Exercise truly is medicine: Key points for the general practitioner Ross Arena, PhD, PT, FAHA Professor and Chief Physical Therapy and Cardiology Division University of New Mexico Outline • Why is aerobic fitness so important • What we do as clinicians “After adjustment for age and other risk factors, mortality was 13% lower for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity.” “The age-adjusted reduction was graded and more pronounced in whites than in blacks; each 1MET increase in exercise capacity yielded 14% and a 19% lower risk for blacks and whites, respectively” CVD Mortality Risk* by Fitness and BMI Categories, 2316 Men with Diabetes, 179 CVD Deaths 10 8 7 6 p for trend <0.0001 p for trend <0.002 p for trend <0.0001 5 Reference Risk of CVD Mortality 9 4 3 2 1 18.5 < BMI <25.0 25.0 ≤ BMI <30.0 *Adj for age and examination year ig h w M od /H Lo h Hi g M od Lo er at e w h Hi g M od Lo er at e w 0 30.0 ≤ BMI < 35.0 Church TS et al. Arch Int Med 2005; 165:2114 CRF and Risk of Incident Hypertension, ACLS Women • 4,884 healthy women Risk of Developing Hypertension examined at the Cooper Clinic, 1970-1998 P for trend <0.01 • 157 women developed hypertension during average follow-up of 5 years • Risk adjusted for age, Fitness exam year, alcohol intake, Groups smoking, BP, family history of hypertension, waist girth, glucose, & triglycerides Barlow CE et al. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163:142-50 CRF and Digestive System Cancer Mortality •38,801 men, ages 20-88 years •283 digestive system cancer deaths in 17 years of follow-up CRF was inversely associated with death after adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of cancer, personal history of diabetes •Fit men had lower risk of colon, colorectal, and liver cancer deaths High Fit Moderately Fit Low Fit Peel JB et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18:1111 CRF and Breast Cancer Mortality •14,551 women, ages 20-83 years •Completed exam 1970-2001 •Followed for breast cancer mortality to 12/31/2003 •68 breast cancer deaths in average follow-up of 16 years •Odds ration adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, abnormal ECT, health status, family history, & hormone use Sui X et al. MSSE 2009; 41:742 Odds Ratio p for trend=0.04 “Following a rigorous screening process, the 33 studies included in the final analysis included more than 100,000 subjects, 6000 all cause mortality events and 4000 cardiovascular events. Each one MET increase in aerobic capacity equated to 13 and 15% decreases in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events, respectively.” Actual Causes of Death Tobacco 435 Inactivity/Poor diet 400 Alcohol 85 Microbial agents 43 Toxic substances 55 Motor vehicle crashes Incidents involving firearms 29 Sexual behaviors 20 Illicit use of drugs 17 JAMA March 10, 2004 Leading Causes of Death, US 1. Tobacco, 18.1% 2. Poor diet and Physical inactivity, 16.6% 3. Alcohol, 3.5% 43 0 100 200 300 400 19 500 Deaths per Year in U.S. (1,000s) What can we do about it? An initiative of: Exercise As Medicine • Tremendous health benefits are seen with even low levels of exercise. • Amount of exercise needed to benefit health is much lower than amount needed for fitness Regular physical activity at the correct intensity: • Reduces the risk of heart disease by 40%. • Lowers the risk of stroke by 27%. • Reduces the incidence of diabetes by almost 50%. • Reduces the incidence of high blood pressure, by almost 50%. • Can reduce mortality and the risk of recurrent breast cancer by almost 50%. • Can lower the risk of colon cancer by over 60%. • Can reduce the risk of developing of Alzheimer’s disease by one-third. • Can decrease depression as effectively as Prozac or behavioral therapy. 24 U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity • Choose your own schedule • For example: 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, five days per week OR three 10minute sessions per day, five days per week Age No Chronic Conditions Chronic Conditions Children & Adolescents (6-17) 60 minutes or more of physical activity every day (moderate*- or vigorous**-intensity aerobic physical activity). Develop a physical activity plan with your health care professional. Avoid inactivity. Refer to the Your Prescription for Health series. Vigorous-intensity activity at least 3 days per week. Muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activity at least 3 days per week. Adults (18-64) 150 minutes a week of moderateintensity, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity Muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups performed on 2 or more days per week. Develop a physical activity plan with your health care professional. Be as physically active as possible. Avoid inactivity Refer to the Your Prescription for Health series. Older Adults (65+) Follow the adult guidelines, or be as physically active as possible. Avoid inactivity. Exercises that maintain or improve balance if at risk of falling. Develop activity plan with health care professional. Refer to the Your Prescription for Health series. From the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans For more information on these guidelines, visit www.acsm.org/physicalactivity. 25 Summary • Evidence is now overwhelming on the health burden of physical inactivity. • The benefits of exercise in the treatment and prevention of chronic disease cannot be denied. • We cannot continue to ignore this evidence when formulating treatment plans for our patients. • No patient should leave a doctor’s office without an assessment of his/her physical activity and proper prescription of an exercise program, or a referral to a qualified fitness professional.. 26 Call to Action • • • • • • Initiate a dialogue between every physician and every American. Promote Exercise is Medicine™ in organizations, workplaces and communities. Ensure that exercise is front and center in the national discussion on disease prevention, health and wellness. Large scale exercise initiative led by health care providers: – Every patient; Every visit; Every treatment plan. Physical activity should be recorded as a vital sign. Message should be the same from every provider, regardless of specialty. 27 GOALS 28 Program Goals • • • For physical activity to become a Vital Sign, with the Physician routinely discussing it with each of their patients. For the Physician to either prescribe appropriate physical activity to each patient or to refer the patient to a qualified health and fitness professional to get a physical activity prescription. For the Public to begin to ask for and expect Physicians to discuss physical activity during each office visit. Exercise Is Medicine™ is a sustainable initiative to: 1. Influence national policy to obtain reimbursement for exercise counseling. 2. Influence medical health record companies to include exercise as a HEDIS measure and health care systems to make exercise a vital sign. 3. Effect policy changes that support physical activity counseling and patient referrals (to health fitness professionals) in clinical settings. 4. Produce an expectation among the public that health care providers should and will ask about and prescribe exercise. 5. Encourage physicians and other health care providers to be physically active themselves. 29 PROGRAM SPECIFICS 30 Action Guides 31 Public Action Guide The Public Action Guide provides you with a simple, fast and effective tool for using exercise as a ‘medicine’ to help prevent or manage many of the most common chronic health conditions. It will also help you approach your health care provider to discuss physical activity as a part of a disease prevention and management strategy. Guide Highlights • Meeting the Guidelines and Starting an Exercise Program • My Exercise Plan • Questions and Answers • Exercise is Medicine™ Month • Note to Health Care Providers 32 Meeting the Guidelines and Starting an Exercise Program Follow these guidelines to meet the basic physical activity recommendations after consulting your health care professional. From the 2008 Federal Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. For more information on these guidelines, visit www.acsm.org/physicalactivity. 33 My Exercise Plan The first step in meeting any recommendation for how much exercise to do is to simply get started with an activity that will work for you. These tools will help you in assessing your health, figuring out your barriers to exercise and working through some of the challenges to sticking with a program. • Pre-Exercise Health Assessment • Barriers to Exercise Assessment • Exercise Time Finder • Cost/Benefit Analyzer • … and more! 34 Note to Health Care Providers Share this resource with your health care provider during your next annual checkup or scheduled visit. 35 Health Care Providers’ Action Guide The Health Care Providers’ Action Guide provides physicians and other health care providers with a simple, fast, and effective tool for using physical activity, in the right “dosage”, as a highly effective prescription for the prevention, treatment, and management of more than 40 of the most common chronic health conditions encountered in primary practice. Guide Highlights • Exercise Prescription and Referral Process document • Exercise Readiness and Prescription form • Starting an Exercise Program patient handout • Your Prescription for Health series • Physician office flier 36 Exercise Readiness & Prescription 1. Determine patient’s current level of activity and willingness to exercise. 2. Determine if patient is fit to exercise independently and what type of fitness professional would be best for referral. 3. Depending on patient’s stage of change, take appropriate action by referring patient to educational material, writing exercise prescription, and/or referring patient to fitness professional. 4. Refer patient to www.ExerciseIsMedicine.org for videos, fliers and resources. 37 Health and Fitness Professionals’ Action Guide The Health and Fitness Professionals’ Action Guide provides health and fitness professionals with a guide for how to work effectively with physicians and other health care providers to use exercise and physical activity, in the correct “dosage”, as a highly effective patient care “prescription.” Guide Highlights • How to work with health care providers document • Introductory letter to health care provider • Health and Medical Questionnaire • Fitness Assessment • Informed Consent • Cancellation Policy • Starting an Exercise Program handout • Your Prescription for Health series 38 “Your Prescription for Health” series • Provides information and advice on exercising safely with health conditions. • Physicians and fitness professionals can recommend these to their patients/clients during visits. • Available for download online. Exercising Following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Exercising Following a Heart Attack Exercising Following a Stroke Exercising while Losing Weight Exercising with Alzheimer's Exercising with Anxiety and Depression Exercising with Atrial Fibrillation Exercising with Cancer Exercising with Low Back Pain Exercising with Peripheral Arterial Disease Exercising with Visual Impairment http://www.exerciseismedicine.org/YourPrescription.htm 39 Public Service Announcements The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has partnered with the United States' Office of the Surgeon General to create public service announcements (PSAs) promoting Exercise is Medicine™. The PSAs feature the acting surgeon general, Rear Admiral Steven K. Galson, M.D., M.P.H., and a message encouraging physical activity. http://www.exerciseismedicine.org/PSA.htm 40 Additional Resources 41 Exercise as a Vital Sign Kaiser Permanente When you click on the “Exercise Vitals” the section opens up to display the two exercise intake questions that can be completed in a quick manner. The date and time this data was captured will also be noted/stored. Assessing Physical Activity vs. Physical Fitness Conclusions and Need for Future Research • “Given the strong evidence linking exercise test findings with risk in asymptomatic subjects, we believe that the next major priority is the design and implementation of large-scale randomized trials to determine whether an exercise screening strategy leads to an improvement in outcomes.” Section on: Questions?