Unit 5 Chapter 13: Manifest Destiny: 1810 - 1853 This presentation follows materials presented in Unit 5 of the McDougal Littell textbook: Creating America I. Trails West A. Mountain Men 1. lived, trapped fur & hunted near Rocky Mts. 2. Jedediah Smith & Jim Beckwourth 3. Explored West of Mississippi 4. Discovered “passes” through Rocky Mts. 5. Thousands later followed their trails B. Lure of the West 1. Land = $$ & opportunity 2. Land speculators bought huge areas of land a. Divide & sold off the land to settlers who dreamed of owning their own farms. C. Westward Trails 1. Santa Fe Trail: a. Santa Fe was closed to “Americanos” until 1821 when Mexico won independence from Spain. b. Wagon Train from St. Louis to Santa Fe through the desert. 2. Oregon Trail: a. 1841, settlers began the 2,000 miles to Oregon country. b. Land claimed by Britain and America C. Westward Trails 3. Mormon Trail: a. 1847, Brigham Young led the first of 15,000 Mormons to Utah, away from persecution. b. Utah became a state in 1896, after the Mormons agreed to give up polygamy. c. They learned how to farm in the desert & stressed teamwork to build dams & canals for irrigation. A. EMIGRANTS FOR MEXICO • Stephen F. Austin: granted permission to be empresario. • Brought “Old Three Hundred” families into Mexico. • Mexico gained independence • By 1830, Americans outnumbered Tejanos 6 to 1. Stephen F. Austin Unrest in Texas DON’T WRITE THIS. Mexico nervous about # of migrants Closed borders to American settlers Enforced Trade Tariffs Insisted all citizens be Roman Catholic Talks of a revolution Mexico eased up Held off a revolution for a while • 1835: Dictator Santa Anna • Did away with Constitution of Mexico • October 1835: group of Texans declared themselves independent. • Santa Anna sent troops to put down the rebellion. Santa Anna C. Major Battles of the Revolution • Battle of the Alamo • Battle of Goliad • Battle of San Jacinto D. Republic of Texas • Texas was an independent country for 10 years • Sam Houston: 1st President. Belief of the American people that they had the right to spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 1. James K. Polk (against Henry Clay) campaigned on national expansion, annexing Texas, and taking over Oregon. 2. Polk won the election but didn’t want to fight Britain. Britain and America agreed to divide Oregon. Clay Polk B. War with Mexico 1. The U.S. offered to buy Texas, Cal., and NM for $25 million but Mex. refused. 2. Angry because we annexed (added) Texas. 3. Polk sent the army to the Rio Grande River and Mexico attacked. 4. 1846: the U.S. declared war on Mexico. Area in Dispute between the U.S. and Mexico. Area in Dispute Nueces River Rio Grande River 1.Gen. Stephen Kearney captured NM without firing a single shot. 2.John C. Fremont led an American revolt in California against Mexico. -Established the Bear Flag Republic. • U.S. attacked Mexico City • Winfield Scott (leader) • Fierce resistance but September 1847: Mexico City fell • U.S. lost 17, 000 troops & $100 million dollars 1. Treaty that ended the Mexican-American War 2. Texas was part of the U.S. & the U.S. paid $15 million to Mexico. 3. Mex. Ceded (gave) the Mexican Cession (1/2 of Mexico): – Gave parts of NM, Col., Wyoming, & Az – All of Cal., Nevada, & Utah. • 1853, Mexico sold the southern part of New Mex. & Arizona for $10 million. • Gave the U.S. its final shape. 1. Gold Hunters were called “49ers” because they all traveled to California in 1849 for gold. 1. 2. 3. 4. All were dangerous Around the tip of South America by boat Through Panama (No Canal) Overland in a wagon-train, or stagecoach C. Life in Mining Camps 1. Most lived in tents and worked hard all day. 2. Most were young men from New Englandmost didn’t become rich. 3. Many foreigners, especially Chinese, who were treated poorly by whites. 1. Because of population, California became a state in 2 years with San Francisco a business center 2. Native Americans die by the thousands from disease 3. The Chinese were forced out of their gold fields. – They set up shops, restaurants, & laundry around the city. Unit 5 Chapter 14: A New Spirit of Change: 1820 - 1860 This presentation follows materials presented in Unit 5 of the McDougal Littell textbook: Creating America SECTION 1: THE HOPES OF IMMIGRANTS A. Why People Migrated 1. Despite the hardships many immigrants faced coming to the U.S., many flocked to the country during the mid1800s. a. Most immigrants came from Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, and China b. Definitions: i. Emigrate – To leave a country ii. Immigrate – To enter a country A. Why People Migrated 2. Push-Pull Factors – the forces that pushed people out of their native lands and pulled them toward the U.S. a. Push Factors: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Population Growth Agricultural Changes Crop Failures Industrial Revolution Religious and Political Turmoil 1. Freedom 2. Economic opportunity 3. Abundant land b. Pull Factors: i. Freedom ii. Economic Opportunity iii. Abundant Land 1. Population growth 2. Agricultural changes 3. Crop failures 4. Industrial Revolution 5. Religious and political turmoil B. Immigrant Groups 1. Scandinavians a. Settled in Minnesota & Wisconsin b. Most became farmers c. Introduced log cabins 2. German a. Settled in Midwest & Texas b. Farmers, skilled artisans c. Largest immigrant group d. Introduced Christmas trees, gyms, kindergartens, burgers, frankfurters B. Immigrant Groups 3. Irish a. Harassed by British rulers b. 1845: Potato Famine i. Famine: severe food shortage c. Most lived in the cities, too poor to go further west d. Uneducated, took lowest paying jobs e. Irish women worked as servants, cooks Sources of Immigration, 1820–1860 39% Ireland 31% Germany 16% Great Britain 4% The Americas 1% Scandinavia 9% Other C. Life of Immigrants 1. Some immigrants were successful a. Levi Strauss – Blue Jeans 2. Many struggled as Nativists (people born in America) resented immigrants 3. America as a nation benefited greatly immigration a. New ideas & talents b. American Culture changed forever SECTION 2: REFORM & GROWTH OF RIGHTS A. Spirit of Revival 1. The Second Great Awaking was a revival of religious faith in the 1890’s – 1900’s. a. People all over began to have a new confidence in their ability to make things in America better b. Revivals were held and the country began focusing on making their society better, and cleaner B. Art and Literature 1. Throughout the early 1800s, America had little respect among the rest of the world a. Especially in the area of “The Arts” b. While many artists were influenced by European “romanticism”, America began their own style of art and literature 2. James Fenimore Cooper •Last of the Mohicans •Wrote about the dignity and resourcefulness of common people. James Fenimore Cooper 3. Henry David Thoreau •Walden Pond-simplicity and living within nature. •“Civil Disobedience”-belief that no one should obey a law that they consider unjust. •Non-violent, “passive resistance” •Influenced future social leaders like Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi. Henry David Thoreau 4. Emily Dickinson •American lyric poet who has been called “the New England mystic”. •Almost all over her poems were published after she died. Emily Dickinson 5. Herman Melville •American novelist, short-story writer, and poet who never received fame in his lifetime. •Moby Dick and Billy Bud. •He is now thought by many to have been Americas greatest writer. Herman Melville 6. Edgar Allan Poe •One of the greatest early American writers: wrote poems, short stories, and mysteries. •The Tell-Tale Heart •The Raven Edgar Allen Poe 7. Nathaniel Hawthorne •Lived in a utopian community •The Scarlet Letter •His style of writing always had hidden meaning which cause people to still be fascinated with his writings today. Nathaniel Hawthorne 8. Ralph Waldo Emerson •America’s favorite philosopher. •Wrote Self-Reliance •Father of Transcendentalism •Idea that each person can know truth Ralph Waldo Emerson C. Temperance Movement 1. Temperance Movement: the stop of the sales and drinking of alcohol. 2. Business owners thought that if workers stopped drinking, they would work harder Progression of Drunkenness as seen by the Temperance Movement in the early 19th Century D. Labor Unions 1. Labor Unions: a group of workers who banded together to seek better working conditions 2. Many workers went on strike, or stopped working to get better working conditions, shorter work hours, and more money E. Education Reform 1. Horace Mann: Father of American Education 2. Between the 1830 – 1850, many northern states opened FREE public schools 3. Education allowed the rich and poor equal chances F. Suffrage Movement 1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretria Mott, and Susan B. Anthony were the leaders of the Suffrage Movement 2. The movement wanted women’s property rights (meaning they could own it), and suffrage rights (right to vote) F. Suffrage Movement 3. Seneca Falls Convention a. Seneca Falls, New York b. Called for women’s suffrage and wrote the Declaration of Sentiments that was based on the Declaration of Independence c. This convention led the way for the future of the women’s rights movement G. Abolition Movement 1. The Abolitionist Movement (to end slavery) was probably the oldest of all of the reform movements a. In this time of great reform, it gave this movement new life 2. Many women began to help the abolitionist’s cause by speaking out about it G. Abolition Movement 3. Many people who were against slavery joined a abolitionist societies a. They had meeting and rallies, but usually took no action On the Underground Railroad, the runaways usually traveled by night and hid by day in places called stations. Stables, attics, and cellars all served as stations. 4. For some, these societies were not enough and joined the Underground Railroad a. Not an actual railroad b. A series of escape routes from the South to the North c. Runaways traveled by night and hid during the day • William Lloyd Garrison (newspaper writer) was perhaps the best known of the abolitionists of the early 1800s. Garrison was unwilling in his fight to end slavery immediately. His newspaper, The Liberator helped to spread the message of abolition to many Americans. William Lloyd Garrison • Some abolitionists may have been more effective than Frederick Douglass, but none are more well known. No one person symbolizes the fight for abolition more than Frederick Douglass. • He had taught himself to read and write, and had escaped slavery early in life. He was an excellent speaker, and his unique reflection on his experiences allowed him to be heard by people that would not normally listen to an escaped slave. • Sojourner Truth was one of the first African American women to speak out against slavery. She was freed from slavery when New York abolished all slavery in that state. She became a tireless crusader for justice for the rest of her life. • The Grimke Sisters were wealthy southerners that spoke out against the cruelty and immorality of slavery and gained a lot of support for the cause. The people who led the runaways to freedom were called conductors. The most famous person involved with the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman was a former slave herself who escaped. Her efforts alone helped to free at least 300 slaves. Unit 5 Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart: 1846 - 1861 This presentation follows materials presented in Unit 5 of the McDougal Littell textbook: Creating America SECTION I: THE DIVISION GROWS A. The Mason-Dixon Line 1. The boundary between slave states and free states B. North Vs. South 1. North a. Industry & commerce b. Cities c. Larger Population d. More Immigrants 2. South a. Relied on plantation farming b. Few wealthy planters controlled society. c. Most southern whites poor C. Compromise of 1850 1. Henry Clay: compromise supported by Stephen Douglas to bring California as a new state. Slave Trade a. 5 parts: Fugitive Slave Law Strictly Enforced California became a FREE state abolished in Washington, D.C. Compromise of 1850 Popular Sovereignty in Mexican Cession Texas gave up 40% of Western lands -$15 Million Section II. The Crisis Deepens A. Fugitive Slave Law 1. 1850 law that helped slaveholders recapture runaway slaves. 2. People accused of being a fugitive received no trial. 3. Fed’l commissioner ruled on each case. a. $5 if runaway was released. b. $10 if runaway was returned to owner. A. Fugitive Slave Law 4. Northerners were fined if they didn’t help find escaped runaways. 5. Jailed if they helped runaways escape. 1. Published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852. 2. Encouraged abolition by dramatically portraying the moral issue of slavery. “So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war.” -Abraham Lincoln C. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1. Senator Stephen Douglas proposed to divide Kansas & Nebraska into 2 territories. 2. Introduced Popular Sovereignty: where residents vote to decide if the state would be slave or free. 3. Did away with the Missouri Compromise. Free States Slave States D. Bleeding Kansas 1. Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery supporters moved to Kansas to vote. 2. 5,000 people from Missouri voted illegally. 3. Violence in Lawrence, Kansas where Proslavery forces attacked and destroyed gov’t buildings. 4. In retaliation, John Brown, famous abolitionist, murdered 5 pro-slavers at Pottawatomie Creek. 5. Civil War broke out in Kansas for 3 years, called “Bleeding Kansas.” E. Violence in Congress 1. 1856: Sen. Charles Sumner made a speech about pro-slavery forces in Kansas. -insulted Sen. Butler from S.C. 2. Sen. Brooks, Butler’s cousin, heard & attacked Sumner with a cane, which left Sumner crippled. Section III. Slavery Dominates Politics A. The Republican Party 1. Formed to stop the spread of slavery 2. Wanted a strong central gov’t & high tariffs to protect American businesses. 3. Joined by Abraham Lincoln B. Election of 1856 1. James BuchananDemocrats 2. Millard Fillmore (former pres.) Know-Nothing 3. John C. FremontRepublican. C. Dred Scott Vs. Sanford 1. Scott (slave) lived in free state & sued for freedom. 2. Case went to U.S. Supreme Court 3. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled against Scott: “Not a citizen, can’t sue in court.” 4. Congress can’t ban slavery as the 5th amendment gives the right to own property. Dred Scott Chief Justice Roger B. Taney D. Lincoln – Douglas Debates 1. 1858: Lincoln & Douglas ran for SENATE seat from Illinois. 2. Series of debates. 3. Douglas (famous orator) & Lincoln (unknown) 4. Lincoln lost the election but became famous. E. John Brown Attacks 1. John Brown (Abolitionist) lead a slave revolt. 2. 1859: attacked the U.S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry in Virginia. 3. Captured, tried, and hanged as a traitor. 4. Became abolitionist hero and martyr. John Brown's Fort F. Election of 1860 1. Democrats were split between North and South. 2. 3rd Party: Constitutional Union Party. 3. The Dem. split allowed Lincoln (Rep.) to be elected. 4. No one in the South trusted Lincoln. G. Southern States Secede 1. Secede: Withdraw from the Union. a. voluntarily entered & can voluntarily leave. 2. 1860: South Carolina was first to secede 3. The Union considered secession unconstitutional. 4. Formed the Confederate States of America. 5. Jefferson Davis chosen as President of the C.S.A. 1. He would not interfere with slavery 2. Stated that no state could secede, or withdraw from the Union. 3. Lincoln stated there would be no invasion or use of force. But, he would not abandon the government’s property in the South. Several forts in the South, including Fort Sumter in South Carolina, were still in Union hands. These forts would soon need to be resupplied. 4. Throughout the next couple of months, the nation waited anxiously to see what would happen next.