The following slides are most critical to success on
the assessment: 9 – 19
The last test prior to the final exam lumps the cake
unit and pie/pastry unit together.
The last food lab of the semester is our cake lab.
At this point, you should be reviewing all
information covered through the semester for the
final exam.
How are cakes
categorized &
Just like many other
baked items, cakes are
often categorized by their
ingredients or the
baking methods
that are required.
A CAKE IS A CAKE IS A .................
Ralph - “Nancy, do you think your mother will mind if we bake a cake while she’s not here?”
Nancy - “Oh, no, Ralph, it’s okay. Come on. I’m not sure we have all the ingredients, but we
can improvise. Let’s see, I can’t find the measuring spoons, but this looks like
enough sugar, doesn’t it?”
Ralph - “Maybe, but isn’t it risky to trust your eye judgment?”
Nancy - “Oh, no. I’m sure this is right. What’s next?”
-“Do you have a sifter?”
Nancy - “Well, I can’t find one. It’s not really that important. Let’s skip it.”
Ralph - “Now we need a teaspoon of baking powder.”
Nancy - “We have baking soda, and they’re both used for the same purpose, aren’t they?
Let’s use it
Ralph - “Nancy, do you have 2/3 cup of solid shortening?”
Nancy - “No, but I have oil, and that’s shortening. What’s next, Ralph?”
Ralph - “It says here to mix at medium speed for three minutes.”
Nancy - “I’m really afraid to use the electric mixer without my mother, let’s just mix it by
hand. Ralph,
get the baking pan from that drawer.”
Ralph - “But Nancy, the recipe calls for a larger size pan.”
Nancy - It’s the only one we have. The cake will just have to rise higher.
How long does it take to bake, Ralph?”
Ralph – “For fifty minutes at 350 degrees.”
Nancy - “I don’t want to wait that long. Let’s set the oven to 450 degrees so the
cake bakes quicker. Let’s go watch T.V. till it’s ready.”
Almost and hour later, Nancy went to peak into the oven.
Nancy - “Oh, no! Ralph, come quick!”
What were some of the mistakes that Nancy and Ralph made when they were preparing cake?
Unshortened Cakes
Shortened Cakes
Quick Mix Method
Chiffon Cake
Foam Cake
Shortened Cake
Types of Cakes
Shortened cake
Contain fat. Sometimes people call shortened cakes, ‘butter cakes.’ Most
shortened cakes contain leavening agents. Shortened cakes are tender, moist, &
Unshortened cake
Sometimes called ‘foam cakes,’ contain NO fat. These cakes are light & fluffy.
They are leavened by air & steam rather than chemical leavening agents.
Examples: angel food & sponge cakes.
The main difference between angel food & sponge is the eggs: angel food =
only the whites, Sponge = whole egg is used.
Chiffon cake
A cross between shortened & unshortened cakes. They
contain fat like shortened cakes & beaten egg whites like
unshortened cakes. The have large volumes, but they are not
as light as unshortened cakes.
Cake Ingredients
Gives structure to the cake. Gluten develops when moistened & mixed,
which holds the leavening gases that form during baking. Using cake
flour makes a more delicate cake (less protein).
Gives sweetness to cakes. Also tenderizes the gluten &
improves the texture of cakes.
Improves flavor & color. The coagulated egg proteins also add
structure. Act as a leavener in angel & sponge cakes.
Provides moisture & helps blend ingredients. Most recipes call for fresh
milk, but some call for buttermilk sour milk, fruit juices, or water.
Provides flavoring.
Cakes require less salt than yeast & quick breads.
Tenderizes the gluten. Shortened cakes may contain butter,
margarine, or shortening (solid fats). Chiffon cakes use oil instead
Makes the cakes rise and become porous & light. Most recipes
call for baking powder or baking soda and sour milk.
Buttermilk Substitute
Making a recipe that calls for buttermilk? Use this
simple substitute, and you won't need to buy any:
Milk (just under one cup)
1 Tablespoon white vinegar or lemon juice
1. Place a Tablespoon of white vinegar or lemon juice in a
liquid measuring cup.
2. Add enough milk to bring the liquid up to the one-cup line.
3. Let stand for five minute. Then, use as much as your recipe
calls for.
Cakes vary from simple cupcakes to elaborate wedding cakes.
Types of cakes are divided into 3 categories:
Contain chemical leavening
1) Shortened (butter cake)
Contain shortening
A. Conventional
B. Quick Mix (One-bowl)
2) Foam (unshortened)
A. Angel food
Contain no chemical leavening
B. Sponge
Contain no shortening
3) Chiffon (uses whole egg, but whites are beaten until soft peaks form, has
1 cup cake flour = 1 cup—2 Tbsp. all purpose flour
Accurate measurements—cakes may fail if correct proportions are not used.
Cake flour produces larger, softer, more velvety cakes (less protein).
If cake flour is not available, a suitable substitution is:
Liquid is usually milk
Hydrogenated fat is usually used (Crisco)
Eggs—use medium to large
Conventional Method
Fat is creamed
Sugar is gradually added
Eggs blended
Dry ingredients are added alternately with milk
One Bowl Method
Ingredients usually added in order given in recipe
Select proper size pan (too large, dry and not browned OR too small, rises to peak
and falls)
Square pan has more area than round
Example: 8 inch square = 64” 8 inch round = 52”
9 inch square = 81” 9 inch round = 64”
Cut parchment paper to fit pat
Grease pan; dust with flour or cocoa
Line pan with paper
Cake Notes p. 4
by air beaten into eggs
Air heats, produces steam, steam expands
Fold ingredients in with care so air is not lost
Eggs at room temperature can be beaten more readily to greater volume.
of tartar stabilizes egg whites (also increases whiteness)
Too much sugar—cake will fall
All utensils must be grease free
Whites should be whipped (no trace of yolk)
Flour & sugar gradually sifted over whites and folded gently
Bake in ungreased tube pan
Tap pan to remove large air bubbles
Over-Baking toughens angel food cake
Drizzle with frosting or use no frosting at all
Serve with fruit
Cut with wet, sharp knife
· Whole eggs used—
separated & whites whipped;
yolks beaten; dry ingredients
folded in gently
· Has characteristics of shortened & foam
· Sift dry ingredients; add oil, egg yolks,
liquid & beat together
· Beat white to soft peak
· Combine the two batters in ungreased
Food Science of Preparing Cakes
~ Successfully preparing a cake depends on measuring, mixing,
baking, & using the right equipment! ~
1. Measuring ingredients in the correct proportions. Too much or too little will
affect the finished product. (too dry, wet, coarse, tough, dense,
overtenderized, compact, could fall apart)
2. Mixing: You must mix the ingredients according to the method your recipe
a. Overmixing will cause the gluten to overdevelop, so the cake will be
tough. Overmixing angel food & sponge cakes will cause air to be lost
from the beaten egg whites resulting in less volume.
b. Undermixing
3. Baking: You must bake in the pans that the recipe specifies. You should
grease the pans for most shortened cakes & flour them lightly. Unshortened
cakes must not be greased so that the batter can cling to the sides of the pan
during baking. Ovens must be preheated to correct temperature.
Quick Mix
Also called the ‘ one step’ or
‘one-bowl’ method, takes
less time than the
conventional method.
Measure dry ingredients into
the mixing bowl. Beat the fat
& part of the liquid with the
dry ingredients. Add
the remaining liquid
and unbeaten eggs
Pour cake batter into
prepared pans.
Cream the fat & sugar together
until light & fluffy. Beat the
eggs into the creamed fat &
sugar. Then add the dry
ingredients alternately wit the
(Starts off sounding like
making a cookie
Putting Cake in the Oven
You always want your oven
preheated before putting cake in oven.
Center your cake pan in the oven.
Don’t allow cake pans to touch each other, so
that heat can circulate around cakes evenly. If
they are touching, hot spots can form causing
the cake to bake unevenly.
Test for doneness by lightly touching the center
with your fingertip. If the cake springs back, it
is baked… or use the toothpick.
Fillings & Frostings
 Types: boiled, butter cream,
 Can turn a simple cake into a special dessert.
 Fluffy whipped cream, creamy puddings, & sweet fruits are
among the popular fillings.
 You can spread fillings between layers, or roll them into the
center of a jelly roll, or spoon them in the cavity of a cake.
 Canned frostings & mixes are available, but they really are terribly
easy to make yourself.
 Frostings may be cooked or uncooked.
 Frostings enhance flavor & appearance of the cake
 You can personalize cakes & get extremely creative with frostings
with some basic equipment
3 cups all-purpose flour
3/4 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup unsalted butter, softened
1/2 cup shortening
2 2/3 cups white sugar
5 eggs
1 cup milk
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 teaspoon lemon extract
Do not preheat the oven. Grease 10 inch tube pan and line bottom with wax paper or
parchment paper.
Sift together the flour, baking powder and salt. Set aside.
In a large bowl, beat the butter, shortening, and sugar on low speed for 10 minutes.
Add the eggs one at a time, blending well after each addition. Alternately add the flour
mixture and milk, mixing well. Add the vanilla and lemon extracts.
Pour batter into the prepared pan. Set the oven temperature to 350 degrees F (175
degrees C. Bake for 1 hour and 20 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted into the
middle of cake comes out clean. Allow cake to cool in the pan for 1 hour. Remove to
a cake rack and cool for at least 3 hours.
2 cups boiling water
1 cup unsweetened cocoa powder
2 3/4 cups all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons baking soda
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup butter, softened
2 1/4 cups white sugar
4 eggs
1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease 3 - 9 inch round cake pans.
In medium bowl, pour boiling water over cocoa, and whisk until smooth. Let mixture
cool. Sift together flour, baking soda, baking powder and salt; set aside.
In a large bowl, cream butter and sugar together until light and fluffy. Beat in eggs
one at time, then stir in vanilla. Add the flour mixture alternately with the cocoa
mixture. Spread batter evenly between the 3 prepared pans.
Bake in preheated oven for 25 to 30 minutes. Allow to cool.
6 egg whites
3 egg yolks
1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1 1/4 teaspoons baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup sugar, divided
2 teaspoons hot water
1/2 cup orange juice, warmed
1 1/4 teaspoons vanilla extract
3/4 teaspoon grated orange peel
1/4 teaspoon grated lemon peel
3/4 cup reduced-fat whipped topping
Sunny Sponge Cake
Read directions &
take notice how the
eggs are handled!
Let egg whites and egg yolks stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. Sift together the
flour, baking powder and salt; set aside.
In a large mixing bowl, beat egg yolks until slightly thickened. Gradually add 3/4 cup sugar
and hot water, beating until thick and pale yellow. Blend in the orange juice, vanilla and
orange and lemon peels. Add reserved flour mixture to egg yolk mixture.
In another mixing bowl and with clean beaters, beat the egg whites on medium speed until
soft peaks form. Gradually beat in sugar, about 1 tablespoon at a time, on high until stiff
glossy peaks form and sugar is dissolved. Fold a fourth of egg whites into the batter, then
fold in remaining whites.
Spoon batter into an ungreased 10-in. tube pan. Bake on the lowest rack at 350 degrees F
for 20-25 minutes or until cake springs back when lightly touched. Immediately invert pan;
cool completely. Run a knife around sides and center tube of pan. Invert cake onto a
serving plate. Serve with whipped topping.
2 1/4 cups cake flour
1 1/2 cups sugar
1 cup finely chopped hazelnuts, toasted
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
5 egg yolks
2/3 cup water
3/4 cup butter, softened
1/2 cup vegetable oil
1 1/2 cups confectioners' sugar
1 tablespoon vanilla extract
2 tablespoons baking cocoa
8 egg whites
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar
2 tablespoons hot brewed coffee
Hazelnut Chiffon
In a large mixing bowl, combine the flour, sugar, hazelnuts, baking powder and salt.
Whisk the egg yolks, water, oil and vanilla; add to dry ingredients. Beat until well
blended. In another large mixing bowl, beat egg whites and cream of tartar on medium
speed until soft peaks form; fold into batter.
Gently spoon into an ungreased 10-in. tube pan. Cut through the batter with a knife to
remove air pockets. Bake on the lowest rack at 325 degrees F for 60-70 minutes or
until top springs back when lightly touched. Immediately invert the cake pan onto a
wire rack; cool completely. Carefully run a knife around edges and center tube to
loosen; remove cake.
In a small mixing bowl, cream butter and confectioners' sugar. Beat in the baking
cocoa, vanilla and enough coffee to achieve desired consistency. Frost cake.
12 eggs
1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar
1 cup all-purpose flour
1 1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar
1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract
1/2 teaspoon almond extract
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup sugar
Angel Food
Separate eggs; discard yolks or refrigerate for another use. Measure egg whites,
adding or removing whites as needed to equal 1-1/2 cups. Place in a mixing bowl;
let stand at room temperature for 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, sift confectioners' sugar and flour together three times; set aside. Add
cream of tartar, extracts and salt to egg whites; beat on high speed. Gradually add
sugar, beating until sugar is dissolved and stiff peaks form. Fold in flour mixture,
1/4 cup at a time. Gently spoon into an ungreased 10-in. tube pan. Cut through
batter with a knife to remove air pockets. Bake at 350 degrees F for 40-45 minutes
or until cake springs back when lightly touched. Immediately invert pan; cool
completely before removing cake from pan.
Cake Making Videos
Alton Brown: “A Cake on Every Plate” 10 ½ minutes
Alton Brown: “Honey I Shrunk the Cake” Parts 1
(10:26 min.) & Part 2 (cupcakes, how we got to
‘volumetrics’ with cups in Colonial America, explains
the secret of chiffon)
Alton Brown: Let them Eat Foam (eggs & angel food)
(10:20 min.)