# 8/24-8/28 Notes

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Probability &amp; Statistics – Bell Ringer

Make a list of all the possible places where you encounter probability or
statistics in your everyday life.
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Probability &amp; Statistics – Day 3

“BELL RINGER” DISCUSSION

STATS INTRO – LESSON 1

IN-CLASS EXERCISES
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CHAPTER ONE
THE NATURE AND PROBABILITY OF STATISTICS
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LESSON ESSENTIAL QUESTION

Why is it important to study statistics?
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Key Term

Statistics: the science of conducting studies to collect, organize,
summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions.
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Why Study Statistics?
1.
Students and professionals must be able to read and understand statistical
studies performed in their field.

Requires knowledge of vocabulary, symbols, concepts, and statistical
procedures used in these studies.
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Why Study Statistics?
2.
Students and professionals may be required to conduct research in their
field.

Research requires use of statistical procedures to perform experiments,
conduct surveys, etc.

Eventually communicate findings to others.
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Why Study Statistics?
3.
Students and professionals can use knowledge gained from studying
statistics to become better consumers and citizens.

Intelligent decisions:
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Key Terms

Variable: a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values.

Random Variable: determined by chance.

Data: value (measurements or observations) that the variables can assume.
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Key Terms

Probability: the chance of an event occurring.

Population: consists of all subjects that are being studied.
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Sample: a group of subjects selected from a population.
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Brainstorm

Why are samples used?
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Branches of Statistics
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Descriptive: consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and
presentation of data.

Ex:
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Branches of Statistics

Inferential: consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing
hypothesis testing, determining relationships among variables, and making
predictions.

Ex:
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Brainstorm

Think of a topic that you would enjoy doing a study on and be prepared to
share it.
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In-Class Exercises

Page 23: 6
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Assignment

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Probability &amp; Statistics – Day 4

1.3 Key Terms

In-Class Exercises

“Applying the Concepts” Worksheet
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Types of Variables

Qualitative: variables that can be placed into distinct categories,
according to some characteristic or attribute.
- Ex:
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Types of Variables

Quantitative: numerical in nature and can be ordered or ranked.
- Ex:
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Quantitative Variables

Discrete: assume values that can be counted.
- Ex:
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Quantitative Variables

Continuous: assume all values between any two specific values.
- Ex:
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Measurement Scales

Nominal Level: classifies data into mutually exclusive categories in which
no order or ranking can be imposed on the data.
- Ex:
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Measurement Scales

Ordinal Level: classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however,
precise differences between the ranks do not exist.
- Ex:
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Measurement Scales

Interval Level: ranks data, and precise differences between units of
measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful zero.
- Ex:
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Measurement Scales

Ratio Level: possesses all the characteristics of interval measurement, and
a true zero does exist.
- Ex:
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Measurement Scales – Examples

Height:

Temperature:

Major Field:

Eye Color:

IQ Scores:

Ranking of Golfers:

Salary:

Zip Code:
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Measurement Scales – Examples

Grade (A, B, C, D, F):

Gender:

Judging (1st, 2nd, etc):

Age:

Political Affiliation:

SAT Score:

Time:

Rating Scale (poor, good,
excellent):
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Assignment

Page 24: 7-9
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Probability &amp; Statistics – Day 5

Go over homework – Page 24: 7-9

“Applying the Concepts” Worksheet

1.4-1.5 Lesson

Assignment
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Methods of Sampling

Random: selected by using chance methods or random numbers.
- Ex:
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Methods of Sampling

Systematic: subjects are selected by using every 𝒌𝒕𝒉 number after the first
subject is randomly selected from 1 through 𝒌.
- Ex:
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Methods of Sampling

Stratified: subjects are selected by dividing up the population into groups
and subjects within groups are randomly selected.
- Ex:
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Methods of Sampling

Cluster: subjects are selected by using an intact group that is
representative of the population.
- Ex:
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Methods of Sampling

Convenience: local subjects are selected
- Ex:
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Types of Studies

Observational: researcher merely observes what is happening or what has
happened in the past and tries to draw conclusions based on these
observations.
- Ex: Upcoming Slide
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Types of Studies

Experimental: researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to
determine how the manipulation influences other variables.
- Ex: Upcoming Slide
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Study #1

Data from the Motorcycle Industry Council stated that “Motorcycle owners
are getting older and richer.” Data was collected on the ages and incomes
of motorcycle owners for the years of 1998 and 2008 and then compared.
The findings showed considerable differences in the ages and incomes of
motorcycle owners for the two years.
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Study #2

A study conducted divided female students into two groups and had the
students perform as many sit-ups as possible in 90 seconds. The first group
was told only to “do your best,” while the other group was told to increase
the actual number of sit-ups they did each day by 10%. After four days, the
subjects in the first group averaged 43 sit-ups, while the other group
averaged 56 sit-ups.
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Experimental Variables

Independent: manipulated by researcher.

Dependent: variable being studied for possible effects from manipulation of
independent variable.

Confounding: variable that influences the dependent variable but cannot
be separated from the independent variable.
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Types of Groups

Treatment Group: a group that has received some type of special
treatment.
- Ex:

Control Group: a group that is not given any special treatment.
- Ex:
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Assignment

Pages 24-25: 12, 17-20
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Probability &amp; Statistics – Day 6

Go over homework – Pages 24-25: 12, 17-20

Chapter 1 Review Assignment

Chapter 1 Test tomorrow!
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Chapter 1 Review

Pages 26-27: 1-24 (skip 3, 7, 9, and 20)

Page 27: 1, 2, 5, and 6
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Probability &amp; Statistics – Day 7

Chapter 1 Test
