Exploring Emerging Democracies: Preparing Pre-Service Candidates for teaching in a Global Society Farizeh Bedaiwi, Micheal Bruno, Eric Loesch, Trey Mitchell, Jessica Philibert, Erin Reardon, Patrick Sheehey, Samantha Western Collaboration Introduction What do you feel defines your national identity? Do you feel you have a strong national identity? Kievan Rus The Importance of the first settlers in the Ukraine Present day countries that compromised Kievan Rus’: – Ukraine – Western Russia – Belarus. Different cultures and ethnicities made up Kievan Rus This area was first settled in 860 A.D. by a Scandinavian Band of peoples known as Varangians. Kievan Rus’—Ethnic Background Slavic principalities Rurik Dynasty- first dynasty in Kievan Rus Beginning of the pattern of foreign influence on the area Principalities of Kievan Rus Golden Age of Kiev Vladimir the Great Competetion for rule over Kievan Rus This competetion for the throne led to much violence amongst the Kievan Princes Suffering through political, cultural, and economic turmoil Vladimir the Great (9801015) Reign of Vladimir to Mongol Invasion Shift in religious believes Byzantine Christianity, the national religion Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054) Powerful, but still vulnerable Soon the principalities formed again as individual entities End of Kievan Rus’- 1240. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Ukraine fell under Polish Rule Religious divisions – Nobles=Catholic Church – Peasants=Eastern Orthodox Church Enlightened Monarchy – Stefan Batory Stefan Batory Cossack Era Example of Cossacks Cossack soldiers offered increased salary for their involvement in the Polish and Lithuanian war against Russia Poland went back on their word Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Treaty of Hadiach Russian and Austrian Rule Western Ukraine falls under Austrian rule and the rest of the Ukraine falls under Russian rule Due to the Russo-Turkish Wars, Ottoman Empire lost southern Ukraine Nationalistic spirit reflected in creative arts – Nikolai Gogol Massacre of Talerhof Ukraine in WWI Divided in the war Ukraine caught between the falls of the Russian and Austrian Empire Between 1917 and 1918 Ukraine in anarchy Polish-Soviet War- Western part of Ukraine goes to Poland and the central and eastern parts go to the Soviet Union Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Republic) Ukrainian National Idea Cultural Revival- “Korenization” Orthodox Church Economic Policies – Collectivization – Famine (1933) Ukraine in WWII Nazi Germany + allies invasion of Soviet Union in 1941 – “Liberators” – A sovereign ‘Greater Ukraine’ – Resistance Soviets “save” Myth Death and Destruction Soviet Ukrainian Identity Identification (by Ukrainians) – with Soviet Union Discrimination under Soviet Union Soviet Russian Leaders-trusted and identified with Ukrainians – More than any other nationality (since the Jews in the 1920’s) Independence – Desire Ukrainian Independence On July 16, 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukrainian SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. A referendum and the first presidential elections took place on December 1, 1991. That day, more than 90 percent of the Ukrainian people expressed their support for the Act of Independence, and they elected the chairman of the parliament, Leonid Kravchuk to serve as the first President of the country. What are the components of Cultural Identity? Literature, Folklore, Customs, Music, Art, Social Attitudes and Language One Culture? Ukraine is made up of the following ethnic groups: Belarussians, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Hungarians, Jews, Poles, Romanians/Moldovans, and Russians. These ethnic groups have various cultures which derive from the same common family Commonly Overlooked Language as a component of National Identity. Can these differences cause a split of the country or ethnic separation? Language Laws Language Laws were passed shortly after the 1991 vote of Independence. Many of the ethnic groups within Ukraine did not fully support such laws. Some groups believed it gave too much leeway allowing Russian to be spoken unofficially. While others did not want to be forced to speak a language foreign to them. Language in Ukraine Native language (according to annual surveys by the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences): 199 4 199 5 199 6 199 7 199 8 199 9 200 0 200 1 200 2 200 3 200 4 200 5 R 34.7 37.8 36.1 35.1 36.5 36.1 35.1 38.1 34.5 38.1 35.7 34.1 Spoken language in family (at home) (according to annual surveys by the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences) 199 4 199 5 199 6 199 7 199 8 199 9 200 0 200 1 200 2 200 3 200 4 200 5 R 32.4 32.8 33.1 34.5 33.4 33.6 36.0 36.7 33.2 36.0 34.3 36.4 R/U 29.4 34.5 29.6 26.8 28.4 29.0 24.8 25.8 28.0 25.2 26.3 21.6 Question Will this cause a split in the U.S. if it becomes a one language country or a bilingual country. Viktor YushchenkoPresident Our Ukraine Bloc – free market economy – pro-West foreign policy – support from Western Ukraine – Ukrainian nationalism Viktor Yanukovych-Prime Minister Party of the Regions – largest party in parliament – support from Eastern Ukraine – support of close ties with Russia – defends government of a few strong economic and political groups January 2005 Yushchenko was sworn into the presidency. He won a re-vote against Yanukovych after the results of an initial presidential poll favoring Yanukovych were thrown out by the country’s Supreme Court following allegations of fraud. January 2006 The parliament voted to dissolve the government. Yushchenko, the president, criticized the constitutional changes that limited his authority as president and expanded the authority of parliament. He called for an entirely new constitution. In 2007 To make peace the President (Yushchenko) appointed his opponent from the elections in 2005 (Yanukovych) as prime minister. Power struggle--President vs Prime Minister/parliament government is at a stand still because there is a question as to which group has more power the president or the parliament Let’s reflect! Why didn’t this happen in the US after independence but it can happen in the Ukraine? How can this crisis be solved? Does this crisis matter in the wider world? If so, how?