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Module 7
 Continuum of consciousness
 Rhythms of Sleeping & Waking
 World of Sleep
 World of Dreams
 Applications: Sleep problems &
Treatments
World of Dreams
 Pair-and share:
 Share a recent dream with a classmate
Analyze them
using Section G
pp.160-161
World of Dreams
 Theories of Dream Interpretation
 Psychoanalytic: Dreams represent disguised symbols
of repressed desires and anxieties.
Manifest Content: symbols used to disguise true meaning
of dream
 Latent Content: true unconscious meaning of a dream

 Extensions of Waking Life -meaningful reflection of
current life issues.
 Activation-Synthesis theory of dreams (Biological)

The idea that dreaming represents the random and
meaningless activity of nerve cells in the brain.
 Threat Simulation Theory- threat response training :)
 Spiritual World - dream experiences as guide/support)
Consciousness Defined
 Consciousness –An individual's different levels of
awareness of his or her thoughts and feelings. Creating
images in the mind, following thought processes, and
having unique emotional experiences are all part of
consciousness.
Consciousness/Perception
Top-down
Down-up
Continuum of Consciousness
 Continuum of Consciousness –The wide range of
human experiences, from being acutely aware and
alert to being totally unaware and unresponsive.
Sleepwalking Defense
O
Regina v. Parks. Kenneth Parks, a young Canadian man, was
acquitted in the 1987 murder of his mother-in-law after using the
sleepwalking defense. On the night of the death, he arose from
bed, drove 14 miles to the house of his in-laws—with whom he was
said to be close—and strangled his father-in-law until the man
passed out. He bludgeoned his mother-in-law with a tire iron and
stabbed them both with a kitchen knife. The woman died; the man
barely survived. Parks then arrived at a police station. Police said
he seemed confused about what had transpired, and they noted
something odd: Parks appeared oblivious to the fact that he'd
severed tendons in both his hands during the attack. That
obliviousness to pain, along with other factors, including a strong
family history of parasomnias, led experts to testify that Parks had
been sleepwalking during the attack. Not conscious, not
responsible, not guilty.
Rhythms of Sleeping & Waking
 Circadian rhythm-
A genetically programmed
biological clock that is to regulate
physiological responses
 Suprachiasmatic nucleusA sophisticated biological clock,
located in the hypothalamus, that
regulates a number of circadian
rhythms, including the sleep-wake
cycle. Suprachiasmatic cells are
highly responsive to changes in light.
Problems
Accidents?
Jet lag?
Treatments
Resetting clock!
Melatonin!
World of Sleep
 Stages of sleep
Distinctive changes in the electrical
activity of the brain and
accompanying physiological
responses of the body that occur as
we pass through different stages of
sleep.
 REM sleep
The stage of sleep in which our eyes
move rapidly back and forth behind
closed eyelids.
Beta
Alpha
Theta
Delta
Beta
World of Sleep
 How much?
New born 17hr
Age 4 10hr
Adolescence 9hr
Adult 7-8hr
 Why?
Repair theory
Adaptive theory
 Causes?
VPN- ventrolateral
preoptic nucleus
Hypothalamus
 Sleep problems?
Insomnia
Sleep Apnea
Narcolepsy
Dreams
Night
Terrors
Sleep
walking
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