Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 13 Multimedia and
Artificial Intelligence
Chapter 13
Multimedia and
Artificial Intelligence
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Presentation Overview
The Use of Multimedia
Creating Digital Media
Creating Multimedia
Artificial Intelligence
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
The Use of Multimedia
Multimedia Web Pages
Flash and Shockwave are the leading sources of
Web movies and games.
• Shockwave is a more intensive format.
• Flash is faster and commonly used for more
cartoon-like imagery.
• Both provide fast, easily created movies that
transmit over the Internet as part of a Web page.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
The Use of Multimedia
Educational Tools
– Schools and colleges use online courses as a
valuable teaching medium.
– Online courses incorporate sound, images, and
videos within a text framework.
– Multimedia tutorials are helpful for special
education students because the materials are
presented in various forms.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
The Use of Multimedia
Computer Games
– About 68 percent of Americans play some type
of computer game on a regular basis.
– Game consoles rival personal computers for
power and are priced under $300.
– Online games involve thousands of players and
enable them to chat, have adventures, and
interact in worlds that only exist inside a
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
The Use of Multimedia
Computer Games
– Multimedia PCs are the most costly and highpowered computers on the consumer market.
– Running a game makes a computer work harder
than any other task because it requires fast 3D
video, sound, and networking—often all at
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
The Use of Multimedia
Online Gaming
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
• The process of taking analog data, such as a
human voice, and turning it into a data file
on a disk is called digitizing.
• Digital media collectively refers to digital
copies of any form of media.
The main advantage of digital media versus
analog data is that it can be reproduced an
infinite number of times with no degradation of
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Painting and Drawing Programs
– A bitmap-based graphics program allows
users to create pictures by changing the pixels
on the screen from white to black.
– A vector-based graphics program enables
users to construct pictures by creating, editing,
and combining mathematically defined
geometric shapes.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Commonly Used Standard Graphics File Formats
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Graphics File Formats
– A native format is a format that is specific to
that application.
– Saving a graphic in a standard file format is
called exporting the graphic.
– Placing a graphic in standard file format into
another document or file is called importing
the graphic.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Graphics File Formats
– A bitmap is the simplest form of an image file.
• It will draw a perfect image without any of the
guesswork of a compressed file.
• However, it takes up a lot of space.
– In data compression, a conversion program
can “compress” a bitmap image into another
file format that looks almost as good, and
requires less file space.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Data Compression
Shown here are a compressed bitmap file (left) and an
uncompressed bitmap file (right) of the same image.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Vector Graphics
– A vector graphic stores an image as a series of
geometric shapes.
– Vector graphics are useful for line drawings,
but cannot reproduce a detailed image such as a
human face.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Vector Graphics
– A wireframe diagram can use threedimensional techniques to show the underlying
structure of a three-dimensional object on a
two-dimensional surface.
– Bitmaps called textures can then be drawn on
top of the many facets of this diagram to make
it look real.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Clip Art Images
– Clip art images are sizable icon-like images that
can be inserted into the text of reports and Web
pages to liven them up.
– Clip art tends to be somewhat generic.
– The images are normally stored in GIF file
format, allowing for limited animation.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Raster Image Editing
– Adobe Photoshop and Corel Paint Shop Pro can
edit digitized photographs.
– Digitized photographs are stored as raster
images—collections of black, white, or colored
– The most common raster image file format for
digitized photos is the Tag Image File Format
(TIF or TIFF).
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
3D Modeling Programs
– A 3D modeling program can make a computer
screen appear to have depth.
– Working with these programs requires the
combined talents of an artist and an advanced
computer user.
– These programs require enormous computing
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Computer Animation
– More and more movies are made with the aid of
computer graphic special effects (CG FX),
which allow user to draw computer-animated
– It is far cheaper to create computer-animated
graphics that to use traditional techniques.
– Animated graphics are easily manipulated—any
image can be redrawn until it is just right.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Sound
The sound of someone singing is captured by sampling
the sound and then storing the measurements in binary
form for use by the computer.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Sound
Wave files record any kind of sound by storing
masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly
how much voltage to send out to the speakers
each fraction of a second in order to reproduce
the sound.
Sound files can become quite large because 16 bits
are used for each measurement.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Sound
The Musical Instrument Digital Interface
(MIDI) technique digitally simulates musical
• It only needs to know which notes to play on each
musical instrument.
• MIDI files tend to reproduce poorly on PCs and are
used less frequently then they were a few years ago.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Sound
The MP3 file format takes a wave file and
reduces it by 90 percent, leaving behind a highquality reproduction.
• It uses a data compression system that works in a
similar fashion to that used by the JPEG or GIF
• There has been an explosion in the use of this file
format because of the dramatic reduction in size
with very little loss in quality.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Video
– Digital Movies
• Digital video will eventually replace analog video.
– Movie Compression Techniques
• The MPEG file format is the movie equivalent of an
• Home DVD players use the MPEG2 file format.
• The MOV file format is an Apple format.
• The AVI file format is an older file format.
• Flash is the format of movies on the Internet.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Video
Digital Cable
• The move to digital television was completed in the
U.S. in June 2009, prompting many users to switch
to digital cable.
• Digital cable offers a wide selection of stations, with
the ability to expand to 2,000.
• It also provides easily accessible information
buttons and scheduling data.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
Digitizing Video
Digital Video Recorder
• A digital video recorder (DVR) operates as a digital
TV cable box and can also perform the job of HDTV
• The DVR records TV on a hard drive inside the box.
• It provides the ability to pause and rewind live TV.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Digital Media
High-Definition Television
– High-definition television (HDTV) is
television with more lines and more pixels than
analog television—in other words, higher
– HDTVs are offered in a variety of models,
including 720i, 720p, 1080i, and 1080p.
• The number stands for the resolution.
• The i or p represents how the lines are drawn—
interlaced or progressive.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
What are the steps in creating a multimedia
– Planning the work
– Creating the elements to be included in the
– Combining the elements to create the work
– Testing, evaluating, and refining the work
– Writing the work to a portable storage medium
such as a CD-ROM, or posting it to the Web
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
Planning a Multimedia Work
– In sequential, page-based multimedia, the
work is a sequence of pages or slides appearing
one after the other.
This is appropriate for any application in which the
presentation order of the material is fixed.
– In hypertext, page-based multimedia, the
work is a set of pages with links that can be
followed at will.
A tree diagram is usually used to plan hypertext.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
Tree Diagram for Hypertext Page-Based Multimedia
This tree diagram shows the links between pages in a
simple multimedia presentation.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
Planning a Multimedia Work
– In movie-based multimedia, the work is a
movie, or series of movies, that stops from time
to time, enabling users to follow links.
– A storyboard, consisting of sketches of the
pages or frames as they will appear in the work,
is usually created to plan movie-based
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
Creating the Content of the Work
Content for a multimedia work can come from
many different sources.
• Text can be created in a word-processing program.
• Graphics can be created in painting, drawing, 3D
modeling, or animation programs.
• Images can be produced by traditional means and
scanned and edited in a graphics program.
• Programs such as Adobe Soundbooth are available
for capturing and editing sounds.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
Hardware/Software for Creating Multimedia
– A sound digitizing card enables computers to
capture and process digitized sounds.
– A video digitizing card allows users to capture
and digitize video images and sound.
– Video editing software allows users to edit
sounds and video and output in various digital
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Creating Multimedia
Combining the Elements
– The simplest multimedia works are documents
produced using standard office software such as
word processors or presentation programs.
– More complex works can be produced by using
Adobe Acrobat to incorporate pages created in
other applications into PDF files.
– The most sophisticated works are created in
authoring programs such as Adobe Director.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
• Artificial intelligence (AI) is the computer
application that has fueled the continual
effort to create faster and more powerful
• The goal of AI is to develop computers that
can perform functions normally reserved
for humans: thinking, talking, seeing,
feeling, walking, and learning from their
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
AI Technology Trends
– AI development is moving toward limited,
focused applications.
– Modern AI systems focus on simulating
specialized human functions.
– The goal of AI has shifted to augmenting
human capabilities rather than supplanting
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Applications of Artificial
The three primary areas
of artificial intelligence
• Cognitive science
• Natural interfaces
• Robotics
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
– The study and simulation of the human mind is
known as cognitive science.
• It is based on biology, neurology, psychology, and
other disciplines.
• It focuses on researching how the human brain
thinks and learns.
– Major applications in this area are intelligent
agents, expert systems, data mining, genetic
algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
An intelligent agent is an intuitive assistant that
can utilize knowledge based on past experience
and predictions of future behavior to assist
computer users.
• The agent’s goal is to reduce difficult tasks down to
a few mouse clicks.
• The best-known agents are the wizards found in
Microsoft Office products.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
An expert system attempts to embody human
expertise in a particular field.
• Authorities in a field of study develop expert systems
with the help of a knowledge engineer, a special
type of programmer who specializes in building a
knowledge base consisting of a set of rules.
• An inference engine enables the expert system to
draw deductions from the rules in the knowledge
base in response to user input.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
Data mining finds new ways to use masses of
data stored in the databases of large corporations.
• It sorts existing data to provide more carefully
targeted marketing and pricing of products.
• It is able to determine with good accuracy whether a
new offering will succeed or fail.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
Genetic algorithms apply a Darwinian (survival
of the fittest) method to problem solving.
• A computer creates thousands of slightly varied
designs and then tests and selects the best of them.
• The best programs evolve to another generation,
where more variations, or mutations, are made.
• The most successful mutations undergo a crossover,
which produces a new generation of “offspring.”
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
Instead of demanding yes/no or numerical
information, a fuzzy logic system allows users to
input “fuzzy” data.
• This is an attempt to simulate real-world conditions.
• These systems work more naturally with the user by
piecing together an answer similar to what a
traditional expert system uses.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Comparison of Traditional SQL Query and the
Equivalent Fuzzy Logic Query
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive Science Applications
A neural network simulates the physical
workings of the human mind and presents the
ultimate attempt to model human intelligence.
• It generally starts off with only an input source,
some form of output, and a goal.
• It learns by trial and error how a desired output
affects the input.
• The “gain” controls how quickly the system will
learn or unlearn something.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Natural Interface Applications
– With speech recognition, users can direct a
computer with voice commands rather than
typing information into it.
– A natural-language interface is broader in
scope than speech recognition—the goal is to
have the computer read a set of news articles
and understand what it has read.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Natural Interface Applications
– Virtual reality (VR) describes the concept of
creating a realistic world within the computer.
The quality of a VR system is characterized in terms
of its immersiveness—how real it feels.
– A mental interface uses sensors mounted
around the skull to read the alpha waves our
brains give off.
The computer measures brain activity and interprets
it as a command.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Robots as Androids
– The science of robotics is creating machines
capable of independent movement and action.
– An android is a simulated human.
– To be more like humans, robots must undergo
technological advances in visual and audio
perception, touch, dexterity, locomotion, and
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Robots as Androids
– Visual perception is processing data coming
from the eyes.
A single camera can’t simulate the eye—two
cameras are needed to give stereoscopic vision,
which allows depth and movement perception.
– Audio perception is processing data coming
from the ears.
The robot must be able to identify a single voice and
interpret what is being said amid background noise.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Robots as Androids
– Tactile perception is the sense of touch.
• The robot must not only be able to feel an object, but
sense how much pressure it is applying.
• The robot also needs dexterity, or hand-eye
– Locomotion includes broad movements such as
Robots need balance, as well as the ability to adapt
to a variety of situations.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Artificial Intelligence
Robots as Androids
Navigation deals with the science of moving a
mobile robot through an environment.
It must work closely with a visual system or some
other kind of perception system.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
On the Horizon
Based on the information presented in this
chapter and your own experience, what do
you think is on the horizon?
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.