PowerPoint - UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism

“Covering Conflict: The Media At War”
March 15 - 19, 2004
Sponsored by:
The University of California Berkeley’s
Graduate School of Journalism’s
Western Knight Center for Specialized
Journalism Training,
in partnership with the University of
California Berkeley, Human Rights Center
Reporting on the National Guard and
Reservist Call-Up
Moderated by Jim Crawley, Military Affairs Reporter,
San Diego Union-Tribune
Colonel Terry Knight, California National Guard
James Martin, Associate Professor of Social Work
and Social research at Bryn Mawr College, and
senior editor of The Military Family: A Practice
Guide for Human Service Providers
Supporting Strong and Healthy
Military Families
James A. Martin, Ph.D.
Colonel, US Army (Retired) &
Associate Professor
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
Key Strategies for Supporting Strong
and Healthy Military Families:
Develop formal relationships among local public, nonprofit
and business organizations and the military’s community leaders
Build informal relationships both among military families and
between military and non-military families, and provide military
families with meaningful opportunities for civic engagement.
Increase prevention and outreach efforts to promote and
sustain resilient military families, especially families in known highrisk categories or situations.
Challenges confronting the 21st Century military are
associated with recruiting, training, sustaining, and
retaining members and their families in the context of the
changing nature of the people, their duties, their careers,
and their QOL expectations – all occurring within the
opportunities and constraints of broadly defined set of
contextual factors.
Our National Guard & other Reserve Components face
challenges that are both similar and unique to those
confronting the Active Components
A Model for Examining 21st Century
Military Service and Community Life
The People
Their Duties
Social; Legal; Political;
Economic; & Technological
Their Career
Their QOL
Competent and resilient communities are a foundation
of support for the well being of military members and their families
A Model for Examining 21st Century
Military Service and Community Life
Example issues
The People
Number of minority members
Number & roles of women
Variation in “family types”
“Extended family” responsibilities
Reserve Component presence
“Non-uniformed” presence
The Contextual Factors:
Social; Legal; Political; Economic; & Technological
A Model for Examining 21st Century
Military Service and Community Life
Example issues
Their Duties
Rotational deployments as a “way of life”
Long and sustained operational hardships
Technical Knowledge, Skills, Behaviors
Requirements for multiple “soldier” skills
The Contextual Factors:
Social; Legal; Political; Economic; & Technological
A Model for Examining 21st Century
Military Service and Community Life
Example issues
Their Career
 Fewer PCS moves (& more civilian connections)
 Fewer families living overseas
 Frequent & prolonged spouse absence
 Longer, shorter, & varied career patterns
The Contextual Factors:
Social; Legal; Political; Economic; & Technological
A Model for Examining 21st Century
Military Service and Community Life
CBO: Average compensation for an active-duty service
member in 2002 was $99K ($43K Cash, $56K non-cash
Their QOL
 Compensation, benefits, & entitlements
 Emphasis on personal responsibility
 Bases as “industrial / technology” centers
 Multi-service military communities
 Military / civilian community connections
 Virtual “community” identification
The Contextual Factors:
Social; Legal; Political; Economic; & Technological
Military Family Profile
Active Duty Members*
1.4 million members
47% are 25 or younger
58% are married and/or have children (i.e., families)
86,700 single parents
47,904 dual military couples
1.17 million children (0-18)
41% of children under 5
73% of these couples/families live off base in the civilian
*Approximately 85% of Active Duty Members are assigned in the USA
Data Source: DMDC 2003
Military Family Profile
NG & Reserve Members*
880,000 members
30% are 25 or younger (average is 33.4 years)
59% are married and/or have children (i.e., families)
69,800 single parents
21,303 dual military couples
713,800 children (0-18)
24% of children under 5
National Guard & Reserves Members (and families) are dispersed
in more than 5000 communities spread across the USA.
Data Source: DMDC 2003
*There are an additional 350,000 individuals
In the Individual Ready Reserves –
representing a wartime “mobilization pool.”
The Changing Nature of Military
Service and Family Life
Today military members serve in 130 countries and every time
zone and 26, 000 Navy & Marine Corps personnel are
assigned on board ships (“afloat”) in overseas (foreign)
• Approximately 105,000 troops (including 40% who are
Reserve & National Guard Members) have deployed to Iraq
(phase 2) and most will spend a full year there.
• Substantial troop requirements are expected through 2005 and
• Reserve Component service members still represent “a
necessary pool of talent” based on their critical civilian skills
e.g., medical, civil affairs etc.
The Changing Nature of Military
Service and Family Life
During the “Cold War” large numbers of troops and
families garrisoned in Europe & Asia. Today, the focus is
shifting to “home-basing” in the USA and deploying units
to meet operational requirements.
Whether for training or a lengthy and dangerous overseas
deployment, family separations are now the dominate
condition of military life for ALL military families!
Some Key Challenges for National
Guard & Reserve Families
For those who returned from recent deployments – transitions
 For those who are now deployed – stay the course
 For those who expect to go in the near future – preparations
For all – acknowledge, accept, & adjust to
the evolving realities of post 9/11 military service
in the NG & Reserves – A “major-order culture change”
Post 9/11 (as of March 3, 2004) more than 180,527 National
Guard & Reserve personnel have been called to active duty.
DoD News Release No 142-04
Soldiers board a plane
on their way to Iraq for a
one-year rotation in
support of Operation
Iraqi Freedom.
U.S. Army photo by
Sgt. Stephanie L. Carl
This photo appeared on
December 24, 2003
Soldiers remove cargo from
a Marine Corps helicopter at
Salerno Forward Operation
Base in Afghanistan during
Operation Geronimo
Avalanche. The operation
aims to defeat anti-Coalition
fighters and destroy their
hiding places.
U.S. Army photo by PFC. Gul
A. Alisan. This photo appeared
on www.army.mil.
Soldier kisses his six-month
old son upon his return after
a year-long deployment in
support of Operation Iraqi
by Spc. Kristopher Joseph
This photo appeared on
Homecoming has many faces
Transfer between aircraft
workers and aircrew members
transfer a patient from one C130 Hercules to another that
was waiting to take off. A
critical care air transport team
managed the patient's care
from Afghanistan to Baghdad.
(U.S. Air Force photo by
Tech. Sgt. Bob Oldham)
We must not forget the sacrifices we are
asking of our members & families
Marines carefully fold the
American flag before
presenting it to family. Three
spent rounds are tucked into
the folded American flag to
symbolize God, Country and
Photo by: Lance Cpl.
Jeremy L. Gadrow
Including continued concern for those
wounded and injured
 Thousands of U.S. troops have been wounded and
injured in Iraq. They have been paralyzed, lost limbs,
suffered blindness, been horribly burned, and/or
experienced psychic trauma and so on. They are
heroes, without question.
 These troops selflessly sacrificed their bodies and
their dreams in Iraq (as troops always do in war).
 Remember that these troops have families – who
share in their sacrifice and suffering.
See Op-Ed Columnist: Our Wounded Warriors NY TIMES March 12, 2004
Casualties in the Iraq War
Combat deaths: 389 (274)
Total wounded: 2,788
Non-combat deaths: 174 (151)
Total injured: 424
More than 11K medical Evacuations from Iraq
Iraqi deaths: estimated 8,437 to 10,282
Combat deaths: 20 (12)
Non-combat deaths: 38 (13)
Combat deaths: 36 (36)
Non-combat deaths: 6 (6)
Military 1 (with U.S. Forces)
Civilian 4
Numbers in brackets indicate casualties after May 1, 2003, when the United
States and the United Kingdom declared "major combat" ended. Casualty
numbers are likely higher because only confirmed deaths are included. Noncombat deaths include accidents, friendly fire incidents, suicides and incidents
unrelated to fighting.
Sources: U.S. Department of Defense, British Ministry of Defense and CBC News
Updated March 15, 2004
From “Mechanics” to “Gardeners”
Using Good Metaphors
“All growth in nature arises out of
an interplay between reinforcing
growth processes and limiting
processes. The seed contains the
possibility for a tree, but it
realizes that possibility through
an emergent reinforcing growth
process” (p. 7).
Peter Senge et al. (1999)
The Dance of Change
We should not be trying to just “fix” problems. Our goal is
to encourage the development of resources and solutions.
Strategies for Change:
A Community Capacity Model
Family Adaptation
Health & Emotional
are the root
Sense of
Entitlements &
Unit Leadership
Community Agencies
Community Connections
Resilient Military Families
Resilient military families have the following
characteristics: under stress they may bend
but do not break & they are able to return to
the same or higher functioning as a result of
successfully coping with these duty and life
Strengthening the Formal Community
The role of community & unit leadership
“Community” including BOTH the military &
civilian community
Unit leaders across the organizational spectrum
beginning with small unit leaders
Strengthening the Informal Community
The Role of Community Connections
Two Marine Moms from Brooklyn,
N.Y. Doris Abdullah (left) and Terri
Compton met and started a support
group while their sons were deployed
in support of Operation Iraqi
Freedom. They made themselves
available, provided comfort and
undying support not just to each
other, but to anyone who reached out.
Major J.J. Dill along with Staff
Sergeant Marcos Cordero and
Sergeant Mcallan Magloire presented
the Marine Moms with flowers and
Certificates of Appreciation.
Photo by: Sgt A.R. Hay
Building & Sustaining a Network of Connections
for Active Duty and National Guard and Reserve Families
Military Sector:
Civilian Sector:
Extended Family,
Friends & Neighbors
(Informal Networks)
Extended Family,
Friends & Neighbors
(Informal Networks)
Volunteer & Nonprofit
Support Groups
Faith Communities
Military Unit Leaders
Civic & Nonprofit
Support Groups
Faith Communities
Installation Leaders
Local Government
Military Community
Public and Private
Community Agencies
A QOL foundation must be provided by the Department of
Defense, & Congressional, State, and Local Leaders
The Importance of
Outreach & Prevention Efforts
We are able to identify high
risk families & situations
Knowledge, skills, behaviors,
& access are important
Example Public Policy Actions continued
 Promote DOD-wide policies and local programs that
enhance informal relationships between military and nonmilitary families, and support for related knowledge
 Establish local commissions (collaboratives) through
which public officials, leaders in the nonprofit and
business sectors, and military community leaders
develop “partnerships” to support military family issues.
Example Public Policy Actions
. Shift family support resources to prevention and
outreach efforts, especially for families in known highrisk categories or situations.
 Develop and support a coherent roadmap and
mechanisms for peer-reviewed research and program
evaluation that links to related civilian science and
Questions & Answers
For more information, you may contact me at
jmartin@brynmawr.edu or call me at 410-287-9054