Events Leading to Civil War

SSUSH9 The student will identify key
events, issues, and individuals relating
to the causes, course, and
consequences of the Civil War.
a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act,
the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred
Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid.
Events Leading to
Civil War
• Proviso: a clause in a document
making a condition or restriction
• David “Wilmot Proviso”: clause
seeking to ban slavery in all
territory acquired from Mexico
(passed in House, failed in
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
• Opened territories of Kansas and
Nebraska to U.S. settlement
• Repealed Missouri Compromise
of 1820 saying it was
• Opened way for slavery issue to
be decided there by Popular
Popular Sovereignty
• Idea that people living in a
territory should have the right to
decide the issue of slavery for
• First suggested by Lewis Cass.
• Made popular by Stephen
Douglas (in debates with A. Lincoln)
“Bleeding Kansas”
• Fighting that took place in the
Kansas territory between Proslavery and Anti-slavery forces
• People had moved there from
both sides to try and win their
perspective on the issue of
Bleeding Kansas
Failure of Popular Sovereignty
• Because Kansas would decide about slavery through popular
sovereignty, both the North (antislavery) and the South (pro-slavery)
sent thousands of people into Kansas to sway the vote
• Tensions between the two groups led to violence and the destruction
of property, including the sacking of Lawrence
• By the end of 1856,
200 people had
been killed in the
How did the violence in Kansas
demonstrate that popular
sovereignty was a failure?
Effect on Congress
• Infighting
• Example: Mass. Sen. Charles
Sumner was beaten with a cane by
S.C. Congressman Preston Brooks
• Sumner had made “anti-slavery”
speech in Senate and criticized S.C.
Sen. Andrew Butler (Uncle of Brooks)
Dred Scott
• Scot was taken by his master into
the free state of Illinois, and then
later, back into the slave state of
• With the help of an abolitionist
group Scott sued for freedom
(1847), claiming that because he
had lived in a free state, he
should be free
Dred Scott Case
• Slave who sued to gain freedom because
he had lived in free territory with owner
• Supreme Court Decision:
1) slaves are considered to be property
2) property could not be excluded in
territories by Congress
3) slaves were not citizens
• Intensified SECTIONAL conflict
over slavery
John Brown @ Harper’s Ferry
• Abolitionist; believed GOD spoke to
• Encouraged slaves by seeking to arm
them for revolt
John Brown’s Raid
• In 1859, he and his
followers tried to support
a slave uprising in
Virginia by seizing an
arsenal in Harpers Ferry
John Brown’s Raid
• The uprising was quickly put down and after a trial,
Brown was executed
• Brown was viewed by many in the North as a martyr for
the anti-slavery movement
How do you think
Brown was viewed
In the South-why?
b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second
inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers,
such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus.
c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, William
T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.
d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the
Battle for Atlanta.
e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
• Abraham Lincoln gained national
• Could not have been elected
President without becoming more
well-known nationally
• First “Republican” President
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural
Abraham Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address on March 4, 1865
During his inauguration at the start of his second term as President of the United
Lincoln did not speak of happiness, but of sadness
Some see this speech as a defense of his pragmatic approach to Reconstruction, in which he sought
to avoid harsh treatment of the defeated South by reminding his listeners of how wrong both sides
had been in imagining what lay before them when the war began four years earlier.
Lincoln balanced that rejection of triumphalism, however, with a recognition of the
unmistakable evil of slavery, which he described in the most concrete terms
Unbeknownst to him, John Wilkes Booth, David Herold, George Atzerodt, Lewis
Paine, John Surratt and Edmund Spangler, a few of the conspirators involved with
his assassination were present in the crowd at the inauguration.
Lincoln suspends habeas corpus (1862)
• The writs of habeas corpus are a person’s right not to be imprisoned
unless charged with a crime and given a trial
• Lincoln suspended these common rights in an effort to stop anyone
from supporting the Confederate cause and to prevent those who
encouraged others to resist the draft (conscription)
• The suspension
of habeas corpus
was the result of
draft riots in many
northern cities
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln, amid growing war casualties, used the Union victory at Antietam to
issue the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862.
The Proclamation:
freed only those
slaves in the states
in rebellion
did not free the slaves
in the border states
gave the Union
Army another reason
to fight: the
liberation of slaves
Which slave states were
unaffected by the Proclamation?
Why did Lincoln plan this?
Gettysburg Address
• In November 1863, Lincoln
gave his now famous speech
at Gettysburg to dedicate the
Gettysburg National
• Lincoln used the speech to
redefine the purpose of
fighting the war: the
reunification of the Union
The Civil War (1861-1865)
• The Civil War starts:
– With increased tension between the
North and the South (Slavery and
sectionalism issues)
– South Carolina secedes from the Union
in December 1860 after Lincoln is
elected President
– By June 1861, ten Southern states had
– Many of the early battles were Union
losses, or fought to a draw
Jefferson Davis
• Was the first and only
President of the Confederate
States of America (18611865)
• Appointed Robert E. Lee
commander of Army of
Northern Virginia in 1862
• Captured in Georgia, in 1865
Ulysses Grant (Union-North)
• Had early success fighting in the west
(TN, LA, MS)
• Captured Vicksburg, MS giving the Union
control of the Mississippi River
• Lincoln promoted him to commander of
the entire Union Army in 1864
• Fights Lee in a series of battles ending in
Lee’s surrender at Appomattox in 1865
Robert E. Lee (Confederacy-South)
Resigned from the US Army to fight for the
Confederacy: was against slavery but didn’t
want to fight against the South
Named commander of the Army of Northern
Virginia in 1862
Lee invades Maryland (1862) and loses a
major battle at Antietam, forcing him to retreat
back into Virginia
After two major victories against the Union, Lee
again decided to invade the North, this time
into Gettysburg (PA) where he lost a 3 day
battle to the Union: after the loss, Confederate
forces had to remain on the defensive for the
rest of the war
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
• Played a major role in defeating the Union
Army at the first major battle of the war
(Bull Run-1861), the loss at Bull Run made
the Union realize that it would be a
prolonged war
• Fought with Lee at Antietam
• Helped defeat the Union Army at
Fredericksburg (1862) and Chancellorsville
• Was accidently shot at night by his own
men at Chancellorsville and died 8 days
William Sherman (Union-North)
• Fought with Grant at Vicksburg
• Named Union Commander of the West
• Attacked and destroyed the city of Atlanta, a
major southern railroad center, in the fall of
• The victory helped Lincoln secure the
political support that allowed him to be
reelected in 1864
d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg,
Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta.
Southern Secession Begins
• Outcome of Election of 1860
1) Lincoln wins in landslide
with electoral
2) South Carolina secedes
Date of
December 20,
January 9, 1861
January 10, 1861
January 11, 1861
January 19, 1861
January 26, 1861
February 1, 1861
April 17, 1861*
May 6, 1861*
May 20, 1861*
June 8, 1861*
Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC
• Fort Sumter, a Union fort in Charleston Harbor, is surrounded
after South Carolina secedes in December 1860
• Lincoln will not evacuate or send
the Navy to defend, but sends
supplies to the fort, or as he
said, “food for hungry men”.
• The Union refused to surrender the
fort and Jefferson Davis orders
Southern troops to bombard it.
• After 33 hours the garrison
surrendered, starting the Civil War
Antietam: September 1862
Lee marched into Maryland hoping that a Southern victory would convince the
North to settle for peace, gain support from the British, and find food for his men
The two armies fought at Antietam, which became the bloodiest one-day battle in
American history (6,000 dead, 16,000 wounded)
Lee is forced to retreat
back into Virginia
The Union victory led
Lincoln to issue the
What might have happened if
Lee defeated the Union Army
at Antietam?
Gettysburg (VA): July 1st - 3rd 1863
• Lee again decided to invade
the North in hopes that the
North would settle for peace
– On July 2nd, Lee ordered an
attack, known as
“Pickett’s Charge” on the
Union forces
– The South loses 7,000 men
in under 30 minutes of
Which state did Lee invade the first time he attacked
the North?
What were the results?
Gettysburg (VA): July 1st-3rd 1863
• Lee retreated from the battlefield on July 4th, having lost 1/3 of
his entire fighting force
• The loss forces the South to fight a defensive war and
the will of the
North to
the fight
Why do you think
Gettysburg is considered
the turning point of the
Vicksburg (MS) July 4th 1863
By 1863, Vicksburg was the last major
Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi
Grant launched a siege of the city in May
1863 cutting off it’s food supply and placing
it under constant bombardment
The Confederate forces surrender
July 4th 1863, which gave the
Union complete control of the
Mississippi River and cut the
Confederacy in half
Which Confederate states were isolated
from the rest of the South with the fall of Vicksburg?
Battle for Atlanta: August 1864
• Sherman marched his army south towards Atlanta, a major
railroad center in the South
• He ordered all civilians out of the city and then began to burn
and destroy everything of military value
• Atlanta was the beginning of Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
and helped the Republican Party gain political strength
Northern and Southern Resources