The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music Part Three: Nations and Musical Traditions, Caribbean Latin America, Cuba Cultural Heritage Three geo-cultural influences Indigenous • Taíno (Arawak) • Minimal influence on contemporary Cuban culture/music European • Spanish (1492-) • Introduced: instruments (i.e., laúd, bandurria, and guitar), military bands, metered performed poetry (decíma), dances, and balladry African • Slaves brought primarily from West-African: Yoruba, Bantu, Carabalí (Dahomey, i.e., Ewe and Fon), Hunguedde • Cultural traditions and belief systems adapted to New World despite slavery • Significant influence on contemporary Cuban music culture Development of Contemporary Cuban Music Three major phases: 1790-1902 • Musical genres distinctly Cuban emerge i.e., Punto campesino, son, habanera, contradanza, rumba, comparsas • Various influences 1902-1959 (The Republican period) • • • • Importation of European genres and musicians Social and political climate Conscious development of a national musical culture Dissemination and influence of Cuban traditions beyond Cuba Development of concert music and professional popular music Impact of media, recording industry, and tourism on Cuban musical traditions Post 1959 • Transition to socialist government • State sponsorship and oversight of Cuban musical traditions (preservation, documentation, education, and dissemination) Genres Five main complexes Punto Cubano • Encompasses various rural genres of western and central Cuba (i.e., tonadas, puntos fijos, puntos libres, and seguidillas) Rumba • Afro-Cuban genre • Instrumentation, musical structure exhibits African influences Son • Most important musical genre (includes son montuno) • Origins in eastern, rural Cuba • Blends European and African influences in instrumentation, musical structure Canción • Embodied in Afro-Cuban forms and styles of singing Danzón • Linked with European dance traditions (Late 1700s, French contredanses) • Instrumentation and style encompasses various dance forms (i.e., mambo, and chacha-cha) Ensembles Developed in relation to development of specific genres Music, Acculturation, and Stylistic Change New World African Continuities African influence prevalent in contemporary Cuban musical traditions • • • • Instrumentation Formal musical elements Aesthetics Approaches to, and uses of music Examples for discussion: santería, rumba, and son Consider the following questions: • In what ways do santería, rumba, and son exhibit a continuity with African musical traditions? • Which might be considered the most African derived? Least? And Why? • How were such traditions able to survive? • In what ways do these genres reflect the confluence of African and European traditions and beliefs? • How might addressing such questions help us to understand processes of cultural contact and change/adaptation [see Musical Dynamics]?