K13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy (1824-1840) Election of 1824: (Clay, Jackson, Adams, Crawford) Corrupt Bargain: Jackson won pop. vote, no majority in electoral college, decision went to House of Rep. Clay Speaker of House (dropped out of presidential race), convinced house to make Adams president and in return was appointed Secretary of State Adams as President 1824-1828 Adams less successful as president than as secretary of state, didn’t give office positions to supporters (no spoils system) Adams nationalist: wanted roads, canals, education, but nation was sectionalist Election of 1828 (Jackson, Adams) after Era of Good Feelings 2 parties: National Republicans(Adams, Clay, northern support) and Democratic Republicans (Jackson, southern support) lots of campaigning and mudslinging, Jackson beat Adams (political power no longer only in east coast) election victory for common man Jackson as President 1828-1832 (first term) spoils system, common men into government (many illiterate, incompetent) 1828 Tariff of Abominations - hated by south (feared future of slavery) Calhoun published South Carolina Exposition - called tariff unjust, unconstitutional later passed Tariff of 1832 (tariff lowered but didn’t meet southern demands), led to Nullification Crisis at Columbia Convention SC threatened to secede if tariff collected by force, Clay proposed Compromise Tariff of 1833 (gradual lowering of tariff by 10% each year) Jackson wanted to remove Indians in order to expand west 1830 Indian Removal Act - moved many of 5 civilized tribes to western reservations 1832 Black Hawk War - Sauk and Fox braves resisted\ Jackson hates national bank (had become private institution with elite circle of investors, bank president Nicholas Biddle had increasing power over nation’s finances) 1832 Bank War - Webster and Clay, new bill to renew bank’s charter, vetoed by Jackson (unconstitutional) Election of 1832 3 political parties Anti-Masonic Party (against Masonic Order, anti-Jackson, evangelical Protestant support) Jacksonians opposed to govt interference in social life/economics Jackson reelected Jackson’s Presidency 1833 Jackson removed federal deposits from Bank of US, stopped depositing money (used funds to pay for day-to-day expenditures) Bank of US charter expired 1836, death of national bank, surplus federal funds put in smaller state (pro-jackson) banks banks in west started issuing own “wildcat” currency, 1836 Specie Circular - all public lands had to be purchased with metallic money (contributed to financial panic of 1837) new Whig Party - internal improvements, common man, Democrats corrupt Election of 1836 Van Buren won, Whigs failed to put support behind one candidate Van Buren’s Presidency panic of 1837 - over speculation, crop failure, economic distress in Europe → banks and factories closed, unemployment increase Divorce Bill 1840 - independent treasury to place govt fund in (“divorce” govt from banking) Mexico won independence 1821, Americans settling in Texas (Stephen Austin leader), Santa Anna raising army to suppress Texans Texas independent 1836 - Sam Houston captured Santa Anna at Battle of the San Jacinto, forced Santa Anna to sign Treaty of 1836 north didn’t want texas in union b/c it would be a slave state Election of 1840 Harrison (Whigs) beat Van Buren Politics after the Era of Good Feeling common man becoming more powerful in politics two party system - Democrats (liberty of individual, states’ righters) vs. Whigs (internal improvements) K14: Forging the National Economy (1790-1860) The Westward Movement -grim life for pioneers, disease, lonely -rugged individualism expressed in Emerson’s essay “Self-Reliance” Shaping the Western Landscape -”Kentucky bluegrass”=ideal pasture for livestock and lured people to the state -huge fur-trapping empire based on “rendezvous” system in the Rocky Mountains -met every summer and traded pelts for manufactured goods from the East -ecological imperialism prevalent in West with exploitation of natural bounty -George Catlin first to argue for preservation of nature and a national park The March of Millions -as Americans were moving West in the mid-1800s, extreme population growth made for larger cities, disease, and lower standards of living -immigration increased as Europe seemed to be running out of room The Emerald Isle Moves West -1840s=”Black Forties”; Irish potato famine caused an increase in immigration -Most Irish were Roman Catholics who bonded in large groups, giving them political power -resented by American workers and forced to live in slums -”No Irish Need Apply” (NINA) was a common sign in front of workplaces -Ancient Order of Hibernians=society that aided Irish immigrants -Molly Maguires=miners’ union in Pennsylvania -gained control of powerful city machines, such as Tammany Hall in New York and American politicians fought to win the Irish vote The German Forty-Eighters -1830-1860: many Germans came to America because of crop failures -unlike Irish, many came with a modest amount of material goods -not as politically powerful because they were more spread out -more educated than Americans, opposed to slavery, but regarded with suspicion because they often settled in compact “colonies” Flare-Ups of Antiforeignism -massive European immigration caused increased prejudice from American nativists -Roman Catholics began to create a separate schooling system in the 1840s and the Catholics became the largest religious group in the country -nativists developed Know-Nothing Party, which called for immigration and naturalization restrictions and deportation of aliens -wrote fictitious books, like Awful Disclosures by Maria Monk, to promote their ideas -occasional mass violence between Catholics and nativists -Industrial Revolution in Europe Creeping Mechanization -1750s: beginning of the factory system in Europe -Americans were slow to embrace mechanization because land was cheap, little money for capital, labor was scarce (until immigration in 1840s), Americans could not compete with British quality and British textile monopoly Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine -1791: Samuel Slater, the “Father of the Factory System” in America, stole and memorized plans for textile machinery from Britain, then established the first spinning cotton thread -1793: Eli Whitney built the first cotton gin, which was more effective in separating cotton seeds from cotton fiber than slaves -cotton gin reinvigorated slavery and increased cotton production in the South -New England was a better industrial center because of its poor soil, dense population, and the shipping industry Marvels in Manufacturing -The War of 1812 caused an increase in American factories and use of American products -After the Treaty of Ghent (1815), British manufacturers began selling their goods to Americans at extremely low prices -Tariff of 1816 passed to protect American manufacturers -1798: Eli Whitney came up with idea for interchangeable parts, which became basis for mass production by 1850 -1846: Elias Howe invented the sewing machine, which boosted Northern industrialization -Patent Office busier than ever with many new inventions -the principle of limited liability caused laws of “free incorporation” to be passed (first in New York, 1848), allowed for corporations to be created without having to apply for individual charters -Samuel F.B. Morse invented the telegraph Workers and “Wage Slaves” -factories created impersonal relationships between employers and employees -workers forbidden to form unions -1820s: child labor used in factories -Jacksonian democracy gave laborers the right to vote -1840: Van Buren established 10 hour work day -Commonwealth v. Hunt said unions were legal as long as their methods were honorable and peaceful Women and the Economy -few opportunities for factory girls -Catharine Beecher urged women to become teachers -Cult of Domesticity opposed women working Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields -trans-Allegheny region nation’s breadbasket -Western farmer’s staple market items: liquor and hogs -1837 John Deere made steel plow- could break through thick soil of West -McCormick Reaper Highways and Steamboats -Lancaster Turnpike- drivers had to pay a toll -1811 federal gov’t began to construct National Road- completed 1852 because construction stopped during War of 1812 -Robert Fulton created first steamboat- connected West and South “Clinton’s Big Ditch” in New York -1825 Governor DeWitt Clinton of NY led building of Erie Canal- lower shipping cost/passenger transit time The Iron Horse -1828- first railroad- significant contribution to the development of the industrial economy, initially opposed b/c of safety concerns/money it would take away from Erie Canal investors Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders -1840’s-1850’s: production of clipper ships (smaller but faster), but not used much after the steamboat -1860 Pony Express- carried mail but no profit, collapsed after 18 months The Transport Web Binds the Union -”Transportation Revolution” stimulated by desire to move west -railroad linked country The Market Revolution -America changed from subsistence economy and tiny workshops to vast network of industry and commerce K15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture 1790-1860 Reviving Religion: -Thomas Paine’s Age of Reason- promotes Deism: rely on science rather than bible and deny the divinity of christ- did believe in supreme being that created the universe Unitarianism: spin off of Deism- God lived through one person-appealed to intellectuals -2nd Great Awakening 1800 women played a big role reaction to growing liberalism in religion called for changes in life: women's movement, abolition of slavery Denominational Diversity: -issue of slavery split the church apart 2nd great awakening widened lines between rich and poor- many groups, such as episcopalians, presbyterians, congregationalists, unitarians rose up out of the educated classes higher educated groups vs. poor, less educated southerners and westerners(methodists, baptists, and new sects) created rift that foreshadowed secession Desert Zion in Utah: -1830 Joseph Smith creates church of jesus christ of latter day states -leads mormons to Illinois -serious opposition by other groups -Smith died in 1844 and Brigham Young leads them into Utah to avoid persecution Free Schools for a Free People: -tax supported public education began in 1825-1850 -teachers were mostly men who were not qualified to teach -Horace Mann campaigned for better schooling system Higher Goals for High Learning -Universities show up in South in 1795 -Jefferson founded University of Virginia -Emma Willard responsible for secondary womens schools in 1820 An Age of Reform: -States gradually abolish debtor’s prisons -criminal codes in states were softened -number of capital offences reduced -Dorothea Dix fights to improve conditions for mentally ill -1828 American Peace Society formed Demon Rum- The Old Deluder -American Temperance Society formed to counter excessive drinking in 1826 -Neal S. Dow, father of prohibition, thought alcohol should be removed by legislation, supported Maine Law of 1851 which banned manufacture and sale of liquor in Maine Women in Revolt: -Cult of Domesticity -could not vote and could not obtain property -avoided marriage -women are subordinate to men -Seneca Falls Convention: feminists meeting in 1848 to rewrite declaration of independence to include women Wilderness Utopians: -Robert Owens founds communal society called New Harmony in order to seek human betterment -Brook Farm: transcendentalism- plain living, high thinking -Shakers The Dawn of Scientific Achievements: -interested in gadgets over pure science - slowly advancing in medicine: 1840’s anesthetics emerged The Blossoming of National Literature: -Americans followed British literature -after War of 1812 American literature was born along with nationalism Transcendentalism: -the liberalization of Puritan theology brought the transcendentalism movement in the 1830s didn’t believe that knowledge comes to the mind through senses believed in self-discipline, self-reliance and self-culture truth cant be found just through observing Literature: -Moby Dick was written by Herman Melville -Edgar Allan Poe was a unique write at the time- pessimistic -Ralph Waldo Emerson- nationalist writer -Henry David Thoreau- urged people to meditate and study to find truth K16 The South and the Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 “Cotton is King” the South controlled Britain, 75% of Britain’s cotton came from the South Cotton accounted for half of all American exports after 1840 Planter Aristocracy South more of an oligarchy government heavily affected by planter aristocracy widened gap between rich and poor wife commanded female slaves Slaves of the Slave System lack of diversification of southern economy financial instability due to unreliable slaves and a one-crop economy overspeculation=debt The White Majority hierarchy of southerners- slave/plantation owners, small farm owners, mountain hillbillies. slaves repelled large scale European immigration Free Blacks: Slaves without Masters Free blacks resented in the North more than the South due to racial prejudices versus humanitarianism Plantation Slavery slaves imports outlawed in 1808 slaves prices increase, smuggling more common slaves regarded as investments because they will have babies slave auctions, families often split up Life Under Lash black belt region where slaves were most concentrated- from South Carolina and Georgia into Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana slaves able to sustain family life under slavery responsorial type of preaching formed The Burdens of Bondage slaves couldn’t and weren’t allowed to read because it brought ideas of discontent Nat Turner- semi-literate preacher leads Nat Turner’s Rebellion and kills 60 Virginians Amistad- slaves seize control of ship off coast of Cuba Early Abolitionism American Colonization Society- earliest reformers focused on sending blacks back to Africa- created the colony Liberia Second Great Awakening led many to believe slavery was wrong Dwight Weld, Charles Gannison Finney, William WIlberforce appealed to uneducated audiences Lyman Beecher published pamphlet “American Slavery as It Is” Radical Abolitionism Garrison published anti-slavery newspaper, “The Liberator” Frederick Douglass- practical, looked to politics to end slavery The South Lashes Back Mason-Dixon Line-seperated North from South Nullification Crisis- caused the voice of white southern abolitionism to be silenced Gag Resolution- southerners prevent north from sending in emancipation appealsdoesn’t pass, limits freedom of petition The Abolitionist Impact the North Union didn’t want disunity because the south could provide with their cotton ”Free Soilers” opposed slavery moving west Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy: Timeline: 1837: Canadian Rebellion and Caroline Incident -Angry Americans, eager for retribution against Britain, tried to create an insurrection in Canada. The Caroline was a supply ship attempting to transport supplies to the insurgents, the British sunk the ship, killing one American. 1839: Aroostook War breaks out over Maine Boundary -see below 1840: Anti-slavery Liberty Party Organized -see below 1841: Harrison dies after four weeks in office, Tyler assumes presidency -Tyler was seen mainly as a running mate, but when he assumed presidency, he lost party membership and began a nationalistic regime. 1842: Webster-Ashburton treaty -The Webster- Ashburton Treaty settled border disputes between the United States and Britain. 1844: Polk defeats Clay in “Manifest Destiny” election -Polk aimed to: lower tariffs (with the Walker Tariff especially), to restore an independent treasury, and to acquire Oregon and California. 1845: United States annexes Texas -Under General Winfield Scott, the United States Army annexed Texas, then part of Mexico. 1846: Walker Tariff -see below Independent Treasury restored -see 1844. United States settles Oregon dispute with Britain -see 1844 United States and Mexico clash over Texas Boundary -see 1844 Kearny takes Santa Fe -see p. 370-371 Fremont conquers California -see p. 370-372 Wilmot Proviso passes House of Representatives -see below 1846-1848: Mexican War -see below 1847: Battle of Buena Vista -see below 1848: Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo -see below Key terms: Tariff of 1842: Reluctantly signed into law by President John Tyler, who recognized the need for greater revenue. Matched the moderately protective levels of the Tariff of 1832. Caroline: A ship; attacked by British raiders on the coast of New York (near Canada) after it smuggled supplies to Canadian insurgents against British rule. Incident angered Americans because the attack was on American soil. Creole: A ship; 130 Virginian slaves revolted and took control of the ship; created tension between the US and Britain when Britain offered the slaves asylum. Aroostook War: A small scale war over disputed territory in Maine almost became a large conflict when Manifest Destiny: The idea in the 1840s and 1850s that Americans had a mandate from heaven to expand the nation over the entire continent (and possibly South America as well) and spread democratic ideals. “Fifty-four forty or fight”: A slogan promoting setting the American-Canadian border in the Oregon Territory at the 54*40’ latitude (Americans were forced to settle for the 49* latitude). Liberty party: Tiny anti-slavery, anti-annexation of Texas party that spoiled Henry Clay’s chances of winning the presidency by draining away votes; presidency went to pro-annexation Polk Walker Tariff: Lowered tariff rates to 25% from the Tariff of 1842’s rate of 32%; proved effective in raising revenues because it was followed by a period of prosperity and thus heavy imports. spot resolutions: Requests by Lincoln for information regarding the exact spot on which the first blood of the Mexican-American War had been shed; in response to doubts about whether it had been on American soil or not. California Bear Flag Republic: California as an independent nation before its annexation to the Union in 1850. Battle of Buena Vista: General Zachary Taylor (“Old Rough and Ready”) and his army of 5,000 defeat superior force of 20,000 under Santa Anna’s command; opened the door to an attack on Mexico City. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Treaty signed by Nicholas Trist to end MexicanAmerican War; enormously beneficial to US. Surrendered Mexican claims to Texas and also California and land in between for $15 million (plus $3,250,000 to cover Mexican public debt). Conscience Whigs: antislavery Whigs; against the Mexican War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo because it gave slavery room to expand; also sometimes called “Mexican Whigs.” Wilmot Proviso: idea of banning slavery in all territories gained from Mexico; never made into federal law, but endorsed by legislatures of all but 1 free state. Chapter 18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1844: Caleb Cushing signs Treaty of Wanghia with China -An unequal treaty that guaranteed peace and commerce with China. Designated US as China’s “most favored nation,” meaning they received any trade benefits China gave to other nations. 1848: British seize port San Juan del Norte in Nicaragua p. 389 The seizure of this area (at an optimal point for the construction of a canal to allow gold miners access to California), was later important for the formation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican War -see above Taylor defeats Cass and Van Buren for presidency 1849: California Gold Rush -p.380, Tens of thousands rushed to California, many miners didn't make money, but those supplying the supplies made a lot. Also, when California applied for admission to the union as a free state, it brought further strain on the balance of free and slave states. 1850: Fillmore assumes presidency after Taylor's death compromise of 1850 (included fugitive slave law) -p. 385 The compromise of 1850 was designed to give a clear advantage to the north, but certain concessions, including the Fugitive Slave Law, were included to appease the south. Clayton – Bulwer treaty signed with Britain -p.389 The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty allowed perfect neutrality between the United States and Britain in the matter of control of waterways in Latin America, to allow free commerce. 1851: Australian gold rush -"Diggers" from the United States went to Australia to try their luck there, many later became citizens. 1852: Pierce defeats Scott for presidency p. 387 Pierce, a proslavery northerner defeated able general Winfield Scott 254:42. 1853: Gadsden Purchase from Mexico p.392 Organized by James Gadsen, this purchase (for 10 million), gave southerners a basis for building the national railroad in the south, as the mountains were lower and the route wouldn't pass through unorganized territory. 1854: Commodore Perry opens Japan p.391 An American delegation traveled to Japan, requesting coaling rights, consular relations, and proper treatment of shipwrecked soldiers, which they obtained Ostend Manifesto proposes seizure of Cuba - a plan to surreptitiously offer Spain $120 million for Cuba but take it by force if they refused Kansas – Nebraska Act repeals Missouri compromise of 1820 - Kansas-Nebraska Act created two new states out of the Louisiana Purchase territory: Kansas and Nebraska. Slavery was legalized in Kansas though it was north of the 36’30” line of the Missouri Compromise because the Supreme Court deemed the Compromise of 1820 (Missouri Compromise) unconstitutional and repealed it. This angered many abolitionists, who had considered the Missouri Compromise to be almost sacred. Republican party organized in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act 1856: William Walker becomes president of Nicaragua and legalizes slavery -p. 389 A proslaveryite (William Walker) grasped control of Nicaragua, establishing a slave state, which later crumpled under the combined forces of a Central American army squad. 1868: Meiji Restoration in Japan -p. 391 The period during which Japan opened itself to America, ending it's policy of strict isolationism. Key terms: Popular sovereignty: Idea that the people of each territory should decide for themselves whether to be free or slave Free Soil party: An antislavery party formed to combat Cass and Taylor for the presidency; expanded its platform by advocating federal aid for internal improvements and free homesteads for settlers. California gold rush: (see above) Underground Railroad: Transported thousands of runaway slaves north through “stations” (sympathetic households that would shelter them); Harriet Tubman most famous “conductor” Seventh of March speech: speech by Daniel Webster that advocated compromise on the issue of slavery; very popular, turned public opinion to compromise in north, but angered many hardline abolitionists Compromise of 1850: (see above) Fugitive Slave Law: part of the Compromise of 1850 - included stuff like slaves could not testify on their own behalf. So abhorrent to northerners that many refused to enforce it; many moderates became abolitionists as a result Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: (see above) Ostend Manifesto: (see above) Opium War: Britain tried (and succeeded in 1842) to get China to allow it to freely sell opium in China; China resisted because Britain was lowering their productivity and taking the nation’s wealth. Treaty of Wanghia: (see above) Treaty of Kanagawa: (see above) Gadsden Purchase: (see above) Kansas-Nebraska Act: (see above) K19 - Drifting towards Disunion Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe influenced white northerners toward the abolition movement. Bleeding Kansas- Because of popular sovereignty both sides of slavery went to Kansas to vote on the issue of slavery for the would to be state. It lead to fighting in attempt for one side to push the other out. Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina beat Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts with a cane, inflaming tensions 1856 Presidential election between Republican John C. Frémont, Whig Millard Fillmore, & Democrat James Buchanan. Know-Nothing-Party supported Fillmore. Buchanan won. Dred Scott supreme court case in 1857 rules that a slave can be held anywhere in the country and still be a slave. He was never granted freedom so he never had the right to sue in the first place. Panic of 1857 part of the American boom and bust economic cycle. North was damaged more than the South, which enjoyed high cotton prices. Lincoln- Douglas debates in 1858. Lincoln losses the race for senator, but becomes a well known political figure. John Brown tries to start a slave uprising at Harpers Ferry. He is captured and becomes a martyr in the North, and a terrorist in the South. Presidential race of 1860: Breckinridge- Southern Democrat, Douglass- Northern Democrat, Bell- Constitution, Lincoln- Republican. Lincoln won only with the northern vote. South threatened to secede if Lincoln won. December 1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union. By Lincoln inauguration 7 of the 11 slave states had seceded. Buchanan did not take action against them. K20 - Girding for War conflict between slaveholding South and industrial North breaks into war when Lincoln send supplies to Union-controlled Fort Sumter in SC, SC bombards and takes fort, violating Federally-claimed sovereignty slaveholding border states’ citizens are divided, but largely commit resources and men to Union, a deciding factor in coming war, Lincoln maintains moderate path to keep support of border states South has home field defensive advantage, cream of military officers, potential for foreign intervention and martial experience, but lacked political unity, home industry, and capital North has mass of population, industrial power, and resources, in addition to superior navy and access to foreign trade Britain and France remain neutral, with no imminent need for Southern cotton due to previous glut of production, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation converts war to moral crusade, keeping the Euro powers out of conflict due to support for abolition among their citizens following war, North continues economic boom due to industrial growth, South lies in ruins, with capital invested in slaves lost due to emanciption National Banking System launches greenbacks (partially gold-backed currency from Treasury, credit based) Chapter 21 - The Furnace of the Civil War McClellan was afraid of losing troops, ineffective general North advantages: control of sea, especially after Monitor v. Merrimack, more manpower, stronger economy, more railroad track, Abraham Lincoln North disadvantages: poor generals at first, poor relations w/U.K., not very united, desertion South advantages: Had only to win or tie the war, great generals, potential for aid from U.K., France South disadvantages: Not united, states’ rights beliefs, fewer men, cotton-dependent economy, discontinuous railroad tracks, slavery looked down upon by other nations, slaves waiting to be freed, desertion Eastern Battles: o First Battle of Bull Run - Confederate victory, showed that war was definitely going to be prolonged. Both sides initially thought the war would be quick, but this battle showed otherwise- made South overconfident o Battle of Antietam - Northern troops found Southern plans and cut them off at Antietam. Military draw, but strategic victory for Union because Lee was forced back across Potomac. Allowed Lincoln to issue his Emancipation Proclamation. Stopped any chance of Britain or France intervening o Battle of Gettysburg - Coincidental encounter, Bloodiest battle and lasted three days. Pickett’s Charge - Final Confederate advance, and farthest North the South ever got Western Battles: o Fort Henry and Donelson - Grant secures Tennessee, and keeps Kentucky secure in Union, and opened up an entry point into the South. o Battle of Vicksburg - Second punch after Gettysburg, split Confederacy in half and stopped them from receiving supplies through Mississippi o Sherman’s March to the Sea - Used a “scorched earth” policy, destroying infrastructure, lowering morale for those on the front Emancipation Proclamation, January 1863- Started to write after McClellan’s defeat at Richmond- Proclaimed after huge morale boosts from decisive victories. Didn’t actually free any slaves in the South. Got support of the common people in Europe, and distanced the aristocrats in Europe Robert E. Lee - Good general, good tactics, could move his troops to action Election of 1864 o Lincoln merged with War Democrats to create the Union Party coalition. o Lincoln chose Andrew Johnson to gain Democrat’s support. o Opposition from Copperheads (Peace Democrats) who would attack the draft, cause trouble o Admiral Farragut’s capture of Mobile sparked support for the war, turned the election in Lincoln’s favour April, 1865- Civil War ended in Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia 2% of U.S. population killed in Civil War-loss of many young men, $15 billion Civil War inspired Democracy in U.K.-Reform Bill of 1867 April 14, 1865- Lincoln assassination-Johnson takes over for Reconstruction 13th Amendment ratified after war’s end- slavery prohibited Chapter 22-The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877 In the South, the economy creeped to a halt, two billion dollars worth of slaves freed, transportation crippled, agriculture ruined White southerners remained defiant Emancipation uneven in South, complex master-slave relationships made complicated responses to emancipation, but eventually, all master forced to recognize freedom Many blacks started to seek family, many fled west Blacks assembled “conventions of freemen” to improve situation Freedman’s Bureau established Mar 3, 1865 o Freedmen without property or money, in response, Congress created Freedman’s Bureau as primitive welfare agency-headed by Oliver O. Howard o Provided food, education, clothing to freedmen, could give 40 acres of confiscated/abandoned land to blacks, taught many education craving blacks-~200,000 blacks learned to read o Sometimes Bureau unsuccessful or hurt progress-admins collaborated with planters to cajole blacks into signing labor contracts o South resented Bureau- president Johnson (a white supremacist) tried to repeatedly kill it- expires in 1872 Johnson- the Tailor President o Humble background-born into poverty, orphaned, apprenticed to tailortaught self to read-wife teaches him to write, do simple math o Moved to TN, became active in politics-champion of poor whites, vs. planters, elected to Congress-favorable in North, not South, when he refused to secede o After TN reconquered, apptd. war governor o 1864-Union Party nominates VP as Johnson to attract War Democrats but appeared at VP inaugural in poor condition-drank whiskey for typhoid o Dogmatic champion of states’ rights, Constitution, also a misfit, did not fit in w/Republican White House Lincoln believed South had not legally withdrawn from Union, 1863- proclaims “10%” Reconstruction plan o State readmitted when 10% of voters taken vote of allegiance o Next step would be erection of state gov’t Sharp opposition to plan in Congress- Republicans feared reestablishment of planter aristocracy Congress ran Wade-Davis Bill through in 1864 o Required 50 % of voters to take allegiance o Stronger safeguards for emancipation o Lincoln “pocket-vetoed” bill- didn’t sign Republicans refused to seat Louisiana delegates after their reorganization under Lincoln’s plan Congress believed seceders had left Union and could only be readmitted as “conquered provinces” on Congress’ conditions 2 Republican factions: majority (moderate) supported Lincoln-minority (radical) wanted to punish South and uproot social structure After death of Lincoln, some radicals hoped Johnson would be improvement, but Johnson recognizes some of Lincoln’s 10% governments. Johnson disenfranchises certain Confederate leaders and calls for special state conventions to repeal ordinances of secession, repudiate Confederate debts, and ratify 13th Amendment Johnson grants pardons in abundance, and Republicans are furious at new governments Southern regimes pass iron-toothed Black Codes o Resemble pre-Civil War slave statutes o Ensure steady labor supply-severe penalty to blacks who “jumped” labor contracts-violators could be forcibly returned by “Negro-catchers” o Blacks could be punished for “idleness” o Some barred blacks from owning land or jury duty o Denied vote to blacks o Thousands of blacks and poor whites become sharecroppers o Southern planters resented even these minor concessions to emancipation In Dec 1865, Republicans disgusted by Confederate leaders claiming seats Republicans enjoyed free hand, passed Morill Tariff, Pacific Railroad Act, and Homestead Act in Democrats’ absence Restored South stronger in politics due to blacks counting as full person Republicans refuse to seat Southern representatives Feb 1866 Johnson vetoed Freedmen’s Bureau extension (later repassed) Mar 1866 Congress passes Civil Rights Bill, granting Blacks citizenship and struck at Black Codes, vetoed by Johnson, but President is overridden, Congress repeatedly steamrolled over President's veto afterward Fourteenth Amendment ratified in 1868 o Conferred citizenship on freedmen o Reduced representation of states in Congress/Electoral College that denied blacks the ballot o Disqualified former Confederate leaders from federal and state offices o Guaranteed federal debt, but repudiated Confederate debts o States denied admittance if they had not ratified 14th Amendment Johnson urges Southerners to reject amendment, and all former Confederate states except Tennessee refuse to ratify it Congress counters Black Codes of “10%” governments with Civil Rights Bill and Freedmen’s Bureau In 1866, Johnson, to defeat Congress, campaigns to secure a favorable majority, en route to Chicago, his speeches met large opposition, he accused radicals of inciting anti-black riots and murders in the South Highly embarrassing and incompetent speeches gains votes for Republicans Radicals led by Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Thaddeus Stevens Moderates honored states’ rights, radicals want more government involvement Actual policies reflect mix of philosophies, but both sides willing to use troops to enfranchise black voters Reconstruction Act- 1867- South divided into 5 districts w/ US soldiers, generals States had to ratify the 14th Amendment (slaves become citizens), give former slaves right to vote (later guaranteed by 15th Amendment) After soldiers left, Redeemers elected in Southern government- Democratic South 13th, 14th, 15th Amendment gave no rights to women- feminists protested 14th Amendment only giving equal citizenship to males Blacks unable to vote in North- South accused North of hypocrisy Blacks organized into Union League-educated, built schools, churches, recruited militias to prevent mistreatment of blacks Black men on state conventions hold much authority, others serve as representatives in US Congress, and state governments Former slaves holding offices offend former masters, who lash out against freedmen’s white allies, scalawags (pro-Union Southerners) and carpetbaggers (Northerners in South who aided Reconstruction) Both were accused of plundering state treasuries and seeking power/profit Charges of corrupt Reconstruction regimes generally over-exaggerated Ku Klux Klan founded in 1866 Tennessee to scare blacks and carpetbaggers away from polls Force Acts of 1870 and 1871 allow Federal troops to stamp out “lash law”, but damage done, many outlawed groups continue their work 1867 Tenure of Office Act passed over Johnson’s veto to lock radical Republicans into White House, especially Sec. of War Stanton, and required president to consult Senate before removing appointees, Johnson removed Stanton, House impeaches Johnson, but House prosecutors have difficulty building case Seven Republicans vote “not guilty”, Johnson not removed Some members afraid of Benjamin Wade, the would-be successor, and the destabilizing effect of a “guilty” verdict 1867, Russia overextended, Secretary of State William Seward buys Alaska for 7.2 m Seward’s Folly later provides oil, gas, fish, furs, and gold Southerners resentful at federal interference and empowerment of blacks Moderates never fully appreciated amount of necessary effort to change South Old South ultimately resurrected rather than reconstructed Ch 23: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age 1869-1896 The Bloody Shirt Elects Grant - Republicans elected Grant. - Democrats wanted to keep money in circulation and interest rates low, nominated Seymour. - Use of Civil War imagery to buy political candidates to draw votes to their side. (Republicans used this) AKA waving the bloody shirt. Era of Good Stealings - Fisk and Gould planned to monopolize the gold market by bribing the treasury, but treasury released gold anyway (scandalous) - Tweed Ring: symbol of gilded age corruption, boss tweed and partners ran the NYC Democratic party in the 1860s and swindled 200 million from the city via bribery and vote buying Carnival of Corruption - Credit Mobilier Scandal (1872): construction company was formed by leaders of Union Pacific Railroad, purpose being receiving contracts to build railroads and inflate profits - 1874-5 Whiskey Ring robbed treasury of millions in excise tax revenue (Secretary of War was bribed) The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872 - Liberal Republican group formed “turned the rascals out” urged purification of washington and administration and end to military reconstruction - Nominated Horace Greeley, hated democrats but wanted to unify the country politically - Grant won - Republican congress in 1872 passed general amnesty act removing political disabilities from all but some 500 confederate leaders - Reduced high Civil War tariffs Depression, Deflation, and Inflation - Panic of 1873: world wide depression beginning in the US when one of the largest national banks declared bankruptcy collapsing thousands of businesses and banks. Intensified debtors calls for inflationary measures such as printing of more paper money and the unlimited coinage of silver. Conflicts over monetary policy greatly influence politics in the last quarter of the 19th century. African Americans hard hit. - Resumption Act of 1875: pledged government to further withdraw greenbacks from circulation and redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879 - Treasury accumulated gold stocks coupled with reduction of greenbacks called “contraction” worsened impact but restored government credit rating Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age - Gilded Age 1865-1896 fabulous wealth, widespread corruption - Politicians used timid majority parties in house and senate, switched constantly - Republicans: adhered to moral principle, puritan lineage, government should regulate economic and moral society. Midwest earl and small town northeast, Grand army of Republican - Democrats: Lutherans and Roman Catholics faiths that were less stern of human weakness toleration of differences, spurned government involvement. South and northern electoral cities -Patronage: political parties grant jobs and favors to regulars who deliver votes on election day. -Both parties did this but it was a source of conflict in the Republican party The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 - Rutherford B Hayes: Republican nomination from essential election state of Ohio. - Democrat nomination: Samuel J Tilden - Bagged Boss Tweed - If electoral returns counted by Senate, Republican return selected, if counted by Speaker of the House, Democrat return selected. Compromise of 1877 and The End of Reconstruction - Compromise of 1877 in exchange for Hayes running the presidency, he would withdraw the last of the federal troops from ex-confederate states. Completed the southern return to white army. - Democratic dominated electoral policies. - Civil Rights Act of 1875: Promised blacks equal access to public accommodations and banned racism in jury election, but no means of enforcement and in 1883 it was deemed unconstitutional and ineffective. The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post - Reconstruction South - Sharecropping: black and white farmers rented land and residence from a plantation owner for exchange of giving him a share of each years crop. Dominant form of agriculture post Civil War. landowners manipulated this system to keep tenants in perpetual debt. - Jim Crow Laws: system of racial segregation: separate but equal, perpetuated by violence. - Plessy V Ferguson: supreme court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws as long as blacks were given separate but equal. Didn’t violate the 14th amendment, legal justification of Jim Crow laws until 1950s. Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes - Class struggle especially railroad workers, cut wages by 10%, they fought back mayor sent federal troops to quell. - Racial struggle black vs. white, irish and chinese vs. american - 1880 California had 75,000 new asians given new jobs daunting odds against education - Irish hated Chinese - Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882, prohibited further Chinese immigration to the US first major limit on immigration for US Garfield and Arthur - Republican James Garfield from Ohio barely won election then he was assassinated and VP stalwart Arthur is president. - Pendleton Act of 1883: established the civil service standards, granted federal govt jobs on basis of examinations instead of political patronage, reigning in the spoils system. The Blaine-Cleveland mudslingers of 1884 -Republican: Blane supposed corrupt deals with railroad -Democrat grover Cleveland has illegitimate child, Mugwumps Helped him. Old Grover Takes Over - Supporter of laissez faire - 1887 vetoed a bill to provide seeds for drought ravaged texas farmers - Named 2 ex-confederates to the cabinet, fired 120,000 federal employees for deserving democrats - Vetoed hundreds of private pension bills from GAR (Grand Army Republicans) Cleveland Battles for a Lower Tariff -Treasury has surplus of 145 million from tariff during Civil War - Could either squander it on pensions or lower the tariff because it would lower prices for customers and less protection for monopolies - End of treasury of surplus, which mocked Cleveland’s belief for small govt frugality - Tossed onto congress bluntly, irking Democrats, and pleasing Republicans because cleveland was stupid -Republicans now elected Ben Harrison who won election of 1888 by purchasing votes especially in Indiana The Billion Dollar Congress - Republicans wanted to have riches their party had supplied in the form of fat surplus from high tariffs but in the house of reps democrats were leading - Thomas B. Reed new Republican Speaker of the House - Billion dollar Congress passed the Mckinley Act of 1890 boosting rates to highest peacetime level ever. Did this to protect republican industrialists from foreign competition. - People pissed, Republicans lost majority and 9 members from farmers alliance mutant organization of southern and western farmers, put into Congress. The Drumbeat of Discontent - New Populist Party, or the peoples party, they wanted shorter work days, immigrant restriction, direct election of us senators, telegraph improvement, government ownership of railroads, graduated income tax, inflation through unlimited coinage of silver, nominated James B Weaver - Homestead Strike 1842: Carnegie steel plant battled between strikers. 300 armed pinkerton detectives hired by Carnegie and federal troops- 10 dead, 60 wounded. Nationwide wave of worker unrest that helped populists gain support. -South didn’t want populist -Grandfather Clause: exempted from voting requirements, those who could prove their ancestors had been able to vote in 1860. Guaranteed right to vote for many whites but not blacks -Populist Party eventually very racist Cleveland and Depression - Cleveland returns 1893- hit with worst depression of 19th century due to over speculation and overbuilding, labor disorders, agricultural depression, free-silver agitation, damaged American credit from abroad. -Deeping deficit in the treasury, required to issue legal tender notes, which owners would then present for gold. -Replaced Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 -Treasury sank to 40 million, cleveland shut down the democrats who were silverites and caused disunity in own party -J.P. Morgan lent 65 million to government for commission of 7 million. Cleveland Breeds a Backlash - Democrats failed in Wilson Gorman Tariff of 1894, and the republicans won congressional elections Ch 24: Industry Comes of Age The Iron Cult Becomes the Iron Horse -Railroads funded by national government -Construction of railroads promised national unity and economic growth -Government receive beneficial returns including long term preferential rates and military traffic -Granting land was a cheap way to subsidized the much desired transportation system because it avoided new taxes and direct cash grants -Railroad could be used as collateral to private bankers Spanning the Continents in Rails -Union Pacific Railroad commissioned by Congress during Civil War to bolster the Union by binding gold-struck California to the North -For each square mile builders received loans -Scores of people (workers and Indians) lost their lives -Transcontinental Railroad welded the West and East and facilitated trade with Asia Binding the Country with Railroad Ties -After westward trail blazed, four other transcontinental lines were completed before the century’s end -None secured loans from the federal government, like the Union and Central Pacific did, but most got generous land grants -Many of the large railroads in the post Civil War decades passed through seemingly endless bankruptcy, mergers and reorganizations Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization -The success of western lines was facilitated by welding together and expanding an older eastern network -Two significant improvements to the railroads: steel nail (more safer and cheaper) and standard track width (not as many changes from line to line) -Air brake equated to efficiency and safety Revolution by Railways -Railroads become nation’s biggest business, employed more people than any other industry -Took 20% of all investment money and spurred economic growth post Civil War years -Opened up western resources and made U.S. largest integrated national market in the world -Stimulated city growth (supplied raw materials and finished goods) and immigration by moving immigrants to their land grants -Little known fact: the railroads inspired the production of Hannah Montana -Rail companies decreed that the continent be divided into 4 time zones. Wrongdoings in Railroading -Railroad stock promoters grossly inflated their claims about a given line’s assets and profitability and sold stocks and bonds in excess of their actual value. -Railroaders bribed judges and legislators, employed arm-twisting lobbyists and elected their own ‘creatures’ to high office -Small farmers usually paid the highest rates, while larger customers got the best deals Government Bridles the Iron Horse -Under pressure from organized agrarian groups, many midwestern legislatures tried to regulate the railroad monopoly -Depression of 1870 caused farmers to protest against being railroaded into bankruptcy (see what we did there?) -In Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company, the Supreme Court ruled that states had no power to regulate interstate commerce -Interstate Commerce Act prohibited rebates and pools and requires the railroads to publish their rates openly It also forbade unfair discrimination against sippers and outlawed more for a short haul than a long one over the same line. Most importantly, it set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer and enforce the new legislation. -Stabilized business system -First large scale attempt for government to regulate business in the interest of society at large. Miracles of Mechanization -Civil War created immense fortunes -Foreign investors loaned more money to the US in the post war period than any other country had before. -Captains of machinery replaced skilled workers with unskilled workers- now cheap and plentiful due to immigration The Trust Titan Emerges -Andrew Carnegie pioneered vertical integration, commonly into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing -Rockefeller mastered horizontal integration: allying with competitors to monopolize a given market. Also created the trust: Stockholders assigned their stock to the board of directors of Standard Oil. The Supremacy of Steel -US Steel Company came to be worth $1.9 billion in 1901 Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose -Kerosene was first major product of infant oil industry, but electricity soon made kerosene obsolete -Automobile invented and oil business booms -In 1870, Rockefeller organized the Standard Oil Company The Gospel of Wealth -Social Darwinists: individuals who won their stations i life by competing on the basis of their natural talents Government Tackles the Trust Evil -Sherman Anti-Trust Act flatly forbade combination in restraint of trade, without any distinction between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ trusts. -Not effective - no teeth and loopholes. -Curbed labor unions that were deemed to be restraining trade The South in the Age of Industry -Industrialists tried to coax the agricultural south out of the fields and into the factories but with only modest success -Obstacles laid in path of southern industrialization -Railroad companies favored North and discriminated against South -Net effect was to keep South in a kind of servitude to the North-East as a supplier of raw material industrial base of its own. -In 1880, Northern capitalists began to erect cotton mills in the South, largely in response to tax benefits and the prospect of cheap and non unionized labor. -Keeping labor cheap was extremely important to southern industrialists -Despite their depressed working conditions and poor pay, many southerners saw employment in the cotton mills as salvation, the first steady jobs and wages they had ever known. The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America -Field enterprise was gone, but federal authority was now committed to decades of corporations cunning and ‘trust-busting’. -Women were most affected by Industrial Age. Now had new economic and social opportunities, delayed marriages and smaller families -Age accentuated class divisions -Reforms struggled to introduce a measure of security for jobs and wage protection and provisions for temporary unemployment into the lives of working class. -International trade became faster, cheaper and easier In Unions There is Strength - The middle-class publicly annoyed by recurrent strikes, grew deaf to the outcry of the worker. Labor Limps Along -Labor Unions given strong boost by Civil War -National Labor Union aimed to unify workers across land and trades to challenge their ever more powerful bosses -The Knights of Labor sought to include all workers in one big union. Prohibited only ‘nonproducers’: lawyers, businessmen and bankers. Won a number of strikes for the 8 hour work day. Unhorsing the Knights of Labor -Knights began to fall as a number of their day strikes failed -After Haymarket Square, Knights were associated with anarchy in the public’s eye. The AF of L to the Fore - In the American Federation of Labor, Gompers sought better wages, hours and working conditions. Wanted closed shop, or all union labor. Chapter 25; America Moves To The City The Urban Frontier -US population doubled from 1870-1900 -In the same period, population of America’s cities tripled (large amounts of urbanization) -City limits were extended by trolleys -NY, Chicago, and Philly had more than 1 million people -Trash and other waste became a large problem The New Immigration -Immigrants in the 1880s mostly came from Eastern and Southern Europe -Many Americans feared the immigrants lack of knowledge of a democratic government would harm their ability to assimilate -Dumping pot vs Melting ground Reactions To The New Immigrants -Gov’t did little to help the new immigrants -Bosses got immigrants votes and helped use their influence to better the immigrant’s livesBoss Tweed, etc -Social conscience of the nation increased, many came to the aid of urban dwellers -Jane Addams- established the Hull House, offered instruction and counseling to immigrants, one of the first generation of college-educated women -Others also helped to establish settlement houses which became centers of activism for women’s rights, minorities, and immigrants Narrowing The Welcome Mat -”Nativism” arose again in the 1880s, viewed the new immigrants as worse the old ones due to their greater cultural differences, and were afraid the white protestant majority would be overthrown -Trade unions, centers of hate and discrimination, also disliked the immigrants, who often worked for lower wages -Laws restricting immigration were passed in 1882, at first restricting just criminals and paupers -1882 also brought the Chinese Exclusion Act, banning the Chinese from coming to America Churches Confront The Urban Challenge -Roman Catholic and Jewish churches expanded rapidly with the influx of new immigrants -Older churches tried to resist materialism as the Devil’s influence -By 1890 there were 150 religious denominations one could choose from Darwin Disrupts The Churches -Darwin’s theory of evolution was against common religious beliefs -Some churches chose to accept parts of Darwinism as a new revelation, while others refused to accept it -Led to the idea of Social Darwinism, that the more ‘fit’ would make and deserve more money and success The Lust For Learning -The gov’t continued to support public education -High schools spread rapidly in the post-civil war times -Adults excluded from public education -Illiteracy rate fell from 20% in 1870 to 10.7% in 1900 Booker T. Washington and Education For Black People -44% of nonwhites still illiterate in 1900 -Booker T. Washington, with the help of some Northern philanthropists, promoted better education for blacks, specifically in trades, but he did accept segregation -W. E. B. Du Bois promoted full equality for blacks, social and economic, and branded Washington an “Uncle Tom” The Hallowed Halls of Ivy -Colleges were also expanding at a rapid rate, as a college education became more and more desirable in the workplace -Women also had greater opportunities to a college education; by 1900 25% of college graduates were women -Captains of Industry donates large sums of money to colleges, helping to spur on their growth The March Of The Mind -Elective system was popularized to allow students an easier way to specialize in a career of their choice -Medical schools, especially after the Civil War became more and more popular The Appeal of the Press -Public libraries improved and expanded. There were about nine thousand public libraries in 1900. -The Library of Congress opened in 1897, the largest library in the world. Libraries were considered the poor man’s university. -Journalists began using sensationalism to speak to the semiliterate working class. Sex, scandals, and other common interests filled the news. Apostles of Reform -The public mostly used magazines, like the Atlantic Monthly, Overland Monthly, and the New York Nation for good reading. -Journalists including Henry George and Edward Bellamy preached reform through their work. The New Morality -Sisters Victoria Woodhull and Tennessee Claflin advocated for extreme women’s rights through their journal, Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly . -Women felt a new sense of freedom in the late nineteenth century. divorce rates increased, the practice of birth control increase, as well as sexual discussion. This time was called “sex o’clock in America.” Families and Women in the City -In the urban era, divorce rates increased, women and children were also forced to work, and family sizes decreased. -Charlotte Perkins Gilman called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to society. -The National AMerican Woman Suffrage Association was formed in 1890. -Local elections began allowing women to vote, Wyoming territory granted women the first unrestricted suffrage -Black women were excluded from the suffrage movement for fear that they would lose suffrage if the attempt was integrated. Prohibiting Alcohol and Promoting Reform -Drinking increased during the civil war, and immigrants brought a heavy drinking culture into the U.S. -The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was created in 1874. Led by Frances E. Willard, it preached purity. -The eighteenth amendment(prohibition) was added to the constitution in 1919. Postwar Popular Fiction -More people began reading books after the civil war as literacy rates increased. Literary Landmarks -3 new subtypes of art: realism, naturalism, and regionalism -Realism: more realistic, subject matter found in the world around artist. Famous realists were William Howells, Mark Twain,and Henry James. -Naturalism: Attempt of artists at applying detached scientific objectivity to the study of human beings. Famous Naturalists: Stephen Crane, Jack London, and Theodore Dreiser. -Regionalism: Artists focused on the ways of life of the people living in their region. Famous Regionalists: Bret Harte, Paul Dunbar, and Charles Chesnutt Artistic Triumphs -American architects revitalized american skyline with the city beautification movement. tried to make cities look good, but also have harmony and order. -Architect Daniel Burnham designed the World's Columbian Exposition in accordance with the City Beautification Movement The Business of Amusement -Audiences of America attended Vaudeville shows, listened to black singers, and enjoyed baseball. -rise in popularity of spectator sports like football -croquet gained popularity along with new genres of music like jazz Chapter 26: America Moves to the City The Clash of Cultures on the Plains -After civil war west was relatively unsettled -By 1890 it was divided and split up into Utah Arizona New Mexico and Oklahoma(Indian Territory) -Indian conflict predated English settlement. Whites killed bison and spread disease. Treaty for reservation system passed due to a misunderstanding; most whites didn't understand that most indians lived in small groups Receding Native Population -Often massacred when they were forced off ancestral lands, the indians struck back ferociously. -many groups were hunted and forced to resettled like the Sioux and Nes Peres The End of the Trail -Dawes Severalty act ended all friendly relations between whites and indians. Most of the territory was lost and oklahoma was settled by the white devils Industry -Mining boomtowns popped up on the west but died quickly as supply of gold was mined and mining was industrialized. -Longhorn cows were used mainly for hide before modern meatpacking methods emerged. With these methods, farmers were able to graze their cows across Texas and then send them on trains to the East Sod Breakers -Cowboys disappeared as homesteaders settled texas and set up property lines Homestead act of 1862 brought many families west to claim their land. Land was tough but proved fertile once sod toplayer was broken. -Men pushed farther west but were rebuffed by harsher climates, took huge irrigation system to make western farming proitable -West worked as safety valve for immigration- poor could move west and divert overcrowding but this disappeared as country was settled Plight of the Western Farmer -mechanization of agriculture put marginal farmers out of business- low prices and deflation forced them to go into foreclosure. -Farm tenancy emerged in a concerning re-emergence of feudalism -Farming organizations flourished as bad harvests and economics brought them closer together. -Populist party emerged as a defender of the farmer and inflation, held several congressional seats Election of 1896 -Strikes increased(e.g Pullmans Strike) but were crushed- concerned labor representatives -Mark Hanna helped Mckinley's campaign- Mckinley ran against democrat William Jennings Bryan, who supported the free coinage of silver in order to increase inflation and help farmers -Wage Workers who depended on the buying power of their wages opposed bryan and McKinley won -Signaled end of agrarian politics due to unmarketability of the farming opinion base Another victory scored for gold standard and against inflation in 1900 when gold standard act passed. Unfortunately, Alaskan gold discoveries inflated currency nevertheless.