Unit 5 Chapter 13: Manifest
Destiny: 1810 - 1853
This presentation follows materials presented in Unit 5 of
the McDougal Littell textbook: Creating America
I. Trails West
A. Mountain Men
1. lived, trapped fur & hunted near
Rocky Mts.
2. Jedediah Smith & Jim Beckwourth
3. Explored West of Mississippi
4. Discovered “passes” through Rocky
5. Thousands later followed their trails
B. Lure of the West
1. Land = $$ & opportunity
2. Land speculators bought
huge areas of land
a. Divide & sold off the land to
settlers who dreamed of owning
their own farms.
C. Westward Trails
1. Santa Fe Trail:
a. Santa Fe was closed to “Americanos” until 1821
when Mexico won independence from Spain.
b. Wagon Train from St. Louis to Santa Fe through the
Oregon Trail:
a. 1841, settlers began the 2,000 miles to Oregon
b. Land claimed by Britain and America
C. Westward Trails
3. Mormon Trail:
a. 1847, Brigham Young led the first of 15,000
Mormons to Utah, away from persecution.
b. Utah became a state in 1896, after the Mormons
agreed to give up polygamy.
c. They learned how to farm in the desert & stressed
teamwork to build dams & canals for irrigation.
• Stephen F. Austin: granted permission to be
• Brought “Old Three Hundred” families into Mexico.
• Mexico gained independence
• By 1830, Americans outnumbered Tejanos 6 to 1.
Stephen F. Austin
Unrest in Texas
Mexico nervous about # of migrants
Closed borders to American settlers
Enforced Trade Tariffs
Insisted all citizens be Roman Catholic
Talks of a revolution
Mexico eased up
Held off a revolution for a while
• 1835: Dictator Santa Anna
• Did away with Constitution of
• October 1835: group of Texans
declared themselves
• Santa Anna sent troops to put
down the rebellion.
Santa Anna
C. Major Battles of the Revolution
• Battle of the Alamo
• Battle of Goliad
• Battle of San Jacinto
D. Republic of Texas
• Texas was an independent country
for 10 years
• Sam Houston: 1st President.
Belief of the American people
that they had the right to
spread from the Atlantic to the
1. James K. Polk (against Henry Clay)
campaigned on national expansion,
annexing Texas, and taking over
2. Polk won the election but didn’t want
to fight Britain. Britain and America
agreed to divide Oregon.
B. War with Mexico
1. The U.S. offered to buy Texas, Cal., and
NM for $25 million but Mex. refused.
2. Angry because we annexed (added) Texas.
3. Polk sent the army to the Rio Grande
River and Mexico attacked.
4. 1846: the U.S. declared war on Mexico.
Area in Dispute between the U.S. and Mexico.
Area in Dispute
Nueces River
Rio Grande River
1.Gen. Stephen Kearney captured NM without
firing a single shot.
2.John C. Fremont led an American revolt in
California against Mexico.
-Established the Bear Flag Republic.
• U.S. attacked Mexico City
• Winfield Scott (leader)
• Fierce resistance but September 1847:
Mexico City fell
• U.S. lost 17, 000 troops & $100 million
1. Treaty that ended the Mexican-American War
2. Texas was part of the U.S. & the U.S. paid $15
million to Mexico.
3. Mex. Ceded (gave) the Mexican Cession (1/2 of
– Gave parts of NM, Col., Wyoming, & Az
– All of Cal., Nevada, & Utah.
• 1853, Mexico sold the southern part of New
Mex. & Arizona for $10 million.
• Gave the U.S. its final shape.
1. Gold Hunters were called “49ers” because they
all traveled to California in 1849 for gold.
All were dangerous
Around the tip of South America by boat
Through Panama (No Canal)
Overland in a wagon-train, or stagecoach
C. Life in Mining Camps
1. Most lived in tents and worked hard all
2. Most were young men from New Englandmost didn’t become rich.
3. Many foreigners, especially Chinese, who
were treated poorly by whites.
1. Because of population, California became a state in 2
years with San Francisco a business center
2. Native Americans die by the thousands from disease
3. The Chinese were forced out of their gold fields.
– They set up shops, restaurants, & laundry around
the city.
Unit 5 Chapter 14: A New
Spirit of Change: 1820 - 1860
This presentation follows materials presented in Unit 5 of
the McDougal Littell textbook: Creating America
A. Why People Migrated
1. Despite the hardships many
immigrants faced coming to
the U.S., many flocked to the
country during the mid1800s.
a. Most immigrants came from
Britain, Ireland, Germany,
Scandinavia, and China
b. Definitions:
i. Emigrate – To leave a country
ii. Immigrate – To enter a country
A. Why People Migrated
2. Push-Pull Factors – the forces that pushed
people out of their native lands and pulled
them toward the U.S.
a. Push Factors:
Population Growth
Agricultural Changes
Crop Failures
Industrial Revolution
Religious and
Political Turmoil
1. Freedom
2. Economic
3. Abundant
b. Pull Factors:
i. Freedom
ii. Economic Opportunity
iii. Abundant Land
1. Population growth
2. Agricultural
3. Crop failures
4. Industrial
5. Religious and
political turmoil
B. Immigrant Groups
1. Scandinavians
a. Settled in Minnesota
& Wisconsin
b. Most became
c. Introduced log
2. German
a. Settled in Midwest &
b. Farmers, skilled
c. Largest immigrant
d. Introduced
Christmas trees,
gyms, kindergartens,
burgers, frankfurters
B. Immigrant Groups
3. Irish
a. Harassed by British rulers
b. 1845: Potato Famine
Famine: severe food shortage
c. Most lived in the cities, too
poor to go further west
d. Uneducated, took lowest
paying jobs
e. Irish women worked as
servants, cooks
Sources of Immigration,
39% Ireland
31% Germany
16% Great Britain
4% The Americas
1% Scandinavia
9% Other
C. Life of Immigrants
1. Some immigrants were
a. Levi Strauss – Blue Jeans
2. Many struggled as Nativists
(people born in America)
resented immigrants
3. America as a nation benefited
greatly immigration
a. New ideas & talents
b. American Culture changed
A. Spirit of Revival
1. The Second Great Awaking
was a revival of religious faith
in the 1890’s – 1900’s.
a. People all over began to have a
new confidence in their ability
to make things in America
b. Revivals were held and the
country began focusing on
making their society better, and
B. Art and Literature
1. Throughout the early 1800s,
America had little respect
among the rest of the world
a. Especially in the area of “The
b. While many artists were
influenced by European
“romanticism”, America
began their own style of art
and literature
2. James Fenimore Cooper
•Last of the Mohicans
•Wrote about the dignity and
resourcefulness of common
3. Henry David Thoreau
•Walden Pond-simplicity and living within nature.
•“Civil Disobedience”-belief that no one should
obey a law that they consider unjust.
•Non-violent, “passive resistance”
•Influenced future social leaders like Dr. Martin
Luther King, Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi.
4. Emily Dickinson
•American lyric poet who has been called
“the New England mystic”.
•Almost all over her poems were published
after she died.
5. Herman Melville
•American novelist, short-story writer, and
poet who never received fame in his
•Moby Dick and Billy Bud.
•He is now thought by many to have been
Americas greatest writer.
6. Edgar Allan Poe
•One of the greatest early American
writers: wrote poems, short stories, and
•The Tell-Tale Heart
•The Raven
7. Nathaniel Hawthorne
•Lived in a utopian community
•The Scarlet Letter
•His style of writing always had hidden
meaning which cause people to still be
fascinated with his writings today.
8. Ralph Waldo Emerson
•America’s favorite philosopher.
•Wrote Self-Reliance
•Father of Transcendentalism
•Idea that each person can know truth
C. Temperance Movement
1. Temperance Movement: the stop of the
sales and drinking of alcohol.
2. Business owners thought that if workers
stopped drinking, they would work
Progression of
as seen by the
Movement in
the early 19th
D. Labor Unions
1. Labor Unions: a group of
workers who banded
together to seek better
working conditions
2. Many workers went on
strike, or stopped working
to get better working
conditions, shorter work
hours, and more money
E. Education Reform
1. Horace Mann: Father of
American Education
2. Between the 1830 – 1850,
many northern states opened
FREE public schools
3. Education allowed the rich
and poor equal chances
F. Suffrage Movement
1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretria Mott,
and Susan B. Anthony were the leaders
of the Suffrage Movement
2. The movement wanted women’s
property rights (meaning they could
own it), and suffrage rights (right to
F. Suffrage Movement
3. Seneca Falls Convention
a. Seneca Falls, New York
b. Called for women’s suffrage and
wrote the Declaration of
Sentiments that was based on
the Declaration of
c. This convention led the way for
the future of the women’s rights
G. Abolition Movement
1. The Abolitionist Movement
(to end slavery) was probably
the oldest of all of the reform
a. In this time of great reform, it
gave this movement new life
2. Many women began to help
the abolitionist’s cause by
speaking out about it
G. Abolition Movement
3. Many people who were against
slavery joined a abolitionist
a. They had meeting and rallies, but
usually took no action
Railroad, the runaways
usually traveled by night
and hid by day in places
called stations.
attics, and cellars all served
as stations.
4. For some, these societies were
not enough and joined the
Underground Railroad
a. Not an actual railroad
b. A series of escape routes from the
South to the North
c. Runaways traveled by night and hid
during the day
• William Lloyd Garrison (newspaper
writer) was perhaps the best known of
the abolitionists of the early 1800s.
Garrison was unwilling in his fight to
end slavery immediately. His
newspaper, The Liberator helped to
spread the message of abolition to
many Americans.
William Lloyd
• Some abolitionists may have been
more effective than Frederick
Douglass, but none are more well
known. No one person symbolizes
the fight for abolition more than
Frederick Douglass.
• He had taught himself to read and
write, and had escaped slavery early
in life. He was an excellent speaker,
and his unique reflection on his
experiences allowed him to be heard
by people that would not normally
listen to an escaped slave.
• Sojourner Truth was one of the first
African American women to speak out
against slavery. She was freed from
slavery when New York abolished all
slavery in that state. She became a
tireless crusader for justice for the rest
of her life.
• The Grimke Sisters were wealthy
southerners that spoke out against the
cruelty and immorality of slavery and
gained a lot of support for the cause.
The people who led the
runaways to freedom were
called conductors. The most
famous person involved with
the Underground Railroad
was Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman was a former
slave herself who escaped.
Her efforts alone helped to free
at least 300 slaves.
Unit 5 Chapter 15: The Nation
Breaking Apart: 1846 - 1861
This presentation follows materials presented in Unit 5 of
the McDougal Littell textbook: Creating America
A. The Mason-Dixon Line
1. The boundary
between slave
states and free
B. North Vs. South
1. North
a. Industry &
b. Cities
c. Larger Population
d. More Immigrants
2. South
a. Relied on plantation
b. Few wealthy planters
controlled society.
c. Most southern whites
C. Compromise of 1850
1. Henry Clay: compromise supported by
Stephen Douglas to bring California as a
new state.
Slave Trade
a. 5 parts:
Fugitive Slave
Law Strictly
became a
FREE state
abolished in
of 1850
Sovereignty in
Texas gave up
40% of
Western lands
-$15 Million
Section II.
The Crisis
A. Fugitive Slave Law
1. 1850 law that helped
slaveholders recapture
runaway slaves.
2. People accused of being a
fugitive received no trial.
3. Fed’l commissioner ruled
on each case.
a. $5 if runaway was
b. $10 if runaway was
returned to owner.
A. Fugitive Slave Law
4. Northerners were fined if they didn’t
help find escaped runaways.
5. Jailed if they helped runaways escape.
1. Published by Harriet
Beecher Stowe in 1852.
2. Encouraged abolition by
dramatically portraying
the moral issue of slavery.
“So you’re the little woman who
wrote the book that started this
great war.”
-Abraham Lincoln
C. Kansas-Nebraska Act
1. Senator Stephen Douglas proposed to divide
Kansas & Nebraska into 2 territories.
2. Introduced Popular Sovereignty: where
residents vote to decide if the state would be
slave or free.
3. Did away with the Missouri Compromise.
Free States
Slave States
D. Bleeding Kansas
1. Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery supporters moved
to Kansas to vote.
2. 5,000 people from Missouri voted illegally.
3. Violence in Lawrence, Kansas where Proslavery forces attacked and destroyed gov’t
4. In retaliation, John Brown, famous
abolitionist, murdered 5 pro-slavers at
Pottawatomie Creek.
5. Civil War broke out in Kansas for 3 years,
called “Bleeding Kansas.”
E. Violence in Congress
1. 1856: Sen. Charles Sumner made a speech
about pro-slavery forces in Kansas.
-insulted Sen. Butler from S.C.
2. Sen. Brooks, Butler’s cousin, heard &
attacked Sumner with a cane, which left
Sumner crippled.
Section III. Slavery
Dominates Politics
A. The Republican Party
1. Formed to stop the spread
of slavery
2. Wanted a strong central
gov’t & high tariffs to
protect American
3. Joined by Abraham
B. Election of 1856
1. James BuchananDemocrats
2. Millard Fillmore
(former pres.) Know-Nothing
3. John C. FremontRepublican.
C. Dred Scott Vs. Sanford
1. Scott (slave) lived in free state & sued for freedom.
2. Case went to U.S. Supreme Court
3. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled against
Scott: “Not a citizen, can’t sue in court.”
4. Congress can’t ban slavery as the 5th
amendment gives the right to own property.
Dred Scott
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
D. Lincoln – Douglas Debates
1. 1858: Lincoln & Douglas ran for
SENATE seat from Illinois.
2. Series of debates.
3. Douglas (famous orator) &
Lincoln (unknown)
4. Lincoln lost the election but
became famous.
E. John Brown Attacks
1. John Brown (Abolitionist) lead a
slave revolt.
2. 1859: attacked the U.S. arsenal at
Harper’s Ferry in Virginia.
3. Captured, tried, and hanged as a
4. Became abolitionist hero and
John Brown's
F. Election of 1860
1. Democrats were split between
North and South.
2. 3rd Party: Constitutional Union
3. The Dem. split allowed Lincoln
(Rep.) to be elected.
4. No one in the South trusted
G. Southern States Secede
1. Secede: Withdraw from the Union.
a. voluntarily entered & can voluntarily leave.
2. 1860: South Carolina was first to secede
3. The Union considered secession
4. Formed the Confederate States of America.
5. Jefferson Davis chosen as President of the
1. He would not interfere with slavery
2. Stated that no state could secede, or
withdraw from the Union.
3. Lincoln stated there would be no invasion or use of
force. But, he would not abandon the government’s
property in the South. Several forts in the South,
including Fort Sumter in South Carolina, were still in
Union hands. These forts would soon need to be resupplied.
4. Throughout the next couple of months, the nation waited
anxiously to see what would happen next.