Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles
“A Peace Built Upon Quicksand”
Treaty of Versailles
• Conference January -June 1919
• Settlement drafted by delegates of victorious
nations in WWI: Britain, United States, France,
and Italy
• “We were preparing not Peace only, but Eternal
Peace. There was about us the halo of some
divine mission….For we were bent on doing
great , permanent and noble things.”
Participant of conference at Versailles,
World History: Continuity & Change, p. 612
•A representative of the new German
government met with Marshal Foch.
•In a railway car in a forest near Paris, the
two signed an armistice (an agreement to
stop fighting).
•On November 11, 1918, World War I came
to an end.
•Leaders of the victorious nations gathered
outside Paris to work out the terms of
peace, but the peace settlement left many
feeling bitter & betrayed.
Why Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Failure of German surge
German troops mutinied and deserted
British naval blockade
Food & supplies in short supply
Riots on streets of Germany
Kaiser fled abroad
New government prepared to discuss
peace terms---Weimar Republic
• Get rid of the monarchy
GERMAN EAGLE (to German Dove): "Here, carry on for a
bit, will you I'm feeling rather run down."
Peace at Last
· At 11 a.m. on
November 11, 1918,
Germany agreed to the
armistice, ending
World War I.
The armistice was signed in a railway
carriage in the forest of Compiegne.
How and why are these two images of
the same event so different?
•News of the Armistice brought great relief.
• On both sides of no-man’s land, trenches erupted, they threw their helmets in the air,
discarded their guns, waved their hands, then the two groups of men all up and down
the fronts began edging toward each other, hesitantly at first, but when they met up, they
began hugging each other, dancing, jumping, passing out cigarettes and chocolate.
•The French & the Germans were not only hugging each other but kissing each other on
both cheeks as well.
•The final toll of the war was staggering.
•It lasted 4 years, involved more than 30 nations & was the bloodiest war in history to
that time.
•Deaths numbered over 30 million, half of them civilians who died as a result of disease,
starvation or exposure.
•In addition, 20 million more people were wounded & an additional 10 million became
• Historians estimate the direct economic cost of the war to have been about $350
Total casualties: Russia = 9,300,000 Germany = 7,209,413
France = 6,220,800 Austria-Hungary = 4,650,200 Britain = 3,428,535
U.S. = 325,236
Aftermath of World War I:
• almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over
20 million are wounded
• millions of civilians died as a result of the
hostilities, famine, and disease
• the world was left with hatred, intolerance, and
extreme nationalism.
Aftermath of World War I:
Consequences Continued
• the total cost of the war: over $350 billion. How was
this paid for???
– heavy taxes: causes lower standard of living for the
European people.
• international trade suffers: nations raise the tariffs on
imports and exports.
• Russia: communist seize power and introduce a new
economic system.
• economic collapses bring on the Great Depression of
the late 1920’s and 1930’s.
Aftermath of World War I:
Consequences Continued
• U. S. emerges as a world power because of the assumption of
international responsibilities.
• 3 major European dynasties are taken out of power:
Romanovs--Russia, Hohenzollerns--Germany, Hapsburgs-Austria-Hungary.
• New states are created in central Europe, some containing
several different nationalities, especially in Poland and
• The League of Nations is created to solve international
problems and maintain world peace. Will be a failure.
• Many nations turn to military dictatorships—primarily Russia,
Italy, and Germany, to control their political problems.
Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted
revenge after the war? Why or why not? Respond on Left Side.
•Around 8 million people had been killed
•The cost of the war was roughly nine thousand million pounds
•The destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was huge
•Millions more people died after the war due to famine and disease
“In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought,
300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway,
2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed…In
some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors
of the First World War.”
John D. Clare, First World War (1994)
Impact in Europe
The effects of World War I in Europe were devastating.
– European nations lost almost an entire generation of young
– France, where most of the fighting took place, was in ruins.
– Great Britain was deeply in debt to the U.S. and lost its place
as the world’s financial center.
– The reparations forced on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles were crippling to its economy.
• World War I would not be the “war to end all wars,” as some
called it.
– Too many issues were left unresolved.
– Too much anger and hostility remained among nations.
• Within a generation, conflict would again break out in Europe,
bringing the United States and the world back into war.
The Mood in 1919
 Most countries felt Germany should pay for
the damage and destruction caused by the
 The countries of Europe were exhausted.
 Their economies and industries were in a
poor state.
 Millions had died. Almost every family had
lost a member in the fighting.
 Ordinary citizens faced shortages of food
and medicine.
The Paris Peace Conference
• President Wilson led American negotiators attending the peace conference
in Paris in January 1919.
– His attendance of the Paris Peace Conference made him the first U.S.
President to visit Europe while in office.
– Republicans criticized Wilson for leaving the country when it was trying
to restore its economy.
• Wilson’s dream of international peace, though, required him to attend the
conference as a fair and unbiased leader to prevent squabbling among
European nations.
• The Paris Peace Conference began on January 12, 1919, with leaders
representing 32 nations, or about three-quarters of the world’s population.
• The leaders of the victorious Allies—President Wilson, British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian
prime minister Vittorio Orlando—became known as the Big Four.
• Germany and the Central Powers were not invited to attend.
“Der Tail
Sticks Oudt"
The San
November 3,
General Purpose
• To maintain a balance of power in Europe
like the Congress of Vienna
• To prevent another war
• Unfortunately, nations had differing aims
David Lloyd-George
[Great Britain]
Woodrow Wilson
Georges Clemenceau
The Four Major Leaders
End of the War Continued
• Eventually five treaties
emerged from the Conference
that dealt with the defeated
• The five treaties were named
after the Paris suburbs:
o Versailles (Germany),
o St Germain (Austria),
o Trianon (Hungary),
o Neuilly (Bulgaria)
o and Serves (Turkey).
• These treaties imposed
territorial losses, financial
liabilities and military
restrictions on all members of
the Central Powers.
Woodrow Wilson
• President of the USA.
• Wilson was an idealist and
reformer, who wanted to build
a better and more peaceful
• He didn’t want the Treaty to
be too harsh as he believed
this would lead to revenge.
• He wanted to set up a peace
keeping body – The League
of Nations
• Wilson did not understand
the deep feelings of hatred in
• Fourteen Points including self-determination,
reduction in militaries, and the League of Nations
• American public preferred not to entangle itself
with Europe (ex. Henry Cabot Lodge)
America’s View: A Peace of Justice
• Woodrow Wilson of America had been genuinely stunned
by the savagery of the Great War.
• He could not understand how an advanced civilization
could have reduced itself so that it had created so much
• In America, there was a growing desire for the
government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave
Europe to its own devices.
• In failing health, Wilson wanted America to concentrate
on itself and, despite developing the idea of a League of
Nations, he wanted an American input into Europe to be
kept to a minimum.
• He believed that Germany should be punished but in a
way that would lead to European reconciliation as
opposed to revenge.
America’s View Continued
• He had already written about what he believed the
world should be like in his "Fourteen Points" The
main points in this document were:
1) no more secret treaties
2) countries must seek to reduce their weapons and
their armed forces
3) national self-determination should allow people
of the same nationality to govern themselves and
one nationality should not have the power to
govern another
4) all countries should belong to the League of
The Fourteen Points
• In a speech to Congress before the war ended, President Wilson outlined a
vision of a “just and lasting peace.”
• His plan was called the Fourteen Points, and among its ideas were
—Open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and
the reduction of military arms
—A fair system to resolve disputes over colonies
—Self-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political
status and form their own nations
—Establishing a League of Nations, or an organization of countries
working together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent
future wars
• The Fourteen Points expressed a new philosophy that applied progressivism
to U.S. foreign policy.
• The Fourteen Points declared that foreign policy should be based on
morality, not just on what’s best for the nation.
What does this source tell you about the British
public’s feelings towards Germany in 1918? Respond
to this on your Left Side.
“The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every
penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until
the pips squeak.”
(Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918)
Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the
Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during
The First World War.
Siegfried Sassoon, the poet, wrote
in his diary on November 6, 1918:
• “Saw Winston Churchill for a few
minutes at the Ministry. Full of
victory talk…One feels that England
is going to increase in power
enormously. They mean to skin
Germany alive. ‘A peace to end
“The British General Election in December 1918 was
punctuated by bellowings that the Kaiser should be hanged,
that Germany should pay up….Few realised the harmful
effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which
had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped
up by the popular press…”
Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.
Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the
right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace? Do
with your partner and write on Left Side.
David Lloyd George
• The prime minister of Great
• He was a realist.
• An experienced politician
who realised there must be
• The people of Britain
wanted revenge.
• He knew this would lead to
war but he represented the
Lloyd George (UK)
•Germany to be justly punished,
but not too harshly
•Germany to lose its navy and
colonies as these were a threat
to Britain's own navy and empire
•Germany and Britain to become
trading partners
BUT Overall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too
harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future
•Protect overseas territory
and naval superiority
•Germany can remain a
major power
•Public opinion wanted
Germany to pay
•Represented by David
Lloyd George
Great Britain’s Peace of
• David Lloyd George of Great Britain had two views on
how Germany should be treated.
• His public image was simple.
• He was a politician and politicians needed the support of
the public to succeed in elections.
• If he had come across as being soft on Germany, he would
have been speedily voted out of office.
• The British public was after revenge and Lloyd George's
public image reflected this mood.
• "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two
very common calls in the era immediately after the end of
the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support,
echoed these views.
“The Children” by Rudyard Kipling 1917
These were our children who died for our
lands: they were dear in our sight.
We have only the memory left of their
home-treasured sayings and laughter.
The price of our loss shall be paid to our
hands, not another’s hereafter.
Neither the Alien nor Priest shall decide
it. That is our right.
But who shall return us the children?
At the hour the Barbarian chose to
disclose his pretences,
And raged against Man, they engaged, on
the breasts that they bared for us,
The first felon-strike of the sword he had
long-time prepared for us,
Their bodies were all our defence while
we wrought our defences.
They bought us anew with their blood,
forbearing to blame us,
Those hours which we had not made good
when the Judgement o’ercame us.
They believed us and perished for it. Our
statecraft, our learning
Delivered them bound to the Pit and alive to
the burning
Whither they mirthfully hastened as jostling
for honour--Not since her birth has our Earth seen such
worth loosed upon her.
Nor was their agony brief, or once, only
imposed on them.
The wounded, the war-spent, the sick received
no exemption:
Being cured they returned and endured and
achieved our redemption,
Hopeless themselves of relief, till Death
marvelling, closed on them.
“The Children” continued
That flesh we had nursed from the first in all cleanness was given
To corruption unveiled and assailed by the malice of Heaven--By the heart-shaking jests of Decay where it lolled on the wires--To be blanched or gay-painted by fumes---to be cindered by fires--To be senselessly tossed and retossed in stale mutilation
From crater to crater. For this we shall take expiation.
But who shall return us our children?
• What stance does this poem take towards the peace process?
• How can you tell?
Lloyd George’s Private Views
• He was very concerned about the rise of
communism in Russia .
• He feared that it might spread to western Europe.
• After the war had finished, Lloyd George believed
that the spread of communism posed a far greater
threat to the world than a defeated Germany.
• Privately, he felt that Germany should be treated
in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the
expected spread of communism.
• He did not want the people of Germany to
become so disillusioned with their government
that they turned to communism.
Private Views of Lloyd George
• Lloyd George did not want Germany treated
with lenience but he knew that Germany
would be the only country in central Europe
that could stop the spread of communism if
it burst over the frontiers of Russia.
• Germany had to be punished but not to the
extent that it left her destitute.
• However, it would have been political
suicide to have gone public with these views.
•Lloyd George (UK)
There was pressure at home to make Germany pay – if
he had been too soft he would have been voted out as
•Lloyd George hated the Treaty.
•However "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay"
were two very common calls in the era immediately
after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for
public support, echoed these views.
What did Lloyd
George like and
dislike about
the Treaty?
He liked the fact that Britain got German colonies, and
the small German navy helped British sea-power.
• But, although many British people wanted to ‘make
Germany pay’, Lloyd George thought that the Treaty
was too harsh, and that it would start another war in 25
years time.
“For the Apostles of ‘No Humiliation’ by Owen
Seaman in Punch on Oct 23, 1918
Rumours arrive thick as swarming bees;
Our evening rags announce with raucous
The latest wire, the semi-final wheeze
Transmitted by the fertile Rotterdammer,
Giving a local version
Of William Two’s spontaneous dispersion.
They leave me cold. I care not how he pays
The heavy debt his deeds of wanton fury
owe--Whether he puts his orb to bed, or stays
On exhibition like an antique curio;
The reckoning we charge
Has to be settled by the Hun at large.
Here and elsewhere his advocates impute
Innocence to the Bosch---a gentle creature,
Too prone perhaps to lick the tyrant’s boot.
But otherwise without a vicious feature;
They’d have our wrath abated;
Poor child, ‘he must not be humiliated.’
Why not? Against his army’s bestial crimes
He never lifted one protesting finger
The wrongs of Belgium drew his jocund
Over the Hymn of Hate he loved to linger.
Pressing the forte pedal
And wore---for luck---the Lusitania medal.
“For the Apostles” continued
He took a holiday for children slain,
And butchered women set his flags aflutter;
Our drowning anguish served for his light
To beery patriots homing down the gutter;
On prisoners he spat,
The helpless ones, and thanked his Gott for
Had he but fought a decent nations fight,
Clean-handed, then we must have spared
his honour;
But now, if Germany goes down in night,
‘Tis he, not we, that puts the shame upon
Shame not of mere defeat,
But such that never our hands again can
• Why should his pride of race be
spared a fall?
• Let him go humble all his days for
• Why pity him as just a Kaiser’s
• This beast at heart---though fear
may fake repentance?
• For me, when all is said,
• I save my pity for the murdered
• What arguments are made to deal
with Germany harshly in this poem?
He was
George Clemenceau
• President of France.
• Clemenceau had seen
France invaded by
Germany in 1870 and
1914, he wanted to make
sure this would never
happen again.
• France had suffered
greatly during the War they
wanted compensation and
• Uncompromising.
• Bitter over French and Prussian War
• Permanently weaken Germany to protect France (after
two invasions)
• Some wanted Germany divided
• Represented by Premier Georges Clemenceau
France’s Views: A Peace of
• Georges Clemenceau of France had one very
simple belief - Germany should be brought to its
knees so that she could never start a war again.
• This reflected the views of the French public but it
was also what Clemenceau himself believed in.
• He had seen the north-east corner of France
destroyed and he determined that Germany
should never be allowed to do this again.
• "The Tiger" did not have to adapt his policies to
suit the French public - the French leader and the
French public both thought alike.
•Clemenceau (France)
Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in
the Treaty, especially reparations, because they
would weaken Germany while helping France to
•He had one very simple belief - Germany should
be brought to its knees so that she could never
start a war again (France had been invaded by
Germany before in 1871).
•He liked the idea of a small German army, and
the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because
he thought that this would protect France from
What did
attack in the future.
Clemenceau like •Also, he was pleased that France received Alsaceand dislike about
Lorraine as this had been taken off France by
the Treaty?
Germany in 1871.
• In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be
Vittorio Orlando
• Italian Prime Minister.
• Wanted land and territory
for Italy.
• Self determination stopped
Italy getting the lands
especially Fiume.
• Walked out of the meeting
when he didn’t get his way
in April 1919.
• Returned to sign the Treaty
in May.
Italy’s Views: Obtain Land
• Linked to the "Big Three" was Italy led by Vittorio
• He was frequently left on the sidelines when the
important negotiations took place despite Italy
fighting on the side of the Allies.
• Why was Italy treated in this manner?
1)At the start of the war in 1914, Italy should have
fought with Germany and Austria as she had signed
the Triple Alliance which dictated that if one of the
three was attacked, the other two would go to that
country's aid.
2)Italy did not join in on Germany's side but waited
until 1915 and joined the side of Britain and France.
3)This association with Germany was enough to taint
Italy in the eyes of the "Big Three".
Treatment of Italy Continued
• Why was Italy treated in this manner?
4)Also Italy had not played an overwhelming
part in the war.
– Her army had been beaten at the battles of Caporetto.
5)Her strategic importance to central Europe
was minimal whilst Britain dominated the
Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta
and Gibraltar.
– Italy's potential military clout in 1919, should the need
arise to put pressure on Germany and Austria, was
Political Cartoon on Futile Attempts
of America
• Respond on your Left
• What do you think is
the point of this
political cartoon?
• What do you think the
caption for this
political cartoon
should be?
After reading this source, how do you think the
Germans felt at the end of World War One?
Respond to this prompt on your Left Side.
“Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, Great Britain,
America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans,
Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keep their eyes fixed
away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are
deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign. There is general
relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like
prisoners from the dock.”
(Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.)
Treaty of Versailles – end of WWI
• The main points of
the Treaty [BRAT]
• 1. Germany had
to accept the
Blame for
starting the war
• 2.
Reparations for
the damage done
during the war.
Versailles cont. .
• 3.
was forbidden to
have submarines
or an air
force. She could
have a navy of
only six
battleships, and
an Army of just
100,000 men.
• 4.
lost Territory
(land) in
Europe (see
colonies were
given to
Britain and
Germany had to hand over
some 70,000 square
kilometres of land.
This accounted for about 13%
of all of her land and six
million of her people who
lived there.
An Allied Army was to occupy
the Rhineland for a period
of fifteen years.
No German troops were to be
allowed into the occupation
Treaty of Versailles Items
• The Treaty of Versailles includes 440 articles. The
principal items are:
• Germany has to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France.
• Germany has to cede the coal mines in the Saar-area to
• Germany has to cede an area with Moresnet, Eupen,
Malmédy and St. Vith to Belgium.
• Germany has to cede the main part of West-Prussia and
almost the whole province of Posen to the new state of
• Germany has to cede all colonies: Togo en Cameroun, the
territories in East- and South-West Africa, islands in the
Pacific and possessions in China.
Treaty of Versailles Items Continued
• All German properties in foreign countries are
• Germany has to cede all war material to the Allies.
• German compulsory military service is abolished, as
well as the General Staff.
• Germany is not allowed to have tanks, airplanes,
submarines, large warships and poison gas.
• During 15 years Germany is not allowed to station
troops on the left border of the river Rhine and in a 50
km strip on the right border of the Rhine.
• The total size of the Germany army is not to exceed
100,000 men.
Treaty of Versailles Items
• The German navy has a maximum of 15,000
• Germany is allowed a total of 4,000 officers.
• Germany is not to take part in the League of
• Austria has to cede South-Tyrol to Italy.
• Turkey has to cede all foreign possessions.
England gets Iraq, Palestine and TransJordan, France gets Syria and Lebanon.
Treaty of Versailles Items Continued
• Germany has to cede to the allies all seagoing ships with a
carrying capacity exceeding 1600 Brt, plus half of all ships
between 1000 and 1600 Brt.
• Furthermore one fourth of the fishing fleet and two fifths
of the inland navigation fleet has to be ceded.
• Germany has to cede large amounts of machinery and
building materials, trains and trucks.
• Germany has to deliver certain amounts of coal,
chemicals, dye and fuel for many years.
• All German sub-ocean telegraph cables are confiscated.
• Germany has to pay 20 billion goldmarks.
War Guilt Clause
• Article 231 of the Treaty
• "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm
and Germany accepts the responsibility of
Germany and her allies for causing all the loss
and damage to which the Allied and Associated
Governments and their nationals have been
subjected as a consequence of the war imposed
upon them by the aggression of Germany and
her allies.”
• Germans felt the clause was unjust
Mandate System
• Germany lost all overseas territories and a mandate
system set up where Allied Countries pledged to
prepare the subjects for self-government
– South-West Africa under South Africa and RuandaUrundi went to Belgium;
– Tanganyika, Nigeria & Gold Coast went to Great
– Togo and Cameroons went to France
• Ottoman Empire lost control of Arab lands in the
Middle East
– Palestine, Iraq & Transjordan mandate of Great
– Lebanon & Syria mandate of France
Africa Mandates
Middle East Mandates
Germany had to accept
blame for starting WW1
Germany lost Chinese
ports [Amoy and
Tsingtao], Pacific
Islands, and African
colonies [Tanganika and
German SW Africa].
- Army restricted to
100,000 men.
Germany forced to pay
massive fine for war
damages - 1,000,000,000
Marks (6.6bn pounds).
The Treaty was designed
to cripple Germany
militarily, territorially and
- No modern weapons
such as tanks, military air
- Navy could not have
battle ships over 10,000
tons and no U-Boats.
- Germany lost national territory which was given
to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland.
Things to Consider about the
o Note 1: The reparations were progressively reduced by the
Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans. In 1932 they were
forgiven completely. By that time the damage had been
1. Destruction of the German currency and economy what was left after the war anyway -, and
2. Destruction of the nation's political stability that
allowed major riots and street battles between
Communists, Nazis and others, leading to the successful
grab for power by Adolf Hitler.
Things to Consider about the
• Note 2: The terms imposed on Germany at
Versailles were much more mild than those
Germany had imposed on Russia (the Brest-Litovsk
treaty, summer 1918), or those that Germany
planned to impose on the Western Allies if she had
won the war - including, among other things, the
subjugation of Belgium, innocent victim of German
aggression in 1914.
Things to Consider about the
• Note 3: Had the Versailles Treaty been applied as
envisioned, Germany would not have been
rearming in 1932.
– 1. The fact that Germany did rearm was not a
problem brought about by the Treaty.
– 2. In the end, Versailles became a dog's dinner. It
neither crushed Germany enough to stop her rise
again, yet it was still able to humiliate her.
Newly Formed Countries
East Prussia
Separate Austria and
Redrawn Boundaries After Treaty
• Here are the newly
formed countries out
of the old AustriaHungary, German,
and Ottoman
Old Countries with New Borders
A German nationalist responds to the terms of the treaty:
• “People and government have,
during the most recent days,
unambiguously made clear that
we cannot sign the document
which our enemies call a peace.
One thing is certain, that any
government, which, by its
signature, would confer upon this
work of the devil…the halo of
right, would, sooner or later be
driven out…Nothing is left but to
remain cold-blooded, offer
passive resistance wherever
possible, and show contempt
and pride”
• ---Alfred von Wegerer
• May 28, 1919
• Do this on your Left
• What is his view of
the Treaty of
• What is he
• Why does this not
bode well for a lasting
Shows Germany as beaten
but still big and solid enough
to be dangerous
British and
French police
Shows what cartoonist
thinks the Treaty terms
should do to Germany
caused by war
Large and solid
(prisoner won’t
Deliberately shown as
civilians (not army)
Suggests cartoonist
thinks Germany will try
to worm out of
responsibility for war
German criminal (to Allied Police): Here, I say,
stop! You’re hurting me!
[Aside] If I only whine enough I may be able to
wriggle out of this yet!
1. Describe the
scene shown,
what is the
2. Then, assess the
features in the
3. Then, identify the
political message
intended by the
What does
the ‘Angel’
‘Punch’ was
Britain’s main
magazine of
the period.
Why the candle
‘snuffer’? What
message does
it represent?
What does
the candle
What is the general political message of the cartoon?
German Postcard
• German postcard
produced about the
time of the Treaty of
• Its title is 'Hands off
German Homeland'.
• On the stone (bottom
left) is written 'd.ö.'
standing for Deutschösterreich (German
“Peace” by Eleanor Farjeon
I am as awful as my brother War,
I am the sudden silence after clamour.
I am the face that shows the seamy scar
When blood has lost its frenzy and its
Men in my pause shall know the cost at last
That is not to be paid in triumph or tears.
Men will begin to judge the thing that’s past
As men will judge it in a hundred years.
Nations! Whose ravenous engines must be
Endlessly with the father and the son,
My naked light upon your darkness, dread!-By which ye shall behold what ye have
Whereon, more like vulture than a dove,
Ye set my seal in hatred, not in love.
Let no man call me good. I am not blest.
My single virtue is in the end of crimes.
I only am the period of unrest,
The ceasing of the horrors of the times;
My good is but the negative of ill,
Such ill as bends the spirit with despair,
Such ill as makes the nation’s soul stand
And freeze to stone beneath its Gorgon
Be blunt, and say that peace is but a state
Wherein the active soul is free to move,
And nations only show as mean or great
According to the spirit then they prove.--O which of ye whose battle-cry is Hate
Will first in peace dare shout the name of
Source C
A German postcard, produced
about the time of the Treaty of
Versailles, showing the land where
Germans lived. The areas in red
are the lands given to other
countries by the Treaty of
Versailles,( including the land lost
by Austria).
Its title is 'Lost but not forgotten
The poem under the map reads:
You must carve in your heart
These words, as in stone What we have lost
Will be regained!
Vengeance! German Nation
Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful
Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it! The German people
will with unceasing labour press forward to reconquer the
place among nations to which it is entitled. Then will come
the vengeance for the shame of 1919.
From the ‘Deutsche Zeitung’ [‘The German Express’] newspaper.
Only fools, liars and criminals could hope for mercy from
the enemy. In these nights hatred grew in me, hatred for
those responsible for the dead.
By Adolf Hitler, who had served in the army and became a future leader of
• Gave rise to Hitler
who used the
Treaty of Versailles
as a rallying cry for
nationalism and
• Dictated Peace of
Film Clip
Film Clip
What was the League of Nations?
• An idea of American President Woodrow
Wilson following the first world war
• An international police force made up of
representatives of many countries
• An organisation that would allow disputes to
be settled without resorting to war, based in
Geneva (neutral).
Differing views on how the
League should operate:
A world parliament
A simple organisation
that would meet
during emergencies
would meet regularly
to decide on matter
which affected all of
A strong League
capable of enforcing
decisions with its
own army
Each of these types of League has advantages and
disadvantages: Which idea do you think is best
and why? Write on your Left Side.
France: Although France’s idea of a strong League would
mean it could be an effective force, the League was
meant to be centred on peace. Potentially, its own army
could provoke another war
Britain: Britain’s simpler idea would mean that the League
would merely dealing with emergencies rather than
working on preventing them from of occurring in the
first place
America: America’s version of the League would be
expensive and a complicated to organise, although it
might have been the most effective version in terms of
keeping peace
However, the idea of joining the League
was not popular with all Americans…
Many Americans did not think the
Treaty of Versailles was fair. As the
League was linked with the treaty,
they did not want to be a part of it
Americans wanted to stay out of
disputes that might enter their
troops into the kind of carnage of the
first world war
Others wanted to avoid the economic
cost of joining the League
Many Americans were anti-French or
Anti-British. They thought the
League would be run by these
countries and did not want to get
involved with their affairs
Wilson’s party lost the election in 1919. His
opponents promised to follow a policy of
isolationism (staying out of international affairs).
And so America did not join the League of
The League of Nations
Stop aggression
social conditions
Aims of the League
1. Discourage aggression from any country
2. Encourage co-operation in business and
3. Encourage disarmament
4. Improve working and living conditions
for people across the world
Membership: What problems do you
see from this? Write on Left Side.
• 42 members - by 1930’s 59
• Defeated countries could not join e.g.
• Russia excluded because communist
• USA did not join - isolation from world
• A club for the victorious?
When it opened, some countries
were not members of the League:
America:- had become isolationist
Germany:- As a defeated country who was
blamed for staring the Great war,
Germany was not invited to join
Russia:- Were not invited to join the
League, mainly due to their Communist
The Structure of the League of Nations
The Assembly
Each country one vote
The Council
Met several times a year
and in emergencies
5 permanent members
Each had right to veto any idea
Permanent court of
International Justice
Based at The Hague
Settle disputes peacefully
No power of enforcement
The Secretariat
Kept records - civil service
Powers of the League
• If a country ignored the ruling of the
League it could:
–Put pressure on
–Refuse to trade - sanctions
–Send in troops - member countries
join together
Powers of the League
The Covenant of the League set out three
ways the League could settle disputes:
1. A hearing by a neutral country
2. A ruling by the International Court of
Justice (what’s the weakness with
3. An Inquiry by the council
If this didn’t work the League could
take action
MORAL SANCTIONS – Put pressure on
the guilty country to stop.
would refuse to trade with the guilty
the league would join armed forces
together to take action NOTE: never
Can you see any weaknesses in the
League’s powers? Respond on Left Side.
Strengths of the League
• Many countries supported it in early
days - they wanted peace
• Had some early successes:
a)Settled some land disputes in 1920’s
b)Helped refugees,
c)Dealt with spread of disease,
d)Fought for better conditions for
Successes in the 1920s
• With the League’s help over 400 000 prisoners of
war were returned home
• The slavery Commission brought about the freeing
of over 200 000 slaves in British-owned SierraLeone and organised raids against slave owners
and traders in Burma
• The Health Committee worked hard to defeat
leprosy and malaria. It later became the World
Health Organisation
• Sweden accepted the League’s decision to give the
Aaland islands to Finland. The two countries thereby
avoided going to war for them
• The League divided Upper Silesia between
Germany and Poland after a plebiscite showed a
clear divide. Both countries accepted this decision.
Weaknesses of League
• USA didn’t join
• No real power - relied on goodwill and
• No permanent army
• Disarmament not realistic
• Structure a disaster - everyone had to
agree before any action taken
1929 Wall Street Crash!
This is MAJOR turning point for the league:
*Many members of the League were now focussed on
solving domestic problems.
*The crash created a depression in Europe causing
unemployment and poverty.
Dictators rose to power as they promised a solution
to problems.
These were new problems for the League to face
*Had a major effect on Japan who relied heavily on
international trade.
This would eventually contribute towards the
invasion of Manchuria
Failure of Collective Security
“During the 1930’s three powers--Japan,
Italy and Germany--grew increasingly
“Each sought to enhance its influence and to
expand its territory through the use of
military force.”
“Anxious to avoid war, the Western
democracies yielded time and again to the
World History: Continuity & Change, p.684
The 1930s…
Were BAD for the League:
*The 1930s are always seen as bad for the
league by comparison with the 1920s.
Remember this for exam questions that ask
about both
*There were three huge failures for the League
in the 1930s:
1. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria
2. The failure of the disarmament conference
3. The invasion of Abyssinia by Italy
Failure #1: Manchuria
• There was an explosion on the Manchurian
railway that ran though China. The Japanese
depended on this railway to transport goods
into their country, whose natural resources
and agriculture were limited by their
mountainous terrain.
• The Japanese invaded China on the grounds
that it needed to safeguard its railway.
However, they later also bombed Shanghai
•China appealed to the League for help and the
League ruled that the Japanese should return
Manchuria to Chinese rule.
•But Japan continued to invade new areas of
•The League discussed sanctions but its member
were not prepared to send troops to enforce its
Why did it fail?
*Japan was too far away
*The League were worried about offending Japan who
was an important member of the League
*Britain and France were more concerned about the
problems resulting from the depression in their own
*Russia, the only country with troops and resources
enough to combat the problem quickly in the region,
was not a member of the League
Failure 2: The Disarmament conference
In February 1932 the League of Nations began the longawaited disarmament conference.
It produced resolutions to limit the size of artillery and
tanks, ban the bombing of civilians and chemical warfare.
HOWEVER, nothing was agreed upon as to how they would
enforce these limits.
They were also unsure as to what to do about Germanyshould all countries disarm to her level or should Germany
be allowed to re-arm to the new universal lower level as
the TOV had been too harsh?
Key events at the Disarmament
July 1932
Germany walked out after the other
countries failed to agree to all countries
disarming to its level
December 1932
An agreement was finally reached to treat
the Germans equally
January 1933
Germany announced that it was coming
February 1933
Hitler started to re-arm Germany anyway in
October 1933
Hitler walked out of the Conference
permanently and soon after withdrew
Germany from the League of Nations
Failure 3: Mussolini’s invasion of
Abyssinia 1935
The pale grey areas were
Italian territory in
eastern Africa.
You can see why Italy, who
wanted to expand her
empire, would choose
this area of land.
Italy also wanted revenge
after an embarassing
failed attempt to take
Abyssinia in 1896
The background
• Like Japan, Italy was an important member of the
• Like Japan, Italy wanted to expand its empire
• Unlike Japan, Italy was right on the League’s
• Unlike Japan, Abyssinia had borders with British
• UNLIKE Japan, the League could not claim the
problem was too far away to deal with.
This would be a very real test for the League
The events
• 1934 There was a dispute
between Italian and Ethiopian
soldiers at an oasis 8oKM inside
•Mussolini claimed this was
Italian territory
• Mussolini began preparing an
army for an invasion
•The Abyssinian emperor
appealed to the League for help
So what did the League do?
Very little…
*The League was anxious to keep Italy on side. Italy was their
best ally against Hitler.
*Britain and France signed an agreement with Mussolini about
standing united against Germany and the problem in
Abyssinia was not even discussed
*There was much talking and negotiating but nothing was
actually done to discourage Mussolini
*Eventually a committee reported to the League that neither
side was responsible for the conflict at the oasis. The
League put forward a plan that would give Italy some of
Abyssinia. But Mussolini rejected it.
The siTuaTion worsens…
• October 1935 A full-scale Italian invasion of Abyssinia commenced
• It was a clear sign of aggression and the League’s covenant (set of
guidelines) made it clear that sanctions should be imposed.
• It banned sales of arms, rubber, metals and loans to Italy.
• However, these sanctions caused economic problems e.g. British
coal-workers lost jobs because of ban of exports to Italy
• And Britain and France were making secret plans behind the League’s
back, offering Mussolini more of Abyssinia in return for stopping his
• Eventually, Hitler’s invasion of the Rhineland made many countries
unwilling to upset Italy any further, as their support against Hitler
seemed crucial.
The League watched helplessly. Mussolini annexed the whole country.
The League had failed.
What were the reasons for the League of
Nations’ failures during the 1930s?
We have
our own
TOV it was meant
to protect was
Absence of
Lack of Troops
Decisions were
Sanctions were
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919)
• Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were just as
multi-national as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
they replaced
– Czechoslovakia
• Czechs
• Slovaks
– Yugoslavia
• This caused future unrest
in the area
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919)
• Broke up Austria-Hungary
• Had to pay war reparations – went bankrupt before
they could be set
• Couldn’t enter into unions without consent of the
League of Nations
• Austrian army limited to 30,000 volunteers
• Reduced their territory
• Also dealt with railroad rights and navigation rights
over the Danube River
• Result - The vast reduction of territory, population, and
resources of the new Austria severely affected its
economy and made them resentful
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Trianon (Nov. 1920)
• Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory and 3.3 million people
• When the Romanian Army infringed upon the ceasefire line, the Allied powers asked Hungary to
acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gains
• Unable to reject the terms, but unable to accept the
treaty, the democratic government resigned. It was
replaced by a Communist government
• The Romanian army attacked and won
• The Allied powers restored the Hungarian state
• Army reduced to 35,000; no conscription
• Was to recognize the rights of minorities in her
• Amount of reparations was never set
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Trianon (Nov. 1920)
• Results - Caused economic problems and
ethnic unrest. They sided with Germany in
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920)
• Ottoman Empire renamed Turkey
• Territory shrunk:
– Created the Kingdom of Hejaz (later Saudi Arabia)
– Created Armenia
– Greece and Italy got territorial gains
– Mandates were given to:
• Britain –
– Iraq
– Palestine
• France –
– Lebanon
– Syria
Political Effects After WWI –
British Mandate of Palestine
• The United Kingdom was granted control of
Palestine by the Versailles Peace Conference
• During World War I the British had made two
promises regarding territory in the Middle East:
– Britain had promised the local Arabs, through
Lawrence of Arabia, independence for a united
Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle
East, in exchange for their supporting the British
– Britain had promised to create and foster a Jewish
national home as laid out in the Balfour Declaration,
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920)
• Allies controlled the Empire’s finances
• Everyone was to be granted free transit through the
• Goods in transit were to be free of customs duties
• Property of citizens from Germany, Austria, Hungary,
and Bulgaria was to be liquidated
• Army reduced to 50,000, reduced navy, reduced air
• Were supposed to give up the people responsible for
committing massacres during the war to an Allied
Tribunal, but this was never executed
• The Dardanelle Straits were to be open in both peace
and war
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920)
• Results –
– Created areas under Western control that were
nationalistic and sought their autonomy
– Fostered resentment of the occupying Western
– Some Middle Eastern countries, like Iran, would
create a good relationship with Germany
– Didn’t resolve the issue over a Jewish homeland
Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Neuilly (Nov. 1919)
• Bulgaria established borders over contested
• Reduce army to 20,000
• Pay reparations of over $400 million
• Results – Resentment over the loss of lands led
them to occupy them with the Nazis during
Political Effects After WWI - New
• Monarchies were replaced in Russia, Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
• Socialistic ideas experienced a boom
• Revolution was in the air as people began to express
their desires for a better way of life
• Britain, France, and Germany all experienced a rise in
socialism to deal with:
Better working conditions
8-hour work day
Collective bargaining
Political Effects After WWI –
The U.S. Returns To Isolationism
• America's return to isolationist politics
after the war caused them to reject
Wilson's plan to join his new international
peace-keeping community
• America's abstention destroyed any real
hopes for international cooperation to
keep the peace, since France and
England were not strong enough to do it
alone because they were in so much debt
Political Effects After WWI –
Fear of German Resentment
Locarno Treaty
– Signed in October 1925
– The Germans renounced any desire to
change their western frontier with France
and accepted the loss of Alsace-Lorraine
– Britain and Italy guaranteed the western
frontiers of France and the continued
demilitarization of the Rhineland against a
“flagrant breach” – but what did that mean?
Political Effects After WWI –
Fear of German Resentment
• Locarno Spring
– Had eased tensions between France and Germany,
but France was still suspicious of Germany
– From 1925-1929, relations were better between the
two countries
– France had an alliance with Poland and
Czechoslovakia, but these two countries couldn’t be
counted on for French security
– Britain wouldn’t aid France if they attacked
Political Effects After WWI –
Kellogg-Briand Pact
• Created by the U.S. Secretary of State
and French Foreign Minister
• Agreement signed in 1928 that renounced
war as a way to resolve disputes
• A total of 62 nations signed the treaty,
including the U.S., Italy, Germany, France,
Great Britain, Russia, and Japan
Political Effects After WWI - Stab In
the Back & Hitler’s Rise
• The First World War created the Dictator that the
world would bitterly come to know
• He himself admitted this in 1941, saying: "When I
returned from the War, I brought back home with me
my experiences at the front; out of them I built my
National Socialist community"
There is Hitler
in the crowd.
Beginning of
his rise and
plans for
Political Effects After WWI - Stab
In the Back & Hitler’s Rise
• The German and Austrian populaces, with their
censored presses, had been kept in the dark about the
recent military defeats of their armies, so that the
surrender came as a complete, nasty surprise
• As Germany itself had not been militarily conquered,
its citizens expected a mild, negotiated settlement,
and were stunned by the harsh peace treaty that their
new leaders eventually agreed to
• In the years after the war, conspiracy theories grew up
in which Germany had been defeated not on the
battlefield, but by treacherous politicians at home.
Adolf Hitler would later use these theories to great
effect in rallying opposition to German democrats,
socialists and communists
Political Effects After WWI –
Stab in the Back & Hitler’s Rise
• Adolf Hitler, a veteran of the War's
worst firestorms, desperately
sought a reason for defeat
• Imbued with a burning hatred of
Jews, Bolsheviks and even
Democrats, the solution was
simple - the country had been
stabbed in the back by the
November Criminals, or in Hitler's
words: "a gang of despicable and
depraved criminals!"