A keynote speech Fifth EDEN Research Workshop Organized by EDEN in collaboration with CNED & UNESCO 20-22 OCTOBER, 2008 Paris, France ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education: Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs Insung Jung International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan International Christian University Tokyo, Japan Liberal Arts College About 3,000 students from 40 countries 158 full-time faculty Accredited by MOE (Japan) and the American Academy for Liberal Education (AALE, USA) Blended learning My experiences Korea National Open University Ewha Woman’s University, Multimedia Education Institution Distance Education/E-learning field/ICT use – UNESCO, WB, APEC consultant Research –policy, quality assurance, evaluation, instructional design, Asian distance education Teaching – instructional design, distance education, e-learning research, media literacy http://epiaget.com (homepage) Latchem, C. & Jung, I.S. (2009). Distance and blended learning: Opening up Asian education and training. New York & London: Routledge (Distance Education Series). Today’s Presentation ICT integration in Distance Education - Background changes - Promises - Realities Recent breakthroughs Conclusion Why ICT integration in DE? 1. Technology development 2. Psychological changes ICT Integration E-learning 3. Social, behavioral changes 4. Changes in learning paradigm Why ICT integration in DE? 1. Technology development Source - http://www.weboma.com/internetic-world-in-the-year-2015/ Why ICT integration in DE? 1. Technology development Source - http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Why ICT integration in DE? 1. Technology development Internet users (Least developed countries) Countries Internet Users Dec/2000 Internet Users Latest Data Internet Users Latest Data Angola 30,000 100,000 233% Benin 16,000 150,000 900% Afghanistan 1,000 580,000 57,900% Cambodia 6,000 70,000 1,066% Source - http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Why ICT integration in DE? 1. Technology development Source - http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/index.html Why ICT integration in DE? 2. Psychological changes •Computers aren’t new technology anymore. •The Internet is better than TV •Reality is no longer real - more than one identity •Multitasking, a way of life •Typing is preferred to handwriting •Web, indispensable •Zero tolerance for delays •Consumer and creator are blurring •Network-enabled mobile phones become necessity Sources - Oblinger, 2002; Jung, 2003 Why ICT integration in DE? 3. Social, behavioral changes Teens -- Over -- Over - Over - Over - Over 90% 70% 50% 40% 30% Use the Internet for new information use instant messaging to keep in touch contact strangers on the net post own information online to be contacted experienced cyberbullying Overall - 25% of retail stock trades on the Internet - Over 90% Internet users, online shopping (Korea, UK, Germany, Japan, US) - 87% of print journalists connected to the Internet -Sources - Lenhart, Simon & Graziano, 2001; Jung, 2003; 2007 Pew/Internet research; 2008 Nielsen Why ICT integration in DE? 4. Changes in learning paradigm ICT adoption ; E-learning development Lifelong Learning Society Knowledge/Wisdom/ Learner-centered Solutions Singapore: Thinking School, Learning Nation Korea: Edutopia Germany: Lifelong education for everyone Formal Schooling Fact/Information/ Answers Teacher-centered Promises 1) Pedagogical innovation 2) Quality improvement 3) Ubiquitous access 4) High market value 1) Pedagogical innovation From teacher-centered to learner-centered “A truly learner-centered approach to education will be realized.” “The teacher will facilitate learning. ” Social constructivistic learning environment “Learning would be engaged in authentic tasks or real world problem solving situations.” “New knowledge will be constructed collaboratively.” Global learning community building “Learning communities will be formed to create knowledge.” Full of multimedia resources (Bates, 1995; 2005; Harasim, 1993; Khan, 1997; Zemsky & Massy, 2004) 2) Quality improvement Improved teaching quality “Application of learner-centered instructional design; best teaching practices” “Better adaptation to individual needs.” “Better management of learning processes.” Improved learning effectiveness “Communication will be improved.” “Students will be more actively engaged in learning.” “Higher level skills will be acquired.” Improved support “24/7, individualized support.” “Added values - ICT skill improvement, collaboration, efficiency….” 3) Ubiquitous access Ubiquitous access “People would be able to learn anywhere, any time.” Expanded learning opportunities “There will be a boom in adult education.” “Lifelong society will be realized.” Bridging the Gap “Quality education will be delivered to remote areas, underdeveloped regions” “ICT can lessen the gender gap in education.” “E-learning will bring about educational equity.” 4) High market value Improved cost-efficiency “It is a cost-efficient approach to education.” “Economies of scale will be achieved.” Revenue-generating; profit-making potentials “E-learning market opportunity will grow drastically.” “It would generate revenue for an organization.” “There is a global market for e-learning.” Realities – Access Achievements Mega Universities From 10 (1996) to over 20 Mega Universities Cross-border DE Australia, UK, USA, and Canada (Exporting Countries) - China, India, Malaysia and Singapore (Importing Countries in Asia) Indira Gandhi National Open University - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Doha, Kuwait and Sultanate of Oman, Maldives, Mauritius and Seychelles, Vietnam, Myanmar and Singapore Daniel, 2003; Jung & Latchem, 2007 Realities – Access Rise of Virtual Universities Jones International University, University of Phoenix Online U21Global, Cardean University, Global University Alliance Open University of Catalonia Finnish Virtual University Virtual University of Pakistan Syrian Virtual University, Arab Open University Mexico’s ITESM Virtual University by Tecnológico de Monterrey Master’s degrees and doctorate programs Mexico, other Latin countries, USA and Canada from 29,887 in 1999 to 85,000 in 2008 Korea’s 17 Virtual Universities since 2001 Undergraduate, totally online from 6,220 in 2001 to 23,550 in 2006 Studies in the Context of the E-learning Initiative: Virtual Models of European Universities http://www.elearningeuropa.info/extras/pdf/virtual_models.pdf Realities – Access E-learning in Conventional Universities 68 e-colleges in China； Over 80 % universities in USA Europe (UK, Spain, Finland, France, Germany and more), Asia (Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan…) Consortia Sweden Net University; Le Campus Numérique Thailand Cyber University For-Profit DE Providers Global - Thomson Learning (U21Global), Apollo International (India & China) Local - Kenichi Omae Graduate School of Business in Japan; Online cram school industries Realities – Access Overall, 1) Most e-education has taken place within national borders. 2) Digital Divide - within country; between countries - Gender gap; Generation gap 3) Lack of Regulatory Mechanism - Quality issues; Mutual Recognition issues Realities - Pedagogy Achieved Resource sharing High level of mutual support among students Greater dialogue when shared perspectives Sense of community and lower attrition rates when support interactivity, reflection, and sharing when careful instructional design applied Learning by doing; e-moderating Bakardjieva and Harasim, 1999; Bonk, 2002; Harnishfeger, 2003; Jung, 2008; Salomon, 2002; Shank, 2001; many others Realities - Pedagogy Examples 1. Innovative teachers - Microsoft Innovative Teachers Network http://www.innovativeteachers.com/ - UNESCO ICT in Education Awards http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=6359 2. Case-based, project-based, resource-based - Case-based e-learning group Univ of Georgia http://projects.coe.uga.edu/cbel/ 3. Competency-based/story-based e-learning program - Kumamoto University in Japan http://www.gsis.kumamoto-u.ac.jp/ 4. Simulations/virtual lab experiments - Virtual Tel-Aviv University http://virtual2002.tau.ac.il/NewLoginFrames.asp?TopLang=1&lang=1 Nachmias, Ram, & Mioduser, 2006; Suzuki, 2006 Realities - Pedagogy Underperformed/failed • Time-honored instructional model prevails • Still teacher-centered – Focus on information dissemination • Text-based, online versions of lectures, textbooks and notes • 70% providing BBS, but not integrated, closed, meaningless.. • Personal learning style, not accommodated • Limited interaction due to lack of interaction design skills, faculty overload, cultural/personal factors Latchem & Jung, 2009 Realities – Quality improvement Contrasting findings Favorable responses – “motivating and interesting” Negative responses – “impersonal, isolating and frustrating” Improved learning gains – “full of resources, sharing ideas” Not substantial changes – “instructional models are same” Latchem & Jung, 2009 Realities – Quality improvement QA Concerns Emerged Some politicians and media complain of ‘declining educational standards’ and attribute these to the new ideologies and methods. In an era of globalization and competition for strategic gains and resources, even the longest-established and most successful institutions must safeguard their positions through continuous improvement. DE providers and advocates of ICT integration need to sell the story of their successes. Jung & Latchem, 2007 Realities – High market value Success stories 1) University of Pheonix Online Campus 2) University of Maryland University College 3) Canada’s Athabasca Univ. Online MBA 4) Online testing services (SAT; TOEFL) 5) Online cram schools (Megastudy, Korea) 6) Some MBA programs --- Owe more to past market success/brand image than to ICT integration Zemsky & Massy, 2004; Latchem & Jung, 2009 Realities – High market value Underperformed/failed 1) Fathom and NYU online gone 2) UK e-University failed 3) Not enough students in most programs --- Some generating revenue; but not making profit Garrett, 2004; Zemsky & Massy, 2004 Realities – High market value Underperformed/failed • • • • • • • • Over-estimate the market potential and under-estimate the educational and logistical challenges Ignore the realities of ICT infrastructure, access and costs Over-estimate learner readiness for e-learning Embark on large-scale online learning programs and projects without initial try-outs Be insensitive or slow in responding to customers’ expectations Not obtain accreditation Not meet the quality expectations of learners, particularly in regard to learner support Not provide incentives for continuous private sector involvement in the partnerships Latchem & Jung, 2009 Over a decade experience Learned from successes and failures Now…. Recent breakthroughs Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research) Starting small and strategically Diversifying partnerships Blended approaches M-learning Quality assurance and accreditation Recent breakthroughs 1. Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research – cultural, contextual considerations) Commonwealth of Learning http://col.org Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia http://www.cemca.org EuroPACE http://www.europace.org UNESCO Bangkok ICT in Education http://www.unescobkk.org UNESCO Asia Pacific Knowledge Base on ODL http://asiapacific-odl.oum.edu.my e-ASEM Network for ICT and lifelong learning http://asem.knou.ac.kr Recent breakthroughs 1. Cataloguing lessons learned (Online journals) Asian Journal of Distance Education http://www.asianjde.org/ European Journal of OD & E-learning http://www.eurodl.org Indian Journal of Open Learning http://www.ignou.ac.in/IJOL/Link%201a.htm International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT, http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu//index.php The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/ Recent breakthroughs 2. Starting small and strategically ICT/e-Learning as a strategic and reform tool - “Authentic learning” Student Olympic Magazine (Schools in UK, Hong Kong & China) http://clc.esf.edu.hk/GroupHomepage.asp?GroupID=37650 Start with one department/program - Kumamoto Univ. Japan – Graduate Program Instructional Systems Need-based programs only – MBA; Education; Healthrelated; ICT Recent breakthroughs 3. Diversifying partnerships Singapore Institute of Management (SIM) and UKOU Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration and Public Administration --- AIOU, BOU, INGOU, OUSL and Wawasan Open University in Malaysia Saudi Arabia’s National Centre for E-Learning and Distance Education -- Open University of Malaysia Arab Open University (AOU) and UKOU Schools in Nepal & New Zealand: LearnZ --- strategic; one-to-one; one-to-few; regional partnerships Recent breakthroughs 4. Blended approaches Blending online and F2F education - Indira Gandhi National Open University Virtual Campus - Open University of Malaysia MEd program - Anadolu Univ. English Language Teaching Program - Blended Tutoring Blending old and new technologies - Print & Broadcast programs and M-learning - Conventional DE programs and synchronous technologies (Skype, e.g.) or Web 2.0 technologies (Blogs, wikis) Recent breakthroughs 5. M-learning Asia - one billion of the world’s 2.7 billion mobile users Cambodia - the first country to have more mobile phone than fixed line subscribers ; has the world’s highest ratio of telephone users using wireless University of the Philippines Open University Shanghai Jiaotong University, China Kanebo Cosmetics, Japan City University of Hong Kong --- Bypassing online learning Recent breakthroughs 6. Quality assurance and accreditation Cast study and Surveys – QA in DE/E-learning institutions in the AP region (2004 - 2007) 2009 – quality from learner perspective Discussions / Research evolving From Quality vs Access to Access through Quality Quality culture spread QA system development – early stage - QA/accreditation guidelines for DE/ICT use - QA approaches emerging Quality, QA & Accreditation QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE India, Distance Education Council “Handbook of ODL” US, Commission of Institutions of Higher Education “Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs” UK, Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education “Distance Learning Guidelines” Quality, QA & Accreditation QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education “Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area” EADL’s Quality Standards and Code of Conduct UNESCO/Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN) “Open and Distance Learning Knowledge Base” “Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Education” National Association of Distance Education Organizations of South Africa (NADEOSA) “Quality Criteria for Distance Education in South Africa” Quality, QA & Accreditation Five Approaches (not mutually exclusive) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. conforming to the standards applied to conventional education fitness for purpose meeting customers’ needs continuous improvement compliance with international standards and requirements 1. QA as conforming to the standards applied to conventional education Same criteria and standards are applied in judging the quality of ODL and conventional institutions’ management, teaching, resources and outcomes China, Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong 2. QA as fitness for purpose Quality is measured by how well institutions, programs or services fulfill their intended purposes. - India, Korea and Turkey 3. QA as Meeting Customers’ Needs The institutional mission statements, policies and procedures focus on the learners’ characteristics, needs and circumstances. - ISO9001 (UT, OUM, some Korean Cyber Univ.) 4. QA as continuous improvement The emphasis shifts to input, implementation, output and back to input. - UT, OUUK 5. QA as Compliance with international standards and requirements give students greater confidence in the courses and awards and enable their studies to be recognized - Athabasca and USQ from USA UT (ICDE) UNISA (USA) Conclusions Three guiding stars for integrating ICT and QA system in ODEL to supporting ubiquitous access #1. QA as an essential tool QA as an essential tool for educational development and ubiquitous access to ODEL There should be no distinction between QA in ODEL and conventional education, but there should be specific guidelines, criteria and methods for judging the various modes of delivery. The national level QA for ODEL/ICT use should be as strong as (not softer than) that of higher education. There should be a ‘culture of quality’ that is shared willingly by all managers and staff, links internal and external accountability, builds capacities in QA and involves open, transparent management and communication. #2. Promoting research Research is essential for improving understanding and practice, assuring and improving quality, informing and influencing policy-making and ensuring that ODEL is recognized as scholarly activity in its own right. #3. Changes in practice ODEL environments need to be conceived such that the technology does not simply provide an information repository but serves as a platform for student-centered, teacherfacilitated and collaborative knowledge building. The instructional design (ID) needs to fully exploit the potential of ICT. There is also need for ID models for constructivistic learning environment design. Thank you!