A close look at Christian Art, Architecture, Literature, performance and visual arts in Russia Mrs. Miranda Academic Decathlon 2012 Vladimir I Ruler of Early Russia “ Kievan Rus” Converted the state from Pagan to Christianity in 988. Chose Christianity over three other Major religions possibly due to the Beauty of the byzantine Churches and The wonderfully ornate Christian Artwork. Married Byzantine Princess Anna . “Yaroslav the Wise” Founded the Cathedral of St. Sophia. This Monument in Kiev shows him holding the Cathedral In his hands. The Cathedral was intended as a burial Place for himself and other important leaders and their families in Kievan Rus . Exterior view of St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev 9 Isle Plan and 13 Cupolas or Domes Decorated lavishly with Mosaics and Frescos Heavily influenced by Byzantine Architecture Located in the Cathedral Central Dome is the “Christ Pantocrator” The glittery gold field of the Of the background is a depiction Of the glory of heaven. The 4 archangels are dressed in The style worn by members of the Imperial byzantine court. Byzantine artists were masters in The a process called Mosaic. This is a method of laying tiny tiles made from cut glass and gold leaf Carefully put together to create an Image. The tiny pieces are Referred to as Tesserae. Mosaics are typically known for The vivid colors and durability. This dome interior is the most Common representation of the Orthodox church. Christ in Glory Icon 1470-99 Located on the Iconostasis (icon screen) In the Cathedral of Annunciation in moscow. A perfect example of an icon painting that Represents the strong influence of Byzantine art on Russian traditions. An Icon Painting is Image of a religious figure intended for spiritual contemplation. The following are Characteristics of icon paintings that are heavily influenced by byzantine art, but also took on a unique look connected to the region ( Novgrod, Russia). The use of Yellow ochre, the heavy lines that sometimes flatten the image instead creating depth and the elongation of the figure are typical of the Russian/Byzantine influenced Icon Painting. “Christ in Glory” Icon painting located In center of the Iconostasis inside the St. Sophia Cathedral. Iconostasis: Floor to ceiling partition with many Icon paintings for spiritual Contemplation. “Cathedral of St. Vasiy the Blessed in Mascow” AKA St. Basils Cathedral. UNIQUELY RUSSIAN Survived Stalin’s Plans to Demolish in 20th century. The church was constructed in commemoration of “Ivan the terrible’s” victory over the tartars at Kazan. Significant because it is a symbol of the beginning of the unified and expansive Russia. Constructed of numerous churches joined together around a central cathedral. Little is known about the buildings Russian architects Postnik and Barma. Later building in Russia would show a popular Trend towards European architecture, this is one Building that is unique to Russian Architectural style. Church of Ascention in Kolomenskoe (1530-32) possibly a direct influence on the Design and construction of the Cathedral of St. Vasily. St. Isaacs Cathedral St. Petersburg 1880 NOT SO UNIQUELY RUSSIAN Instead more Western influence In comparison to the Cathedral of St. Vasily Resulting in a more popular St Petersburg, competing with Moscow. Located in St. Isaacs square a lively area within St. Petersburg. A political shift of power occurs due To the modernization and “western look” of the St. Petersburg Architecture Architect: Auguste de Montferrand born in France and served in Napoleons Imperial army. This Cathedral was a lifelong project for Montferrand. Neoclassical in style and based on the Greek Cross in Floor plan. Large central dome, Grey stone, Red finnish granite Corinthian columns. Pediments are decorated with relief sculpture hard to see from street level. Neoclassical architecture was a dominant style in late eighteenth early nineteenth Century France. The art displayed in this section depicts key shifts in political power Beginning with the reign of Peter the Great and the rise of the Romanov Dynasty through the early twentieth century. A period ruled by Tsars presiding in Moscow. The orthodox church was the most Important patron of the arts. Icon painting, Murals and Sacred architecture were the richest area of development In the muscovite period. Catherine the Great (Catherine II) Sophia Augusta Frederica German Born Princess who married her Second cousin Peter. Active as an art collector, she increased the Size of the imperial collections vastly. Peter the Greats main residence Located adjacent the “Winter Palace” stands the Hermitage, a building Created primarily as a refuge for Catherine the Great. (a personal retreat) Façade echoes Winter Palace in it’s Symmetry. It can be said that Peter the great built A uniform and modern St. Petersburg With his love for western architecture In particular his admiration of the Palace of Versailles. A huge growth in residential buildings As well as social spaces, dining Gathering halls were completed on his vision to model after western Living practices. Palace of Versailles, France Interior of the Hermitage can now be described as an enormous museum complex Holding one of the worlds greatest art collections in the world. Designed and constructed by two architects, one Russian and one commissioned from France. Commissioned by Catherine the Great for Peter the Great to help Strengthen her connection to him and to show herself as his heir. Thoughtfully placed in front of St. Isaacs Cathedral overlooking River Neva, the same river Peter Built his first house. Most famous representation of Peter the Great, influenced by Monuments which commonly depict Leaders on horseback. A leader on horseback is a symbol Power and control over State. Prior to portraiture becoming popular, religious art including icon paintings Were most popular. Both forms of painting take very diffent sets of skills To achieve. Religious icon paintings depict an ideal image, not a likeness of the subject. abstract heavenly backgrounds with gold and vibrant colors were typical. Portraits are sometimes idealized, but a likeness is necessary. The background Is that of the earth and depicting wealth, power and earthly possessions. Countess Samoilova born to a Noble family In Italy, a descendant to Peter the Great. Married Nicholas I of Russia. Known for her decadent lifestyle and many Love affairs. Depicted here in a monumental scale portrait With her Black servant showing her wealth, her Foster child Giovanina as she had no biological children and her little d og, a symbol of domesticity. Elaborate and tasteful clothing Also reveals the families wealth and Cosmopolitan lifestyle. Created by one of Russia’s most Accomplished painters Karl Briullov Commissioned by Tsar Nicholas II for his wife Empress Alexandra in 1903 Also served to commemorate the 200 year Anniversary of Peter the Great’s founding of St. Petersburg. Designed and constructed by Michael Perkin, Working under the company of the Faberge Brothers Karl and Agathon. Lavish, precious ,ornate with extreme detail. Gold, ruby, diamonds and quartz. With 4 Miniature paintings of Peter the great, Nicholas II Peter the Great’s first cabin on the river Neva and The Winter Palace. The Egg allowed Nicholas II to emphasize the Connection between himself and Peter the Great In the same way that Catherine used the Monument of Peter the Great to show her Relationship with him. “LOISEAU DE FEU” Translation: the Fire Bird” One of a number of folk tales collected and Published in the nineteenth and early Twenteith centuries. Stage Design for The Tale of The Golden Cockerel (LE COQ D’OR) ACT III 1914 Opera/Ballet Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova Leader of the Neoprimitivist Movement in Russia. Inspired by Italian futurism. Tutu worn in LE MORT DU CYGNE The Dying Swan Russian Ballerina Anna Pavlova escaped Poverty when she decided to choose ballet For her way of life. A growth in Ballet companies emerged with The support from the imperial court.. This tutu designed by Leon Bakst. The dying swan was a ballet written specifically for Pavlova by Michel Fokine. A shift in artistic Motivation among artists From Religious and political agendas to more selfish creative outlets Now the artist will work to please himself Idealistic depictions turn to naturalistic views and total abstractions A general rejection of many of the former ways of working Many artists choose to study abroad, particularly France for freedom to create and the attraction to many new art movements Painting by Ilya Repin 1884 Portrait of Vsevolod Mikhailovich Garshin A popular Author in Ruusia Repin is one of the most recognized artists of Russia. His work can be described as Impressionist in style. Influenced by the Impressionist Movement in France. The portrait is a Naturalistic view of the writer. The desk Is unkempt and his appearance is Disheveled. He looks at the viewer as If interrupted. He is not at all concerned With lavish surroundings or things of Comfort. His work is the most important Thing to him and this idea is clearly communicated. Devoid of subject matter in Vitaly Komar and Alexander Melamid Together launched a new movement called “Sots Art” Drawing on ideas from Pop Art in The United states …which borrows from Everyday life to comment on society. They used Ironic visual twists to convey their Ideas. The Red cloth on the table is a symbol of the communist party. A portrait of Stalin hangs on the wall A woman is blindfolded as a soldier looks on. The interpretation is unclear. One popular idea points to the problematic Stalinist society and the failure to “see” oppression. See more Russian Art Online!!!!!!