Animals in Research Ppt

What is animal testing?
It refers to the experimentation carried
out on animals.
It is used to assess the safety and
effectiveness of everything from
medication to cosmetics
Can be used in understanding how the
human body works
Product testing
soaps, cosmetics etc to see if they are
safe for human use.
Testing of drugs and medical procedures
- Teach anatomy and train medical students
Laboratory Experiments
Controlled setting
Manipulate something (IV)
Animal laboratory experiments can be
used to show a cause and effect
relationship between the drug
administered and the behaviour resulting
Mice and rats are the most common
animal used in testing
 This is because of:
Breeding – breed very quickly so inheritance
can be investigated much quicker than in
Similarity – the arrangement of genes along
their chromosome is similar enough to humans
to be meaningful
Rats have been used to study Parkinson’s
- Researchers use drugs to replicate the symptoms
of Parkinson’s disease, then use gene therapy to
reverse these symptoms
Drug Research
Using animals, researchers can look at the
effects of drugs on brain and body
Can also help in finding cures and treating
Nagaraja & Jeganathan (2003)
Effects of
acute and
conditions of
on free choice
ethanol intake
in rats
To examine the effects of overcrowding on
ethanol intake in rats
Method: A lab experiment with independent measures
and two conditions
Participants: Groups of male albino rats
Acute Stressed
- Overcrowded for 6 hours a day for a week
Chronic stressed
- Overcrowded continuously for a week
Both conditions had access to ethanol as well as other liquids
The intake for
each group
was measured
Chronic stressed group showed
increase in ethanol intake and
ethanol preference over other
Intense stress can lead to voluntary
alcohol intake
 A short-lasting stressor may not increase
alcohol intake
Olds and Milner (1954)
 6 minutes in
Olds and Milner (1954)
Electrodes attached to brain
Rats used lever to self administer
stimulation to reward pathway
Up to 100 times a minute!
Ignored food, water, and other rats – only
wanted to feel this pleasure
Applied to “addiction” in drug abusers
Drugs like heroin activate same reward
Can explain why addicts will do anything
to have the drug and will let other aspects
of life become inconsequential
So, is animal research necessary?
Insulin was first tested on dogs and fish
and is now used to treat diabetes in
So animal research has HELPED treat
illnesses in humans and in some cases
SAVED lives
Surely there are alternatives?
Tissue cultures
Donated parts
Computer based and mathematical models
Human volunteers
Relatively small and
easy to handle
The brains of animals are not
the same as humans: results
may not be generalisable
Their genetic structure is not
the same as humans: results
may not be generalisable
Animals in experiments are
not in their natural
surroundings, and therefore
distressing conditions
Some animals have very
short gestation periods and
short reproductive cycles
Pro-speciesism suggests that
we ought to do all we can to
protect our own species
Some animals (mice etc) have a
similar brain structure to humans
Drugs have been developed
that could otherwise not have
been developed.
Human lives are
complex and
factors rarely occur
in isolation
Some animals (mice, rats etc)
have a short lifespan (2 years)
Some diseases (Parkinson's) have to
be replicated in animals using
drugs, and so may not be the same
as the disease itself. Therefore,
studies might lack validity
Animals should be treated ethically . They
are not sufficiently different from humans to
be treated as objects
Some procedures
have to be carried
out daily
The knowledge obtained may
also improve the lives of the
species being tested on.
Some procedures require
accessing specific parts of
the brain that might then
be damaged.
Many animals
feel pain
Some procedures require strict
control over the environment
Using animals may
not be credible
Procedures can be carried
out on humans that can not
be done on animals. E.g.
ablation and leisoning
Inside Information!
Animals are treated really well, have handlers, toys etc..
Beagles and mini-pigs – similar systems/metabolism to humans
Rats – see if drug reaches right place - can’t throw up – so need to
test on dogs/pigs to see what effects drugs will have
Have to keep increasing dose until animal dies – then know what
the max. dosage is
There isn’t really a choice but to do these on animals – have to
know how it will effect the system and whether it reaches the right
places – too unethical for humans
Will “terminate” animals so can see the effect on internal organs
CANCER CURE – Inject rats with tumour, see effect of drug