The Teacher In-Service Program in Malaysia 10 September 2006 Putrajaya, Malaysia Moshe Kam Educational Activities A Few Words about IEEE IEEE is the largest professional engineering association in the world Originally concentrating on power engineering and communications IEEE at present spans technical interests across the spectrum of technology 367,000 members in 150 countries A 501(c)3 organization in incorporated in New York From nanotechnology to oceanic engineering In many respects IEEE has become “the steward of Engineering” It all starts in Philadelphia… AIEE In 1884 the Franklin Institute organized the International Electrical Exhibition in Philadelphia The Operator, 15 April 1884 “The…exhibition would be attended by foreign electrical savants, engineers, and manufacturers...it would be a lasting disgrace to American electricians if no American electrical national society was in existence to receive them with the honors due them from their co-laborers in the United States." Thomas Edison, Elihu Thomson, Edwin Houston, and Edward Weston AIEE’s First Technical Meeting 7-8 October 1884, the Franklin Institute Early Presidents Alexander G. Bell Elihu Thomson Charles Steinmetz Frank Sprague A few more recent Presidents Leah Jamieson Joseph Bordogna Michael Lightner Wallace Read AIEE IRE Established 1884 Established 1908 An American Organization An international Organization Representing the establishment Rooted in Power Engineering First computers working group Now the Computer Society Open to students, young professionals Quick to adopt advances in radar, radio, TV, electronics, computers Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (January 1913) 1963: Merger of AIEE and IRE to create IEEE What is IEEE? A membership organization A major creator and guardian of technical IP A mechanism to bring people of common technical interests together both geographically and disciplinarily Volunteerism as a core value of IEEE A guardian of the future of Engineering An implementer of technology-related public Imperatives What does IEEE do? Publishes literature in engineering, technology and computing Organizes conferences Develops standards Gets engineers and technologists from different locales together Organizes professional activities among engineering students Educates the public about Engineering What does IEEE do? Publishes literature in engineering, technology and computing Organizes conferences Develops standards Gets engineers and technologists from different locales together Organizes professional activities among engineering students Educates the public about Engineering Why is IEEE interested in preuniversity engineering education Because it is in our stated and un-stated mission Because in many IEEE Sections there is marked decline in the interest of young people in Engineering This is bad for the future of these communities and would have a negative impact on their standard of living Because we do not believe the problem is going to be tackled effectively without us Industry does not appear to be able to address the problem directly Governments do not appear sufficiently concerned (yet) Other engineering associations look up to us What is the Problem? Flat or declining engineering enrollments in most developed nations Coupled with disappointing performance of youth in Mathematics E.g., “free fall” in Scandinavia Insufficient number of engineers and engineering educational programs in most developing countries Asia is far behind Europe and the US in number of engineers per capita What is the Problem? Women & minority students conspicuously under-represented Public perception of engineers/ engineering/ technology is largely misinformed Resulting in early decisions that block the path of children to Engineering 1999 2001 Science degrees include life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, computer sciences, engineering, manufacturing, and building 15.7 14.9 15.9 15 24.2 25.9 31.5 38.4 31 39.5 18.4 15.6 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 41.8 36 32.4 Percentage of Science Degrees Awarded South Korea Germany Czech Rep. USA Norway 2002 Source: Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development BS Degrees Awarded (US) Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics Higher Education in Malaysia as seen by IEEE-EAB Observations Action items Main sources: StudyMalaysia.com Malaysian Educational Statistics 2005, MOE Government of Malaysia: Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Population and Housing Census 2000 Moshe Kam The Malaysian Engineering Education System at a Glance 13 years of formal schooling 6 years of primary school 5 years of secondary school (SPM – equivalent to GCE ‘O’ level) 2 years of pre-university (STPM – equivalent to GCE ‘A’ level) 4 Years Tertiary Education leading to BEng (Hons) degree Source: presentation by Dr. H T Chuah, EAB workshop Bangkok, 2004 The Malaysian Engineering Education System at a Glance University PREUNIVERSITY 4 years PRIMARY 6 years 0 7 SECONDARY 2 years 5 years 12 Source: presentation by Dr. H T Chuah, EAB workshop Bangkok, 2004 17 19 23 AGE (YEARS) Basic Numbers 17 public universities Including 6 with “Technology” or “Engineering” in the title 11 private universities 11 private university colleges 5 foreign university branches 20 polytechnic institutions (technician level) More than 500 of colleges Many do not offer degrees but transfer coursework to degree granting universities (overseas) Models of Twinning, Articulation, and Credit Transfer with foreign universities Source: Malaysian Educational Statistics 2005, MOE Basic Numbers University-level students: Government and government-assisted university-level institutions: 312,165 Private universities: 89,664 Development of engineering programs is relatively recent: Started in the 1970s Universities that offer degrees in engineering 1994 – six (6) 1999 – ten (10) 2006 – approximately 20 Source: Malaysian Educational Statistics 2005, MOE Footprint in IEEE Xplore: ECE/CS Research Author affiliation Number of Number of IEEE IEEE and IET and IET articles articles per million people Singapore Australia Japan 2957 979 799 13166 19140 101515 New Zealand 534 2087 Korea 604 29179 Malaysia 112 2540 Thailand 34 2148 Footprint in IEEE Xplore: Engineering Education “Engineering education” and… Australia Japan Number of IEEE and IET articles 238 108 Singapore New Zealand 53 27 Korea 26 Malaysia 24 Thailand 10 Footprint in IEEE Xplore: Engineering Education “Engineering education” and… France Mexico Italy Number of IEEE and IET articles 91 79 76 Turkey 43 Malaysia 24 Greece 22 Hungary 20 Basic observations A growing but still small higher education system A growing but still small infrastructure for engineering and technology education A growing but still small fraction of the 20+ population benefits from higher education (post-secondary, college, university) Compared to population size 8.9% in 1991; 16% in 2000 The role of foreign universities in educating Malaysian engineers and technologists is more important than in many other developing countries What do Malaysians study? (in the higher education system) First: social science, business and law (35.4%) Second: engineering, construction and skill training (22.6%) Third: education (15.4%) Comment on In Service Training for pre-university teachers Malaysia has a formal in-service training program for teachers run by the Ministry of Education A 14-week program Open to education service officers meeting minimum qualifications By application Will it be possible to integrate the IEEE TISP program in this official program? Source: Ministry of Education Malaysia http://apps2.emoe.gov.my/tayang.php?laman=latihan_dalam_perkhidmatan&bhs=en References A.A. Abang Abdullah et al.: Engineering education in rapidly industrialising Malaysia, Engineering Science and Education Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp. 291-296 (Dec. 1994) James D. Stevens: Malaysian Models for Engineering Education in the United States, J. Profl. Issues in Engrg. Educ. and Pract., Volume 125, Issue 1, pp. 25-28 (January 1999) Education Guide Malaysia, 10th edition (Petaling Jaya: Challenger Concept) H.T. Chuah” Engineering Programme Accreditation System of Malaysia, IEEE EAB Accreditation Workshop, Bangkok, Thailand (2004): on-line: http://www.ieee.org/organizations/eab/apc/cgaa/presentations/Malaysi a-Chuah.ppt http://www.studymalaysia.com http://www.internationaleducationmedia.com/malaysia/ http://www.SchoolMalaysia.com http://www.mohe.gov.my (Malay only) http://www.moe.gov.my/ (English version) Pre-university activities in IEEE Who inside IEEE is active in this area? The IEEE Educational Activities Board (EAB) The IEEE Regional Activities Board (RAB) IEEE-USA IEEE’s Pre-University Initiative 2005-2006 New Initiative “Launching Our Children’s Path to Engineering” Objectives Increase the propensity of young people worldwide to select Engineering as a career path Build a sustained public awareness program, led by IEEE, with broad support of corporations and professional associations Objective 1: Engineering in the PreUniversity Classroom Institutionalization of IEEE Teacher In-Service Program IEEE Section engineers develop and present technology-oriented projects to local pre-university educators Emphasis on volunteer-teacher interaction as opposed to volunteer-student interaction Ideally: a sustained program involving several thousand teachers every year Objective 2: Engineering Associations, Unite! Center for Pre-University Engineering Education Ideally, the resource of choice for preuniversity education cooperation with Engineering Associations Ideally, a multi-association organization With partners such as ASCE, ASME, IEE, SEE It is about ENGINEERING, not Electrical Engineering Objective 3: Strong On-line Presence New on-line portals for students, teachers, school counselors, and parents Educational and entertaining Focused on the audience From lesson plans for teachers to games for students Ideally, the premier on-line resource on engineering for pre-university students, school counselors, teachers and parents On Line Portal TryEngineering.org “Strong On-line presence” The Web provides us with high potential for reachability A successful portal can become a major resource for students, parents, school counselors, and teachers But success is difficult in an ever-crowded medium Effort needs to be coupled with more modern tools Instant messaging, podcasts What information is needed on line? We met with school counselors and Engineering Associations Need on line tools for identifying formal and informal engineering education opportunities Engineering associations that participated in our discussions ACM, AIChE, AIAA, ASME, ASCE, IEE, JETS, SAE, SEE, Sloan Career Cornerstone Center What information is available on line? We conducted a comprehensive review of engineering education resources By EAB and consultants Conclusions: Many “Engineering Resources” are actually focusing on Science and Mathematics Resources for teachers are largely inadequate Wrong message is sent about the nature of engineering and the life of engineers From Collegeboard.com: Law It helps to be… fascinated by the relationship between law and society Are you ready to… engage in intense discussion of thorny legal problems ? From Collegeboard.com: Broadcast Journalism It helps to be… Are you ready to… sharp of mind and quick of tongue learn how to find and interview sources? From Collegeboard.com: Civil Engineering It helps to be… Are you ready to… A problem-solver who’s creative, curious, logical, and a fan of math. Spend hours and hours working on problem sets and design projects? From Collegeboard.com: Civil Engineering It helps to be… Are you ready to… A problem-solver who’s creative, curious, logical, and a fan of math. Spend hours and hours working on problem sets and design projects? From Collegeboard.com: Civil Engineering It helps to be… Are you ready to… A problem-solver who’s creative, curious, logical, and a fan of math. Spend hours and hours working on problem sets and design projects? From Collegeboard.com: Mechanical Engineering It helps to be… Are you ready to… A fan of science and math, a creative problem solver, and someone who likes to take things apart to find out how they work. Rely on your math skills? Master difficult scientific concepts? Take on a heavy course load? Spend five years as an undergrad… From Collegeboard.com: Electrical Engineering It helps to be… Are you ready to… A fan of science and math who’s curious about the way things work Spend hours building detailed, complicated systems Try, try, and try again when at first a project doesn’t succeed Good existing model Tryscience.org “Your gateway to experience the excitement of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide.” Science is exciting, and it's for everyone! Partnership between IBM the New York Hall of Science the Association of Science-Technology Centers Science centers worldwide Next step – TryEngineering.org Companion site to tryscience.org Comprehensive Ultimate Audience: young people ages 8-18 Designed to convey excitement about engineering and design Can-do attitude Hands-on experience Positive image of the engineering process and engineering “Discover the creative engineer in you” TryEngineering.org A portal for students, parents, school counselors and teachers School search By location, program, environment Day in the life of an engineer Hands-on and virtual projects Lesson plans for teaching engineering design Ask an engineer: Ask an undergraduate student: Brought to you by SAE Brought to you by JETS Games Summer camps, internship opportunities Current status TryEngineering.org is on line We are having a “quiet launch” between June and early September Some statistics (as of 23 August 2006) Please visit and provide us with feedback 6248= average # of visitors per month 40 minutes= average time a visitor spends on the site 41,404= average # of page hits per month 1761= average number of university searches per month 120= questions submitted to Ask an Expert 131= number of visitors from Malaysia (.64%) Advertising campaign in mid-September The Teacher in Service Program “Engineering in the classroom” Basics IEEE Section engineers develop and present technology-oriented projects to local preuniversity educators Started at the Florida West Coast Section in 2001 Lesson plans in English and Spanish for teachers and engineers Lesson plans matched to educational standards Basics (2) IEEE Section engineers develop and present technology-oriented projects to local preuniversity educators Started at the Florida West Coast Section in 2001 Lesson plans in English and Spanish for teachers and engineers Lesson plans matched to educational standards Rotational Equilibrium: A Question of Balance Demonstrate the concept of rotational equilibrium, by building and testing a Mobile Build working models with household items Design and Build a Better Candy Bag Lesson Focus Demonstrate how product design differences can affect the success of a final product in this case a bag for holding candy. Students work in pairs to evaluate, design, and build a better candy bag What have we done in 2005? Pilot study in Region 3 (Southeastern US) 65 participants, from 23 Sections, in Atlanta, GA Whole day workshop on lessons, association with educational standards and working with schools Plus half a day of a simulated TISP session Feedback: multiple groups organizing training sessions in Southeastern US and Jamaica What are we doing in 2006? A Region 3 refresher Expand to Region 1 (Boston, MA)–held in March Region 4 (Indianapolis, IN)—held in June Region 8 (South Africa)– held in August Region 10 (Malaysia) What will we do in 2007? Expand to Region 2 (Baltimore) Region 5 (Dallas) Region 9 (Peru and Argentina) Region 8 (Slovakia?) What do we want to achieve in Malaysia? Establish TISP as a permanent program run by the IEEE Malaysia Section Reach 400 pre-university teachers in one year From across the country 800 teachers in the next two years Investigate the incorporation of TISP in the formal program of the Malaysia’s Ministry of Education In Service Program Make TryEngineering a popular resource among teachers, school counselors and students in the primary through university level communities in Malaysia Augment the TryEngineering University Search with school information in Malaysia Create a page on university accreditation in Malaysia Ask to add links on Ministry of Education website links page www.moe.gov.my/tayang.php?laman=links&bhs=en and on www.schoolmalaysia.com, www.doctorjob.com.my/, www.studymalaysia.com Questions and comments TISP Background and Scope Workshop Goals Empower Section “champions” to develop or enhance collaborations with their local preuniversity community to promote applied inquiry-based learning. Enhance the level of technological literacy of pre-university educators. Encourage pre-university students to pursue technical careers, including engineering. Increase the general level of technological literacy of pre-university students for many years. Short-Term Benefits Participating teachers will acquire additional knowledge and materials necessary to enhance their science, math and technology curricula Participating teachers will be able to add practical, applicable content to their curricula Engineers and educators will be able to meet and learn about each other Participating teachers will have a greater understanding of technical careers such as engineering, which they can impart to their students Long-Term Benefits The overall level of technological literacy of educators and their students will be positively impacted for many years There will be the potential for future enhancements in school curricula Engineers and educators will be given opportunities to meet and develop future collaborative relationships Minority and female students will be exposed to engineering and other technical professions Just What Is In-Service Training? “Pre-service education” - Training teachers receive before beginning their teaching careers. “In-Service education” - Training teachers receive after entering the classroom. In Florida, teachers must accumulate 120 in-service points every five years to renew their teaching certificates. An in-service point is similar to the professional development hours (PDH’s) many states require for renewing PE licenses. Why Participate in a Teacher In-Service Program? Enhance the level of technological literacy of: Teachers Students The local school community Why Participate in a Teacher In-Service Program? Enhance the standing of IEEE and the engineering profession in the eyes of pre-university educators and students. Promote engineering as a career choice. Encourage IEEE member participation. Why Participate in a Teacher In-Service Program? Have fun. TISP Presentations by Section Chattanooga, TN Miami, FL Florida West Coast Santa Clara, CA Philadelphia, PA North Jersey, NJ Republic of South Africa St. Louis, MO Central Indiana Jamaica Atlanta, GA Richmond, VA Central North Carolina Metrics To Date Forty presentations to date More than 890 pre-university educators have participated Science, technology and mathematics educators These educators represent 90,000+ students Metrics To Date Cont’d Over 90% of the respondents agreed: They would use the concepts presented in their instruction Doing so would enhance the level of technological literacy of their students Counting the Cost Re-useable materials and hardware. Counting the Cost Expendables Counting the Cost Reproduction costs Often donated in kind. Refreshments. How to Begin? Two pronged approach: Build relationships with school districts. Build interest in members. Mobilising volunteers Recruiting Volunteers Articles placed in Section newsletters Announcements At chapter meetings At section executive committee meetings Informal contacts with members Members can choose to be presenters or coaches GOLD & Life members are good candidates How do I get involved * the mindset Be proud of what your profession does Be aware of the importance of engineering for the development of our country and make it known Get involved in educational issues your children’s school the IEEE - your professional society your HR department Convince your employer and others of the importance to help education departments My experience - promoting my profession Employer IEEE, conferences etc met similar minded people Gateway Discovery Centre we need engineering students having a vision fundraising practical implementation Industry Energy efficiency - CFL’s Contact with educationalists Join forces with your education department listen to them and heed their advice Keep in contact with fellow engineers who share your vision Always evaluate what you are doing and ask for feedback Qualities Needed Tactful communicator. Willing to play the role of classroom assistant. New methods of teaching - with less telling and more doing. Enjoy immediate gratification. Choose Topics Tie to national education expectations. Choose topics of interest to section members. Emphasize “hands-on” activities. Think low cost While working with school departments simply ask teachers, curriculum supervisors, curriculum specialists, etc., what topics are needed. Sample Teacher In-service Presentation Topics “Rocket Cars and Newton’s Laws” “Build Working Models With Household Items” “The Orbit of Planet Gamma” “Learn to Program and Test Robots For Classroom Use” “Everything You Wanted To Know About Electric Motors But Were Afraid To Ask”, Sample Teacher In-service Presentation Topics Cont’d “How Do We Communicate Using Radio Waves” “Get Connected With Ohm’s Law” “Effective Lighting” “Build Your Own Robot Arm” “Simple Machines” “Light Waves and Spectroscopes” Plan Times and Places Special Events USF Engineering EXPO, all day, February, prelude to Engineer’s Week Teacher Conferences, e.g. technology, mathematics and science teacher conventions by province or nationally National teacher organizations that happen to meet nearby Places College Campuses, school lab Follow-up Activities/Metrics Count the number of educators who participated in your teacher in-service program Be sure that teachers complete the 12 item questionnaire EAD will tabulate the results Follow-up with teachers to determine the level of implementation of the concepts and activities Consider a sign in sheet to include an email address Consider sending a follow-up postcard to attendees Lessons Learned Have telephone or cell phone numbers for at least two contacts at the school. If possible, visit the presentation location several days before the session. Use a cart for moving materials from volunteers’ cars to meeting rooms. If your presentation requires electric power, bring several extension cords and multi-outlet power strips. Exchange cellular telephone or pager numbers among all the section member volunteers. Provide each section member volunteer with good directions to the meeting location. Teacher In-service Presentations Design and Build Your Own Robot Arm Putrajaya, Malaysia Nico Beute, South Africa Section Douglas Gorham, Educational Activities Yvonne Pelham, Educational Activities September 2006 Principles & Standards for School Mathematics Geometry: Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and threedimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships Problem Solving: Recognize and apply geometric ideas in areas outside of the mathematics classroom Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies Communication: Communicate mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others National Science Education Standards Standard E: Science and Technology Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans Abilities of technological design Understandings about science and technology Communicate the process of technological design Interactions of energy and matter Motion and force Standards for Technological Literacy Students will develop an understanding of… Standard 7. the influence of technology on history. Standard 8. the attributes of design. Standard 9. engineering design. Standard 10. the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving. Students will develop… Standard 11. the abilities to apply the design process. Standard 19. an understanding of and be able to select and use manufacturing technologies. Outline and Procedures Divide into teams of 2 Brainstorm and create a sketch of your design Build a model of your design with given materials Test your model Discuss and agree upon a redesign, if needed Rebuild your robot arm Retest your model Answer reflection questions as a team Reflection What was one thing you liked about your design? Did you use all of the materials provided? Why, or why not? Are there algebraic principles that can be applied to this activity? What is one thing you would change about your design based on your experience? How might you incorporate this activity into your classroom instruction?