Research Design and Method

Tugas Akhir I (Seminar Proposal)
Research Design and Method
Semester Ganjil 2015/2016
Tim Tugas Akhir I
Prodi S1 Teknik Informatika
Dana S. Kusumo, Dade Nurjanah
Definisi TA
Skripsi /Tugas Akhir: "hasil karya mandiri dalam
menerapkan pengetahuan dan ketrampilan. Biasanya
bersifat semi research, maksudnya tidak ada
kewajiban untuk memberikan kontribusi baru
terhadap metode ataupun metodologi."
Tugas Akhir (TA) merupakan suatu rangkaian
kegiatan akademik yang bertujuan untuk
menampilkan kompetensi yang dimiliki mahasiswa
dalam bentuk penelitian TA serta untuk melatih
kemandirian dan tanggung jawab ilmiah mahasiswa
mulai dari penyusunan rencana TA, pelaksanaan TA,
evaluasi TA hingga penulisan Laporan TA
“… a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic,
methodical and ethical; research can help solve practical
problems and increase knowledge.”
– Review or synthesize existing knowledge
– Investigate existing situations or problems
– Provide solutions to problems
– Explore and analyse more general issues
– Construct or create new procedures or systems
– Explain new phenomenon
– Generate new knowledge
– …or a combination of any of the above! (Collis & Hussey,
Source: Introduction to Research and Research Methods, Effective
Learning Service - Bradford University – School of Management
Research design and
• Research design: “plans and the procedures for
research that span the decisions from broad
assumptions to detailed methods of data
collection and analysis” Creswell, 2009
• Research method: “the process of collecting data
analyzing and find the solution”
• Good research design will anticipate competing
explanations before collecting data (as part of
research method)!
Research paradigm
• Exploratory: identifying new insights and
generating ideas and hypotheses
• Descriptive: portraying a phenomenon
• Explanatory: investigating an explanation of a
• Improving: trying to improve a certain aspect of
the studied phenomenon
• Constructive: carring out to propose solution for
problems or questions based on theories
Research design
• Qualitative research: a means to explore and
understand human behavior or social
• Quantitative research: a means to test objective
theories by examining the causality of variables.
• Mixed method: combining qualitative and
quantitative forms.
Choosing research
design and method
Based on
type and nature of research problem
on the availability of resources
access to subjects
control over variables
skills of the researcher
research question
It can be important to use multiple methods to address
the weakness of any one method !!!
Quantitative research
design format
– Context (Statement of the problem)
– Purpose of the study
– Research questions or objective or hypotheses
– Theoretical perspective
– Definition of terms
– Delimitations and limitations of the study
Review of the Literature
– Research design
– Sample, population, or subjects
– Instrumentation and materials
– Variables in the study
– Data analysis
Appendices: Instruments
Source: Clarke, R. J. (2005) Research Methodologies – University of
Qualitative research design
format (Creswell 2009)
– Statement of the problem
– Purpose of the study
– The grand tour question and subquestions
– Definition of terms
– Delimitations and limitations of the study
– Significance of the study
– Assumptions and rationale for a qualitative design
– The type of design used
– The role of the researcher
– Data collection procedures
– Data reduction/analysis procedures
– Methods for verifications
– Outcomes of the study and its relation to theory and literature
Source: Clarke, R. J. (2005) Research Methodologies – University of
The purpose statement,
Research Questions and Hypotheses
Source: Research Design: Qualitative,
quantitative, and Mixed methods
approaches by John W. Creswell, 3rd ed
The purpose statement
(= research objective)
• Outline the scope of the research
• Give a picture of how to perform the investigation
• Give an idea who should be the subjects of the
Locke et al. (2007), the purpose
statement indicates “why you want to
do the study and what you intend to
accomplish” (p. 9).
The purpose statement
• The purpose statement sets forth the intent of
the study, not the problem or issue leading to a
need for the study
• It is also not the research questions, those
questions that the data collection will attempt to
• This idea builds on a need (the problem) and is
refined into specific questions (the research
Qualitative purpose
How to?
Identify a single central phenomenon and to pose a tentative
definition for it.
Employs action words, such as discover, develop, or understand;
uses neutral language such as individual (instead of good individual)
Mentions the strategy of inquiry, participants, and research site.
Format example
The purpose of this ___ (strategy of inquiry, such as ethnography,
case study, or other type) study is (was? will be?) to ___
(understand? describe? develop? discover?) the ___ (central
phenomenon being studied) for ___ (the participants, such as the
individual, groups, organization) at ___ (research site). At this stage
in the research, the ___ (central phenomenon being studied) will be
generally defined as ___ (provide a general definition).
Quantitative purpose
How to?
States the theory being tested, the variables and their relationship or
Position the independent variable first and the dependent variable second.
Conveys the strategy of inquiry, the participants and the research site
Defines the key variables used in the study (specific purpose statements)
Format example
The purpose of this ___ (experiment? survey?) study is (was? will be?) to test
the theory of ___ that ___ (compares? relates?) the ___ (independent
variable) to ___ (dependent variable), controlling for ___ (control variables)
for ___ (participants) at ___ (the research site). The independent variable(s)
___ will be defined as ___ (provide a definition). The dependent variable (s)
will be defined as ___ (provide a definition), and the control and intervening
variable(s), ___, (identify the control and intervening variables) will be defined
as ___ (provide a definition).
Research Question
• inquirers state research questions, not objectives
(i.e., specific goals for the research) or
hypotheses (i.e., predictions that involve
variables and statistical tests).
• These research questions assume two forms: a
central question and associated subquestions
• Begin the question with the word: what or how
Research Question
Use exploratory verbs that will tell the reader that the study will
– Discover (e.g., grounded theory)
– Seek to understand (e.g., ethnography)
– Explore a process (e.g., case study)
– Describe the experiences (e.g., phenomenology)
– Report the stories (e.g., narrative research)
_________ (How or what) is the _________ (“story for” for narrative
research; “meaning of ” the phenomenon for phenomenology; “theory
that explains the process of ” for grounded theory; “culture-sharing
pattern” for ethnography; “issue” in the “case” for case study) of
_________ (central phenomenon) for _________ (participants) at
_________ (research site).
Research hypothesis
Tentative statements as solutions to the problem
An educated guess of conditions of a phenomenon
Tentative statements on relationships between two or more
A reasoned speculation about how two or more variables are
related to each other
Example, find which type of hypothesis its belong?
Swimmers are stronger than runners
Gifted students have higher motivatiob towards mathematics
There is no significant difference in customer satisfaction
between ethnic group
Criteria of Research
Borg & Gall (1989) identified four criteria
• Should explain expected relationships that exist
between two or more variables,
• Researcher should have strong reasons based on
concrete evidences or theories to formulate the
hypothesis which is to be tested,
• Should be as short as possible but clear,
• Should be testable
Research Question and
Hypothesis (Quantitative)
Quantitative research questions inquire about the
relationships among variables that the investigator seeks to
– Used frequently in survey studies.
Quantitative hypotheses are predictions the researcher
makes about the expected relationships among variables.
– Numeric estimates of population values based on data
collected from samples.
– Testing of hypotheses employs statistical procedures in which
the investigator draws inferences about the population from
a study sample.
Research Question and
Hypothesis (Quantitative)
Example: research question
• Does _________ (name the theory) explain the
relationship between _________ (independent
variable) and _________ (dependent variable),
controlling for the effects of ______ (control
Example: quantitative null hypothesis
• There is no significant difference between
_________ (the control and experimental groups
on the independent variable) on _________
(dependent variable).
Research Question and
Hypothesis (Quantitative)
• Variables used have a form of (one or
– compare groups on an independent variable to see its
impact on a dependent variable
– relate one or more independent variables to one or more
dependent variables
– describe responses to the independent, mediating, or
dependent variables.
• To eliminate redundancy, write only research
questions or hypotheses, not both, unless the
hypotheses build on the research questions
Example: the relation between
research question, hypothesis
and study objective
Study: Warden SJ, Metcalf BR, Kiss ZS, et al. Low-intensity
pulsed ultrasound for chronic patellar tendinopathy: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Rheumatology 2008;47:467–71.
Research question: How does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound
(LIPUS) compare with a placebo device in managing the
symptoms of skeletally mature patients with patellar
Research hypothesis: Pain levels are reduced in patients who
receive daily active-LIPUS (treatment) for 12 weeks compared
with individuals who receive inactive-LIPUS (placebo).
Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of LIPUS in the
management of patellar tendinopathy symptoms.
Data Collection and Analysis
S1 Teknik Informatika
Qualitative Research
Data Collection
Participation. This is a kind of observation in which the
researchers involve in the observed environment, like
other participants.
Document review
Interview: indepth/ethnographic interview, expert/elite
interview, focus-group interview.
Narratives and life histories
Video, films, photographs
Historical analysis
Qualitative Research
Data Analysis
• Get to know the data: re-read the data, ask
other researcher to read.
• Focus the analysis: see experiment objectives
• Categorisation and numeration
• Identify patterns within and between-categories.
• Interpretation
Tool: NVivo
Quantitative Research
Data Collection
– Between-group (manipulate independent variables
using differents participants).
– Within-group/repeated measures (manipulate
independent variables using same participants).
Must be identified:
Independent variables
Dependent variables
Sampling method: who are required to participate and how many?
(Tool: Power)
Quantitative Research
Data Analysis
Statistical analysis:
• Descriptive (mean, deviation standard, minimum
and maximum)
• Inferential: ANOVA (analysis of variance) for one
dependent variable, MANOVA (multi-analysis of
variance) for several dependent variables.
Tool: SPSS
Q1. Is TA research? Why and why not?
Q2. How do you use research design and method
in your TA?
Q3. How will you collect data?
Q4. How will you analyse data?
More discussion
Q1. Must we (researchers) define research
Yes, we must!
Q2. How about hypotheses?
Hypotheses must be defined if independent and dependent
variables have been clearly defined.
=> In qualitative research to observe phenomena (see
slide 6), it is not necessary to define hipotheses.
Qualitative research may produce hypotheses to be
tested in further experiments.
Exampe of existing TAs
• TA1 == > please provide TA title, the purpose
statement and research questions
• TA2 == > please provide TA title, the purpose
statement and research questions
More on (quantitative)
• There two forms: null and alternative
• A null hypothesis makes a prediction that in
the general population, no relationship or no
significant difference exists between groups on a
• The wording is, “There is no difference (or
relationship)” between the groups.
Alternative (quantitative)
Directional hypothesis makes a prediction about
the expected outcome, basing this prediction on prior
literature and studies on the topic that suggest a
potential outcome.
– Example: “Scores will be higher for Group A than for Group
B” on the dependent variable or that “Group A will change
more than Group B” on the outcome.
Nondirectional—a prediction is made, but the
exact form of differences (e.g., higher, lower, more,
less) is not specified because the researcher does not
know what can be predicted from past literature.
– Example: “There is a difference” between the two groups.
Example of Hypotheses
(I)Sumber: Lecture Note of
Research Methodology by Ari M.
Nondirectional hypotheses
• If Variable A changes, then variable B changes,
• There is a relationship between variable A and
variable B
• Variable A affects variable B
Example of Hypotheses
(II)Sumber: Lecture Note of
Research Methodology by Ari M.
Null Hypotheses:
• Differences in variable A have no relationship to
difference in variable B
Directional Hypotheses:
• If variable A increases, then variable B increases
• If variable A decreases, then variable B
Example of Hypotheses
(III)Sumber: Lecture Note of Research
Methodology by Ari M. Barmawi
Inverse relationship:
• If variable A increases then variable B decreases
• If variable A decreases then variable B increases
Magnitude of difference:
• If variable A inncreases by 2 points, then
variable B increases by 3 points
• Creswell, J.W., Research Design: Qualitative,
Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches,
Third edition,. Sage Publisher