Tim Jansen, Mike Stanislawski
• TELNET is short for Terminal Network
• Enables the establishment of a connection
to a remote system, so that the local
terminal appears to be the terminal at the
remote location.
• Usually establishes its connection on port
Local log-in
• Log-in is performed with a username and
a password.
• Keystrokes accepted at the terminal driver
and passed to the operating system.
• Operating system interprets the
keystrokes and performs an action
Remote Log-in
• Terminal Driver accepts keystrokes and passes
them to the TELNET client
• Client transforms characters to network virtual
terminal (NVT) character and delivers them to
TCP/IP protocol stack
• Passed online to the server’s TCP/IP stack and
then to the TELNET server which deciphers the
NVT characters
• The decoded characters are passed to a
pseudoterminal driver because the Operating
System is only designed to receive characters
from a terminal driver.
• Uses two sets of characters one for data
and the other for control
• Data characters are represented with the
same 7 lowest-order bits as ASCII and the
highest-order bit is 0.
• Control characters highest-order bit is 1
• The same connection is used for sending
both data and control characters.
• Control characters are embedded in the
data stream.
• A control character is recognized by a
preceding character of 11111111, this is the
IAC (Interpret as control) character.
• Options are extra features available to a user
with a more sophisticated terminal.
• Simple terminals use default features.
• Option negotiation entails using four control
characters, WILL, WONT, DO, DONT
• WILL is sent as a question “Will I enable the
• DO is sent as a request “Do enable the request”
• WONT is sent to say “I won’t use this option
• DONT is sent to say “Don’t use it anymore”
• Default Mode – used if no other modes are
• Character Mode – each character is sent to the
server, but the server may delay sending back
the information. Creates overhead because 3
TCP segments are sent per character.
• Line Mode – line editing is done by the client,
and then sent as a whole line to the server.
• TELNET is unencrypted, making it very
easy to intercept.
• Most implementations have no
authentication to ensure communication is
carried out.
• TELNET has in the past few years been
overtaken by remote login
• It is still used in such ways as debugging
network services.
• SSH is short for Secure Shell
• Unlike TELNET, SSH uses a form of
• The encryption is public-key
• SSH is also a remote login protocol
• It can be used for file transfer with SFTP
or SCP
• Listens on standard TCP port 22
Uses of SSH
• For remote login
• Executing single lines on a remote host
• Copying files from a local server to a
remote host
• As a secure alternative to FTP
Transport Layer
• Handles initial key exchange
• Sets up encryption and compression
• Also arranges for key re-exchange after an
hour or 1GB is transferred.
User Authentication Layer
Handles client authentication
Password authentication
Public key authentication
And others
Connection Layer
• Defines channel requests
• Multiple channels can be hosted at once
• Direct-TCP/IP handles client-to-server
forwarded connections
• Forwarded-TCP/IP handles server-toclient forwarded connections
• Defends against
– IP spoofing, where a remote host sends out packets
which pretend to come from another, trusted host.
Ssh even protects against a spoofer on the local
network, who can pretend he is your router to the
– IP source routing, where a host can pretend that an IP
packet comes from another, trusted host. DNS
– DNS spoofing, where an attacker forges name server
Security cont.
• Also protects against
– Interception of cleartext passwords and other
data by intermediate hosts
– Manipulation of data by people in control of
intermediate hosts
• In short, SSH trusts nothing
• SSH is secure assuming the option of
encryption “none” is not chosen