
faculty overload, cultural/personal factors
Latchem & Jung, 2009
Realities –
Quality improvement
Contrasting findings
Favorable responses –
“motivating and interesting”
Negative responses –
“impersonal, isolating and frustrating”
Improved learning gains –
“full of resources, sharing ideas”
Not substantial changes –
“instructional models are same”
Latchem & Jung, 2009
Realities –
Quality improvement
QA Concerns Emerged
 Some politicians and media complain of ‘declining
educational standards’ and attribute these to the new
ideologies and methods.
 In an era of globalization and competition for strategic
gains and resources, even the longest-established and
most successful institutions must safeguard their
positions through continuous improvement.
 DE providers and advocates of ICT integration need to
sell the story of their successes.
Jung & Latchem, 2007
Realities – High market value
Success stories
1) University of Pheonix Online Campus
2) University of Maryland University College
3) Canada’s Athabasca Univ. Online MBA
4) Online testing services (SAT; TOEFL)
5) Online cram schools (Megastudy, Korea)
6) Some MBA programs
--- Owe more to past market success/brand image than to
ICT integration
Zemsky & Massy, 2004; Latchem & Jung, 2009
Realities – High market value
1) Fathom and NYU online gone
2) UK e-University failed
3) Not enough students in most programs
--- Some generating revenue; but not making profit
Garrett, 2004; Zemsky & Massy, 2004
Realities – High market value
Over-estimate the market potential and under-estimate the
educational and logistical challenges
Ignore the realities of ICT infrastructure, access and costs
Over-estimate learner readiness for e-learning
Embark on large-scale online learning programs and projects
without initial try-outs
Be insensitive or slow in responding to customers’ expectations
Not obtain accreditation
Not meet the quality expectations of learners, particularly in regard
to learner support
Not provide incentives for continuous private sector involvement in
the partnerships
Latchem & Jung, 2009
Over a decade experience Learned from successes
and failures Now….
Recent breakthroughs
Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research)
Starting small and strategically
Diversifying partnerships
Blended approaches
Quality assurance and accreditation
Recent breakthroughs
Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical
research – cultural, contextual considerations)
Commonwealth of Learning
Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia
UNESCO Bangkok ICT in Education
UNESCO Asia Pacific Knowledge Base on ODL
e-ASEM Network for ICT and lifelong learning
Recent breakthroughs
1. Cataloguing lessons learned (Online journals)
Asian Journal of Distance Education
European Journal of OD & E-learning
Indian Journal of Open Learning
International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and
Communication Technology (IJEDICT,
The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Recent breakthroughs
Starting small and strategically
ICT/e-Learning as a strategic and reform tool
- “Authentic learning” Student Olympic Magazine
(Schools in UK, Hong Kong & China)
Start with one department/program - Kumamoto Univ.
Japan – Graduate Program Instructional Systems
Need-based programs only – MBA; Education; Healthrelated; ICT
Recent breakthroughs
Diversifying partnerships
Singapore Institute of Management (SIM) and UKOU
Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration and
Public Administration --- AIOU, BOU, INGOU, OUSL and
Wawasan Open University in Malaysia
Saudi Arabia’s National Centre for E-Learning and Distance
Education -- Open University of Malaysia
Arab Open University (AOU) and UKOU
Schools in Nepal & New Zealand: LearnZ
--- strategic; one-to-one; one-to-few; regional
Recent breakthroughs
Blended approaches
Blending online and F2F education
- Indira Gandhi National Open University Virtual Campus
- Open University of Malaysia MEd program
- Anadolu Univ. English Language Teaching Program
- Blended Tutoring
Blending old and new technologies
- Print & Broadcast programs and M-learning
- Conventional DE programs and synchronous technologies
(Skype, e.g.) or Web 2.0 technologies (Blogs, wikis)
Recent breakthroughs
Asia - one billion of the world’s 2.7 billion mobile users
Cambodia - the first country to have more mobile phone than fixed
line subscribers ; has the world’s highest ratio of telephone users
using wireless
University of the Philippines Open University
Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
Kanebo Cosmetics, Japan
City University of Hong Kong
--- Bypassing online learning
Recent breakthroughs
Quality assurance and accreditation
Cast study and Surveys – QA in DE/E-learning
institutions in the AP region (2004 - 2007)
2009 – quality from learner perspective
Discussions / Research evolving
From Quality vs Access to Access through Quality
Quality culture spread
QA system development – early stage
- QA/accreditation guidelines for DE/ICT use
- QA approaches emerging
Quality, QA & Accreditation
QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE
Distance Education Council
“Handbook of ODL”
Commission of Institutions of Higher Education
“Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and
Certificate Programs”
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education
“Distance Learning Guidelines”
Quality, QA & Accreditation
QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE
European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher
Education “Standards and Guidelines for Quality
Assurance in the European Higher Education Area”
EADL’s Quality Standards and Code of Conduct
UNESCO/Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN)
“Open and Distance Learning Knowledge Base”
“Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Education”
National Association of Distance Education Organizations of
South Africa (NADEOSA)
“Quality Criteria for Distance Education in South Africa”
Quality, QA & Accreditation
Five Approaches
(not mutually exclusive)
conforming to the standards applied to
conventional education
fitness for purpose
meeting customers’ needs
continuous improvement
compliance with international standards
and requirements
1. QA as conforming to the standards
applied to conventional education
Same criteria and standards are applied
in judging the quality of ODL and
conventional institutions’ management,
teaching, resources and outcomes
China, Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and
Hong Kong
2. QA as fitness for purpose
Quality is measured by how well
institutions, programs or services fulfill
their intended purposes.
- India, Korea and Turkey
3. QA as Meeting Customers’ Needs
The institutional mission statements,
policies and procedures focus on the
learners’ characteristics, needs and
- ISO9001 (UT, OUM, some Korean
Cyber Univ.)
4. QA as continuous improvement
 The emphasis shifts to input,
implementation, output and back
to input.
5. QA as Compliance with international
standards and requirements
 give students greater confidence
in the courses and awards and
enable their studies to be
Athabasca and USQ from USA
Three guiding stars
for integrating ICT and QA system
to supporting ubiquitous access
#1. QA as an essential tool
QA as an essential tool for educational development and
ubiquitous access to ODEL
There should be no distinction between QA in ODEL and
conventional education, but there should be specific
guidelines, criteria and methods for judging the various
modes of delivery. The national level QA for ODEL/ICT
use should be as strong as (not softer than) that of
higher education.
There should be a ‘culture of quality’ that is shared
willingly by all managers and staff, links internal and
external accountability, builds capacities in QA and
involves open, transparent management and
#2. Promoting research
Research is essential for improving
understanding and practice, assuring
and improving quality, informing and
influencing policy-making and ensuring
that ODEL is recognized as scholarly
activity in its own right.
#3. Changes in practice
ODEL environments need to be conceived
such that the technology does not simply
provide an information repository but serves
as a platform for student-centered, teacherfacilitated and collaborative knowledge
The instructional design (ID) needs to fully
exploit the potential of ICT. There is also
need for ID models for constructivistic
learning environment design.
Thank you!