Sahara- a desert in N Africa, extending from the Atlantic to the Nile valley.
Sahel- the arid area on the S flank of the Sahara desert
Rainforest- forest of tall, densely growing, broad-leaved evergreen trees in an area of high annual rainfall.
Savanna-coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa.
Deforestation- clearing of trees.
Desertification-the processes by which an area becomes a desert.
Arab- ethnic group who migrated into Northern Africa from the Middle East.
Ashanti- ethnic group located in the western part of Africa (Ghana).
Bantu- ethnic group located in central and southern Africa. Known for large migration.
Swahili- ethnic group located in a small area of east Africa.
Animism- African religion; the belief that natural objects have souls.
Unitary- power is held by one central authority.
Confederation- association of independent states that agree to certain limitations on their freedoms by joining together.
Federal- power is divided between central authority & several regional authorities.
Autocratic- 1 person possesses unlimited power & citizens have limited role in government.
Oligarchy- small group exercises control & citizens have limited role in government.
Democratic- supreme power is vested in the people & exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation involving free elections.
Parliamentary Dem. -
citizens elect members of Parliament, and then the members select the leader.
Presidential Dem. -
system of government in which the leader is constitutionally independent of the legislature; citizens directly elect leader.
Command Economy- All economic decisions are made by the Government.
Free Market Economy-Economic decisions are made based on the changes in prices that occur as buyers & sellers interact in the market place.
Traditional Economy- economic decisions are based on customs, traditions, & beliefs of the past.
Human Capital- is the knowledge and skills that make it possible for workers to earn a living producing goods and services.
Capital Goods- All of the factories, machines, technologies, buildings, and property needed by businesses to operate.
Natural Resources-“Gifts of Nature”
Specialization-producing those goods and services they can provide best and most efficiently.
Entrepreneurship- People who provide the money to start and operate a business.
Embargo- prohibiting trade with another country (usually for political reasons).
Tariff- tax placed on imported goods.
Quota- limits the amount of imported goods into a country.
Gross Domestic Product-is the total value of all the goods and services produced in that country in one year.
GDP per capita- is the total value of all the goods and services produced in that country in one year divided by the population.
Nationalism-devotion and loyalty to one's own country.
Famine- extreme and general scarcity of food.
AIDS-a disease of the immune system characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections: caused by a retrovirus and transmitted chiefly through blood or blood products that enter the body's bloodstream, especially by sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles.
Apartheid-a rigid former policy of segregating and economically and politically oppressing the nonwhite population.
Nelson Mandela- South African black antiapartheid activist: president of South
F.W. de Klerk-South African political leader: president 1989–94; Nobel Peace