Z8 IrDA Flash Loader
Dustin Graves
March 28, 2006
• Z8 IrDA Flash Loader: Modify a flash loader to use IrDA and write a
communication program (in Java) that sends Z8 programs to the Z8.
You will need a computer with a working IrDA port (or purchase a
IrDA dongle). Dongle must include a driver that enables access as a
COM port so you can use the Java COMM API as I don't think the
Java USB API is complete yet or use Linux (maybe this will work
under cygwin) and the HP Labs Java IrDA API or the JIR API might
work. This will be mostly Java programming.
• references:
HP Labs Java IrDA API
Z8 IrDA appnote AN0184
Z8 flash loader appnote AN0118, appnote AN0164
• IR Communication
IrDA Background
Z8 Support for IrDA
Windows Support for IrDA
Linux Support for IrDA
IR Communication Options
• Flash Loader
– Z8 Flash Loader Characteristics
– Z8 Program Relocation
• Implementation
– Pico-IrDA, Z8 Server, WIN32 Client
IrDA Background
• Infrared Data Association
– An organization that creates, promotes, and standardizes IrDA
• A protocol suite designed to provide wireless, line of sight
connectivity between devices
– Secure, reliable, and low cost point-to-point communication among
devices such as PDAs, digital cameras, pagers, set-top boxes,
machinery, and computer peripherals
– Faulty cables and incompatible connectors/wiring are not an issue.
– Devices negotiate connection speed and properties, no user
configuration required
– High speed IrDA devices are compatible with low speed IrDA devices
(All connections start at 9600 bps)
• Consists of two main subsets
– IrDA Data – Data Exchange
– IrDA Control (IrDA-C) – HCI (Keyboard, Mouse, etc)
IrDA Data Properties
• Three main transfer rates
– Serial Infrared (SIR) – Asynchronous, 9600 – 115200 bps
• Resembles standard UART with one start bit, 8 data bits, and one stop bit
– Fast Infrared (FIR) – Synchronous, up to 4 Mb/s
– Very Fast Infrared (VFIR) – Synchronous, up to 16 Mb/s
• Two way communication
Automatic device discovery
Error correction
Primary and secondary modes of operation
• Primary device is similar to a network client – establishes connections with
other devices with which to transmit data and commands
• Secondary device is similar to a network server – waits for connections from
other devices from which to accept data and commands
• Multi-layer protocol stack
– Support for multiple modes of communication with various devices.
IrDA Protocol Stack
Required Layers
Optional Layers
IrPHY – The physical layer
IrLAP – Link Access Protocol
IrLMP – Link Management Protocol
IAS – Information Access Service
TinyTP – Tiny Transport Protocol
IrOBEX – Object Exchange
IrCOMM – Serial and Parallel Port Emulation
IrLAN – Local Area Network Access
IrTran-P – Transfer Picture Protocol
IrMC – Infrared Mobile Communications
New Additions
– IrFM – Financial Management Transactions
– IrWW – Wrist Watch Communication
IrDA Protocols of Interest
Physical Layer
• IrOBEX – Transmitting small programs
– One-way communication (no feedback from Z8)
– Protocol handles flow control and error checking
• IrCOMM – Managed transmission of programs
– Two-way communication
– Z8 client responds to each data block received with a send next
block notification or transfer complete notification
Z8 Support for IrDA
• Z8F6403 support for the IrDA Protocol includes:
– The Physical Layer (SIR – 9600 baud to 115.2 kbaud)
– An IrLAP Framer (IrDA Lite)
• AN0152 – IrDA Framer Implementation
– Creates data frames for IrLAP
– Performs data checksum
• AN0184 – Using the IrDA Port
– Provides a cleaner, simpler, and more efficient IrLAP framer
Address (A)
IrLAP Payload
Control (C)
Information (I)
IrDA Discovery Frame
• Windows XP IrDA Frame captured with IrDA Framer
• What does it mean?
Address Field –
Control Field –
AB 08 00 00
Source address
Destination address
IRLAP version
23 9D
• Minimalist IrDA stack for microcontrollers
– http://blaulogic.com/pico_irda.shtml
• Implements IrLAP, IrLMP, IAS, and TinyTP as lower level transport
• Implements IrOBEX for primary and secondary devices
– Send and receive files
• Implements IrCOMM for secondary devices
– Receive data and optionally respond with data
• Requires implementation of IrPHY
• Source code available from project website is not ANSI C compliant
– Uses zero length arrays such as ‘char info[0]’
– ANSI C compliant version is available from the download section of the
Pico-IrDA Yahoo! Group
• http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pico_irda
Windows Support for IrDA
• Windows support for IrDA varies by version
– Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003
• TinyTP based TCP like support for non-serialized data transmission at VFIR
rates through Windows Sockets API
• IrOBEX functionality available at OS level, not exposed through Winsock API
• Limited IrCOMM support (9-wire cooked) exposed through Winsock API
• Communication with non-Windows devices that implement the core IrDA
protocol is possible
– Suggested that devices implement Winsock like client/server functionality
– Windows 95/98/ME
• Support for serial communication with the IrCOMM programming model
– Windows CE
• Support for Serial Communication
• IrOBEX functionality is exposed through Winsock API
• Supplemental information for Winsock IrDA programming
– MSDN documentation is limited, possibly inaccurate
Communication with a Non-Windows Device
IrCOMM2K Serial Port Emulator
• Driver for Windows 2000/XP that provides a virtual IR
COM port
• Also provides irda2kdump IrDA traffic monitor
– Similar to a utility provided with Linux
– Available from http://www.ircomm2k.de/English
Linux Support for IrDA
• Low level and high level access to IR device
– Support for SIR and FIR devices
– Access directly as serial port
– Access through IrDA module with socket API
• TCP like connection oriented communication
• UDP like connectionless communication – Ultra Protocol for IrWW
– Multiple utilities and libraries for IrDA interaction
• irdadump – IrDA traffic monitor
• OpenOBEX – Open source IrOBEX implementation (may work with
• Java Infrared Sockets API
– More information from Linux IR HOWTO
Linux IrDA Setup
• Install/compile irda-utils and irda kernel modules
• Determine the name of the infrared device
– Use ‘dmesg | grep ttyS’ to list available serial devices:
• ttyS0 at I/O 0x3f8 (irq = 4) 16550A
• ttyS1 at I/O 0x2f8 (irq = 3) 16550A
• ttyS2 at I/O 0x3f8 (irq = 4) 16550A
 Probably COM port
 Probably IrDA device
 Probably Modem
• Load the appropriate kernel modules
– ‘modprobe irda’
– ‘modprobe irtty-sir’
– ‘modprobe ircomm-tty’
• Attach the infrared device with the IrDA module and initiate device
– ‘irattach /dev/ttyS1 –s’
• IrDA can be started as a service with Fedora
– Edit ‘/etc/modprobe.conf’
– Edit ‘/etc/sysconfig/irda’
– Enable service with ‘chkconfig irda on’
Linux irdadump Utility
• Useful for debugging
– Decodes and displays contents of IrDA Frames
IR Communication Options
• Z8 communication with Windows XP
IrOBEX from Windows XP to Z8 Pico IrDA implementation
IrCOMM from Winsock API to Z8 Pico IrDA implementation
Possibly use IrCOMM2K for basic serial communication with Z8?
Possibly use IrCOMM2K and a Windows XP Pico IrDA
implementation to communicate with Z8 Pico IrDA
• Z8 communication with Windows XP
– Basic serial communication with Linux and Z8
– IrOBEX from Linux implementation of OpenOBEX to Z8 Pico
IrDA implementation
– IrCOMM from Linux to Z8 Pico IrDA implementation
– Linux Pico IrDA implementation to Z8 Pico IrDA implementation
One more option…
• Hardware solution - Microchip MCP2140
– IrDA standard protocol stack controller with fixed 9600 baud
communication rate
– Implements IrLAP, IrLMP, IAS, TinyTP, and IrCOMM (9-wire
• Similar to functionality provided by Winsock API
• More information at
– http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/21790a.pdf
Z8 Flash Loader
• A program that permanently resides in Flash memory to load a users
application to Flash memory when signaled at program start or to
execute the user application residing in Flash memory when not
signaled at program start
Startup code – Execute flash loader or resident user application
Communication initialization – Initialize communication device
Flash I/O utilities – Basic Flash and RAM read/write utilities
Data processor / Flash loader – Receive, process, and load data frames
for user program
– Communication interface – Interaction with Flash Loader
• AN0164 – Boot Loader for Z8 Encore
– Assembly implementation of a boot loader
– Requires 1000 bytes of flash memory
• AN0118 – Flash Loader Utility for the Z8 Encore
– C implementation of a flash loader
– Requires 16 kilobytes of flash memory
Z8 Flash Loader Characteristics
• Wait to receive signal to enter Flash Loader Mode
– Monitor GPIO pin, button, UART, etc
• Load User Program to Flash
– Support for communication with UART
– Support for Flash I/O operations
– Support for Intel Hex16 format
• Define start of user program
– Application program start address must relocate to address required by
Flash loader
• Prevent user program from overwriting Flash writer
– Carefully check the address for each record loaded from Intel Hex16 file
• Execute user program
– Jump to start of user code
Z8 Flash Loader Relocation
• Z8 Flash loader must be moved to a safe Flash memory
– Loading a user program requires addresses 0x00-0x37 (Flash
Option Bits, Reset Vector, Interrupt Vectors) to be erased for
– Flash memory is erased by 512 byte pages
– Flash loader must start at address 0x200 to avoid being
damaged by erase of first page
– Relocation performed through ZDS II Project Settings dialog
Z8 Flash Loader Target Settings
• Target settings for Flash Loader
– Target Settings specified through Address Space category of
Linker tab with ZDS II 4.9.6
Z8 Flash Loader Linker Directives
• Special input directive settings to place vector code
before startup code
User Program Relocation
• Target settings for User Program
– AN0118 specified 0x4000 as start address
– The IrDA Flash loader specifies 0x5000 as start address
User Program Linker Directives
User Program Relocation with Assembly
include "ez8.inc"
ORG %5000
; add the entry point to the reset vector
; start AFTER the interrupt vector
; PEDD = 0x00;
Z8 Flash Loader Implementation
• Implement IrPHY layer for Pico-IrDA
– Accept programs with IrOBEX
• No feedback is transmitted to sender
– Accept programs with IrCOMM
• Feedback is transmitted to sender indicating success/failure
• Create Flash loader based on program defined by AN0118
– Similar program location strategy
– Only useable component is the module for processing Intel Hex16 data
and loading Intel Hex16 data to flash
• Create a Windows XP program for transmitting IrCOMM data
through Winsock API
– Send Intel Hex16 file one line (record) at a time as 32 byte increments
– Provide progress indicator
– Provide final summary
Pico-IrDA IrPHY Implementation
• Implement four functions to initialize IrDA device,
transmit data, receive data, and wait for data
– void irphy_reset(void) – Initialize UART0 and enable IrDA
– void irphy_send(uint8_t) – Transmit a byte
– uint8_t irphy_wait(int16_t timeout) – Wait specified number of
seconds for data to arrive; infinite wait for -1
– uint8_t itphy_receive(void) – Receive a byte
• Requires definition of types that are typically found in
inttypes.h on UNIX systems
– typedef unsigned char uint8_t
– …
Reset, Receive, and Transmit
#define BAUDRATE
(18432000UL / (9600UL * 16UL))
void irphy_reset(void)
U0BRH = (unsigned char)((0xFF00&BAUDRATE)>>0x08);
U0BRL = (unsigned char) (0x00FF&BAUDRATE);
PAAF |= 0x30;
/* Enable UART0 alternate function */
U0CTL0 = 0x40;
/* Enable UART0 receive */
U0CTL1 = 0x01;
/* Enable UART IR */
uint8_t irphy_receive(void)
return U0RXD;
void irphy_send(uint8_t v)
U0CTL0 = 0x80;
while((U0STAT0 & 0x04) == 0);
U0TXD = v;
while((U0STAT0 & 0x02) == 0);
U0CTL0 = 0x40;
/* Receive byte */
Set UART0 to transmit */
Wait for tx buffer to be available */
Transmit byte */
Wait for tx complete */
Set UART0 to receive */
uint8_t irphy_wait(int16_t timeout) {
unsigned char done = 0;
if(timeout != -1) {
while(!(U0STAT0 & 0x80) && !done) {
if(T3H > 0x48) {
if(--timeout == 0)
done = 1;
else {
T3H = 0x00;
T3L = 0x01;
else { while(!(U0STAT0 & 0x80)); }
return (U0STAT0 & 0x80) ? 1 : 0;
Timed wait */
Initialize timer */
Until read ready or timeout */
Count for 1 millisecond */
Done waiting */
/* Reset timer */
/* Disable timer */
/* Infinite wait */
Debugging Pico-IrDA for the Z8
• Time critical transactions and constant state changes make PicoIrDA difficult to debug
• Pico-IrDA comes with a Linux based IrPHY Implementation
– Intended for Actisys IR220L serial IrDA dongle
– Will work with any serial based IrDA device
– Compare Linux implementation with Z8 implementation
• Differences most likely due to problems with the compiler
• Problems with the Z8 compiler
– The following expression is always true:
#define IRLMP_DLSAP_C_MASK 0x80
if(req_p->head.dlsap_sel & ~IRLMP_DLSAP_C_MASK)
– This prevents the Z8 from connecting to other devices
– Replace all references to ~IRLMP_DLSAP_C_MASK with
uint8_t inv = ~IRLMP_DLSAP_C_MASK
if(req_p->head.dlsap_sel & inv)
Windows XP Program Loader
• Open Intel Hex16 file and Initialize Winsock
• “Enumerate” available IrDA devices
– Returns address of devices within range
• Set 9-Wire mode for IrCOMM
– Could be unnecessary
• Select Z8 from list of devices and establish connection
• Read one line from file
• Transmit 32 bytes of data to Z8 and wait for response
– FLASH_RESULT_DONE – Transmission is complete; print summary to
console and exit
– FLASH_RESULT_RESEND – Checksum error for line; print an ‘x’ to
console and resend line
– FLASH_RESULT_NEXT_LINE – Line has been loaded; print a ‘.’ to the
console and read next line from file
– FLASH_RESULT_NEXT_PART – Send next 32 byte block from current
• IrOBEX and IrCOMM program transmission