File africa vocabulary 3rd 9 weeks


Africa Vocabulary

Sahara- a desert in N Africa, extending from the Atlantic to the Nile valley.

Sahel- the arid area on the S flank of the Sahara desert

Rainforest- forest of tall, densely growing, broad-leaved evergreen trees in an area of high annual rainfall.

Savanna-coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa.

Deforestation- clearing of trees.

Desertification-the processes by which an area becomes a desert.

Arab- ethnic group who migrated into Northern Africa from the Middle East.

Ashanti- ethnic group located in the western part of Africa (Ghana).

Bantu- ethnic group located in central and southern Africa. Known for large migration.

Swahili- ethnic group located in a small area of east Africa.

Animism- African religion; the belief that natural objects have souls.

Unitary- power is held by one central authority.

Confederation- association of independent states that agree to certain limitations on their freedoms by joining together.

Federal- power is divided between central authority & several regional authorities.

Autocratic- 1 person possesses unlimited power & citizens have limited role in government.

Oligarchy- small group exercises control & citizens have limited role in government.

Democratic- supreme power is vested in the people & exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation involving free elections.

Parliamentary Dem. -

citizens elect members of Parliament, and then the members select the leader.

Presidential Dem. -

system of government in which the leader is constitutionally independent of the legislature; citizens directly elect leader.

Command Economy- All economic decisions are made by the Government.

Free Market Economy-Economic decisions are made based on the changes in prices that occur as buyers & sellers interact in the market place.

Traditional Economy- economic decisions are based on customs, traditions, & beliefs of the past.

Human Capital- is the knowledge and skills that make it possible for workers to earn a living producing goods and services.

Capital Goods- All of the factories, machines, technologies, buildings, and property needed by businesses to operate.

Natural Resources-“Gifts of Nature”

Specialization-producing those goods and services they can provide best and most efficiently.

Entrepreneurship- People who provide the money to start and operate a business.

Embargo- prohibiting trade with another country (usually for political reasons).

Tariff- tax placed on imported goods.

Quota- limits the amount of imported goods into a country.

Gross Domestic Product-is the total value of all the goods and services produced in that country in one year.

GDP per capita- is the total value of all the goods and services produced in that country in one year divided by the population.

Nationalism-devotion and loyalty to one's own country.

Famine- extreme and general scarcity of food.

AIDS-a disease of the immune system characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections: caused by a retrovirus and transmitted chiefly through blood or blood products that enter the body's bloodstream, especially by sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles.

Apartheid-a rigid former policy of segregating and economically and politically oppressing the nonwhite population.

Nelson Mandela- South African black antiapartheid activist: president of South


F.W. de Klerk-South African political leader: president 1989–94; Nobel Peace

Prize 1993.