1824-1849 Son of the second president Brilliant man who was fluent in many languages. Very qualified – former Secretary of State, negotiated the end of the War of 1812 and wrote the Monroe Doctrine. People described him as self righteous and arrogant, “a chip off the old iceberg.” Four men ran for president that year William Crawford John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Henry Clay Jackson won both the popular vote and the majority of electoral votes, but he did not have a big enough majority to win. The race had to be decided in the House of Representatives. By law, the top three would have a run off decided by members of the House of Representatives. Henry Clay came in fourth, but he was Speaker of the House. Crawford had a stroke so the race came down to Adams vs. Jackson. There was a meeting between Adams and Henry Clay 1829 - 1837 First Known Painting of Jackson, 1815 “Old Hickory” “Conqueror of Florida” Short tempered, one either loved him or hated him or loved to hate him, wanted to be called “General,” loved to dual. Dirtiest election of all times Both candidates resorted to “mudslinging” mudslinging is trying to ruin the opponents reputation by saying bad things about them. Attacked Jackson’s wife, Rachel. Said she was a polygamist. She was actually married to another man that had left her. She did not know he was still alive. He showed up again after she married Andrew Jackson and then got divorced. Rachel, was very stressed with this situation, she died before Jackson was inaugurated. But he never got over the death of his wife. He blamed Henry Clay and said that he had convinced a newspaper to run the stories about his wife. Henry Clay denied the allegations. Jackson said he could forgive the mudslinging against him, but would never forgive those that attacked his dear Rachel. Suffrage (right to vote) – states began to loosen rules on property ownership being a voting requirement. In other words, Jackson gave more people the right to vote. Voting Requirements in the Early 19c Spoils system – Jackson fired government workers who were his enemies and hired his friends – system still in place. Nullification Crisis – Southerners were very upset over high tariffs. Vice President Calhoun from SC threatened to “nullify” (cancel) federal laws on tariffs – even threatening to succeed (break away). Jackson said union must be preserved. Calhoun resigned. Indian Removal Act of 1830 – forced removal of the Native Americans east of the Mississippi. Cherokee tribe fought this Act in court. It went all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee. Cherokee had Constitutional rights to the land. Jackson ordered them to leave anyway. General Winfield Scott and seven thousand soldiers forced the Indians to move west of the Mississippi. The forced journey caused thousands of Indians leave their homes and move mostly to Oklahoma. Thousands of Indians died on the trip and so it is referred to as the Trail of Tears. One Indian died every four miles 4,ooo Cherokee lost their lives on the trip It ended in March 26, 1839 Jackson despised the National Bank. Henry Clay, Nicolas Biddle and Daniel Webster thought most people were for the bank. They tried to get it renewed early to force Jackson to veto the bill, because they thought that if he vetoed it, it would be bad for Jackson politically. Jackson not only vetoed the bill, then “killed” the bank Good friend of Jackson Organized Democratic Party Had a reputation as an aristocrat wanna be Panic of 1837 and 1839 – too much cotton production caused prices to fall The whole economy then collapsed Van Buren had no plan to help the economy and Jackson had killed the National Bank which may have helped. Lost the next election due to the poor economy War hero and Indian fighter, wanted re-charter the bank He was older and smart and had studied medicine. He wanted to show how smart he was and gave the longest inaugural address ever (2hrs). It was a cold and miserable day. Ironically, Harrison caught pneumonia and died. He was the first president to die in office. John Tyler was Harrison’s VP and became president on Harrison’s death. People called him “His Accidency.” Refused to pick a VP People said he was stubborn and aloof and aristocratic. Went completely against what Harrison and the Whig Party had wanted and vetoed the National Bank. Tyler was then thrown out of the Whig party Sign a treaty with Texas. Very strong supporter of Jackson and his policies. Some even described him as, “ more Jackson than Jackson,” and said he made very decision thinking, “What would Jackson do?” Manifest Destiny defined Term first coined by John L. O’Sullivan in Democratic Review, July 1845 ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth.” Ideological basis for belief: Sincere belief in democracy and republicanism Idealized view of U.S. as model for others Religious Beliefs The belief that Christians must convert the Indian “heathens.” Americans tempted by “free” land Develop trade with Far East U.S. stopped at Mississippi Knew of California and Oregon Pacific Coast to Far East – need base Jealous of Mexico’s success Fear of Foreign Invasion British Claims to Oregon; Mexico in south Mexican anger over annexation of Texas Dispute over Texas/Mexican border Instability of Mexican government Nueces River or Rio Grande 19 governments in 25 years Polk Administration’s drive to expand U.S. Polk saw his mandate as creating a coast-tocoast nation 1845 Polk sends Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi. Encamped on Nueces River Sends John Slidell to negotiate. He offers: $5 million for New Mexico west of Rio Grande $25 million for California Strong anti-U.S. sentiment meant that Mexico would not accept offer March 1846 Taylor crossed Nueces and war begins After luring Mexico into the war, Polk had a three part strategy. 1. Drive the Mexicans out of disputed border region 2. Seize New Mexico and California 3. Take Mexico City (capital of Mexico) All those goals were achieved and in February 1848, a peace treaty was signed (The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago) Mexico ceded Texas, NM, and CA and agreed to the Rio Grande as being the border between countries Over 1700 were killed in the war. 11,000 die of disease Millions of dollars were spent on the war effort The Mexican war was the training ground for Civil War generals.