METRO CENTRAL EDUCATION DISTRICT COMMON PAPERS HISTORY PAPER 2 GRADE 12 3 HOURS 150 MARKS SEPTEMBER 2014 MARKING GUIDELINES SECTION A: SOURCE – BASED QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: HOW DID BIKO AND THE BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT INFLUENCE THE LIBERATION STRUGGLE IN SOUTH AFRICA DURING THE 1970s? 1.1 Source 1A 1.1.1 Apartheid/Segregation (1x2) (2) 1.1.2 To be black and proud about it (2x1) (2) 1.1.3 To encourage black people to accept themselves and to be proud about being black His ideas about Black Consciousness will keep on to inspire us long after his death at the hands of the security police Any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) 1.1.4 Useful It gives insight into the essence of BCM, i.e. to be black and proud Any other relevant answer Not useful The source does not give enough information on the main ideas of Biko and why he should be remembered Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) 1.2 Source 1B-1 and 1B-2 1.2.1 Africans, Coloureds and Indians Any (2x1) (2) 1.2.2 There was a need for black students to have their own organisation where they could express their own ideas (1x3) (3) 1.2.3 Either for justice and freedom, or accept apartheid and servitude (slavery) (2x1) (2) 1.2.4 Why he could not go into that whites only cinema sit wherever he wants to on that bus play in whatever park he wants to Any The oppressed are accepting their oppression and chains and are not prepared to fight the injustices Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) (2x1) (2) 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.3 Black people should not be ashamed of their black skin colour Every black person should fight for justice and freedom Any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) Solidarity: There are only black and white people and black should be united in their own organisations fighting together for justice and freedom Chains of servitude: Black as Biko is depicted on the poster, should break the chains that keep them in servitude Any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) Source 1C 1.3.1 Youth Day (1x2) (2) 1.3.2 1.3.3 Their boldness Dedication Sense of purpose And clarity of analysis of the situation Any (2x1) (2) The Apartheid legislation discriminated against black people, imposed segregation and an inferiority status. Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) 1.3.4 In this context black young people realised or should that it is more than the burning down of buildings or dealing with bread and butter issues It is the mental attitude of breaking down the chains that Apartheid legislation seek to impose by rejecting the stronghold of these laws Any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) 1.4 Main Points Blacks (Africans, Coloureds and Indians) united Break the chains of servitude and bondage Either to accept Apartheid or fight its injustices Naidoo realised the powerful message in being black and be proud of your blackness BCM is also a call to fight and overcome Young people of Soweto realised it is more than throwing stones and burning down It is about sense of purpose, clarity about who is the real enemy Any other relevant answer Rubric LEVEL 1(0 – 2) Enable to select relevant information Sparse content, mostly irrelevant content LEVEL 2 (3 – 5) Able to select and use content to answer the question in an acceptable manner Content relevant to the question. LEVEL 3 (6 – 8) Selects information and uses them to write a relevant and coherent answer Excellent use of content to sustain an argument (8)  QUESTION 2: WHAT COULD BE REGARDED AS CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE TRC IN HEALING AND RECONCILING A POST – APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA? Question 2.1 Refer to Source 2A 2.1.1 Forgiving, coming to terms with the past and being at peace with it. Any other relevant answer (1x2) (2) 2.1.2 The ANC stated at the beginning of the TRC process, in August 1996, that it had ‘campaigned actively for the TRC to be included in the interim constitution.’ (1x2) (2) 2.1.3 According to the source the role of truth is to put the history of apartheid on record, so that people can come to terms with it and start to heal. The writers say that only by ‘unveiling’ the truth ‘as far as possible’ can South Africans be accorded ‘the respect they deserve.’ They will then be able to move on with their lives Any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) Question 2.2 Refer to Source 2B 2.2.1 Forgiveness or reconciliation (1x2) (2) 2.2.2 a. He met his former prisoners and spoke to them, showing that he forgave them in order for them to be “healed” and be “restored” as human beings Any other relevant answer (1x2) (2) b. Restorative justice in the context of the TRC restores humanity and dignity to both the perpetrator and the victim. By forgiving his perpetrators Mcongo was applying this concept. Any other relevant answer (1x2) (2) 2.2.3 Unlike Mcongo, who has moved on from the ‘turmoil’ of his past, Sarah Letanta cannot forget her past and remains ‘angry.’ She says that trying to forgive her perpetrators has not helped her. Wheareas Mcongo states that ‘we can no longer live with broken hearts,’ Letanta says that she still has ‘wounds and pain’. (2x2) (4) Question 2.3 Refer to Source 2C and 2A 2.3.1 The ANC expected both victim and perpetrator to confront the past in order that reconciliation, nation – building and unity could be promoted; unfortunately 14 from the 30 respondents indicated that their expectations were not met Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) 2.3.2 Source 2C is reliable: It is a collection of primary experiences and opinions of people who took part in the survey. Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) Question 2.4 Refer to Source 2D 2.4.1 the attitude of whites who are unable to acknowledge that they benefitted from apartheid are obstacles to reconciliation between race groups. too many young blacks are poorly educated in post - apartheid South Africa and they are denied the opportunity to live according to their human potential poverty strips away the humanity of South Africans and prevents them from achieving healing and reconciliation (3x1) (3) 2.4.2 Whites have not been compelled to acknowledge the past; the TRC can be blamed for this because it did not hold the white population to account for the past in terms of its recommendations Blacks who are still living in poverty have not received reparations which could have lifted them out of poverty. This is a shortcoming of the TRC which did not recommend financial and structural reparations to all victims of apartheid Any other relevant answer Any (1x3) (3) Question 2.5 Refer to Source 2E 2.5.1 Nelson Mandela (1x2) (2) 2.5.2 Emeritus Archbishop Desmond Tutu (1x2) (2) 2.5.3 Hope and light for the future, coming from the cruel apartheid past Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) 2.5.4 Chairperson of the TRC (1x2) (2) 2.5.5 The message highlighted in the cartoon is that, the journey from confronting the truth to reconciliation, is a difficult and uncertain one. The white person sees “journey of healing” as fruitless and questionable / the black person sees “journey of healing and reconciliation” as fruitful and therefore it needs to continue/ while the person holding the lamp believes that the “journey” will shed possible light on the pass atrocities. Any other relevant answer Any (1x3) (3) Question 2.6 Main Points NB: Consider both the successes and limitations Successes TRC moved across South Africa listening to stories by both victims and perpetrators National unity and healing were promoted through hearings Causes of human rights violations identified as a result of apartheid policies Both sides of the conflict came to testify i.e. Liberation movement and government Amnesty led to perpetrators willingness to testify Any other relevant answer Limitations Some families did not accept restorative justice (they wanted punitive justice), e.g. the Mxenge and Biko families. PW Botha, the former State President of South Africa refused to appear before the TRC FW de Klerk refused to accept responsibility for allegedly 'Third Force' activities The ANC were opposed to equating the abuse of human rights under apartheid with those committed during the liberation struggle None of the main political parties made a public apology for violence committed during apartheid and the struggle against it Not all victims received compensation The IFP and white conservative political parties regarded it as a witch - hunt Any other relevant answer LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 * Cannot extract relevant evidence from the Sources * Cannot apply evidence to answer the question. MARKS: 1 – 2 * Does not show understanding of sources. * Relevant evidence has been extracted * Applies evidence partially to answer the question. MARKS: 3–5 * Shows understanding of sources. * Relevant evidence has been extracted * Use of evidence is effective to answer the Question. MARKS: 6 –8 * Shows good understanding of sources.  QUESTION 3: WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON THE BALANCE OF POWER AND EMERGING ECONOMIES? 3.1 Sources 3A and 3B 3.1.1 Globalization refers to the trend toward countries joining together economically, through education, society and politics, and viewing themselves not only through their national identity but also as part of the world as a whole; Globalization is said to bring people of all nations closer together, especially through a common medium like the economy or the Internet; Credit any other relevant answer Any (1x2) (2) 3.1.2 Previously regions were cut off to the West and East; Previous destabilization in Africa; Previous regimes in Africa; New partnerships between South Africa and other countries such as China; Credit any other relevant answer. Any (3x1) (3) 3.1.3 The world is becoming commercially globalized; There are accruals (build – ups) available to countries embarking in globalization; Credit any other relevant answer. (2x2) (4) 3.2 Source 3C 3.2.1 China South Korea (2x1) (2) 3.2.2 The growing clout of the emerging economies on the world stage; Resilience to the financial crisis. (2x1) (2) 3.2.3 Through state capitalism; Public policies can aim at private investment – in global settings – e.g. setting up of sovereign wealth funds from Asia and Gulf States with growing influence on capital markets and investments; 3.3 Credit any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) Source 3D 3.3.1 Expectations that the Federal Reserve would 'taper' (smaller in amount) its US bond-buying scheme Previous cheap dollar flows that had fuelled a boom among the BRICS is not forthcoming (2x1) (2) 3.3.2 Officials from Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa surprised many by starting work last year on the pool and a joint development bank; To reshape the global financial architecture long dominated by rich nations Any other relevant answer Any (1x3) (3) 3.3.3 Source 3C explains the role of state capitalism in emerging markets; Source 3D explains the role of several nations who pool their capital, as venture capital Any other relevant answer (2x2) (4) 3.4 Sources 3E and 3F 3.4.1 China 3.4.2 The US consumer/cheap Chinese goods/US manufacturer (1x2) (2) Any (2x1) (2) 3.4.3 Cheap Chinese goods serving an obstacle to US consumers from buying locally manufactured goods. Barrier to keep out Western interest/eroding of Western economic hegemony Chinese manufactured goods dominating USA markets. Any relevant answer Any (1x3) (3) 3.4.4 Bias USA cartoon highlights the ‘flooding’ of the US market with cheap Chinese goods. Any other relevant answer Not Bias Cartoon depicts the rapid take–over of USA markets by Chinese goods. Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) 3.4.5 Cartoon uses the USA’s landing on the moon to depict the global, and consequently, the boundless nature of the hegemony of US manufactured goods— through aggressive establishment of Mac Donalds, as an international brand. (1x3) (3) 3.4.6 Source 3E: Chinese domination of the world markets and Source 3F: USA domination of the world markets Any other relevant answer (1x3) (3) 3.5 Candidates should include the following aspects in their responses: Globalisation is not an easy concept to understand. (Source 3A) It affects all of the world. (Source 3A) Time and space matter less. (Source 3A) The world talks through trade. (Source 3A) The North-South divide is breached. (Source 3B) State intervention can be translated into the use of State Capital. (Sources 3C) Venture capital can be made available for globalization. (Sources 3D) Globalization can be exported to the furthest parts of the earth. (Sources 3F) Any other relevant answer Level 1 Marks 0 – 2 Uses evidence in an elementary manner e.g. shows no or little understanding of how globalisation of influenced ordinary people • Is unable to use evidence in a very basic manner and organise a paragraph Marks 3 – 5 Level 2 • Evidence is mostly relevant and relates to a great extent to the topic e.g. shows an understanding of how globalisation influenced ordinary people • Is able to use evidence effectively and organise a paragraph Level 3 Uses relevant evidence e.g. demonstrates a thorough understanding of how globalisation policies influenced ordinary people • Uses evidence very effectively in an organised paragraph that shows an understanding of the topic Marks 6 – 8 (8)  SECTION B: ESSAYS QUESTION 4 [Plan, construct and discuss an argument based on evidence using analytical and interpretative skills] SYNOPSIS Candidates need to critically examine whether or not Botha's policy of divide and rule was 'political suicide'. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their essays: • Introduction: Candidates should take a stance as to whether or not Botha's policy to divide and rule the oppressed masses of South Africans. ELABORATION Botha's policy of 'divide and rule'/Total Onslaught Attempts to reform apartheid The tri-cameral parliament and response by black South African political organisations Reaction to Botha's reforms, formation of the UDF, e.g. the 'million signature' campaign by UDF Intensification of the internal resistance e.g. violent protests in the Vaal Triangle Banning of political organisations (AZAPO, UDF) Detention of political activists, e.g. Thloki Mofokeng and S'celo Dlomo Banned organisations like the ANC called for the country to be ungovernable Imposition of the state of emergency 1985–1986 Education struggles – Education Crisis Committee, COSAS, etc. Emergence and impact of MDM Apartheid at crossroads – country ungovernable Any other relevant response Conclusion: Candidates should tie up their argument with a relevant conclusion.  QUESTION 5 [Plan, construct and discuss an argument based on evidence using analytical and interpretative skills] SYNOPSIS Candidates need to indicate how the challenges and violence negatively affected and hindered the negotiating process in South Africa in the 1990s. However, sanity prevails as negotiations and multi – party talks led to the first democratic elections MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their essays: • Introduction: Candidates must show how after a period of negotiations, South Africa managed a peaceful transition to democracy, despite challenges and obstacles bent on derailment of negotiations. ELABORATION De Klerk’s announcements Talks about talks, Groote Schuur and Pretoria Minute Start of negotiations, challenges and violence Breakdown of negotiations “Whites only” referendum (March) – De Klerk solution; Violence in the 1990s/ – debates around the violence;/ CODESA breaks down Record of Understanding;/ Joe Slovo and the Sunset Clause Multi-party negotiation process resumes:/ Formal multi-party negotiations resumed in April;/ Murder of Chris Hani/ – significance to the process – date of elections set;/ on-going violence; Attempts to derail negotiations; AWB invasion of World Trade Centre;/ St James Massacre;/ killing at the Heidelberg Tavern/ Final road to democracy 1994: Violence again - Fall of Mangope and Gqozo and the Bophuthatswana shootings/; Inkatha Freedom Party March to Shell House and Shell House Massacre; The Constitution and the Bill of Rights;/ Freedom Front and IFP join elections; 27 April election; The Government of National Unity./ CONCLUSION Candidates must tie up their arguments. Question 6 QUESTION 6 [Plan, construct and discuss an argument based on evidence using analytical and interpretative skills] SYNOPSIS Candidates should explain to what extent the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989 influenced change in South Africa. They should argue (with examples) whether the collapse was the only factor that paved the way for negotiations between the National Party and the African National Congress or not. They need to take a line of argument and support their response with historical evidence. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their response: • Introduction: Candidates should state to what extent the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989 influenced change in South Africa and support their line of argument with relevant examples. ELABORATION In stating that the fall of the Soviet Union had a significant impact on South Africa's political future, candidates should include the following points in their answer: The fall of the Berlin Wall affected the reform process in South Africa South Africa could no longer use the threat of communism to gain support It could no longer rely of Western support for its 'anti-communist' stance The National Party's fear for a communist-controlled ANC also disappeared The National Party was now prepared to negotiate with the ANC The collapse of the Soviet Union also affected the ANC After the demise of communism the Soviet Union was no longer prepared to support the ANC This forced the ANC to negotiate with the National Party Influential South Africans began to believe that talks with the ANC were necessary in order to end the turmoil in South Africa After the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola the ANC could no longer operate from there The ANC had to redefine its position and began to seek recognition from Western countries Granting of independence to Namibia also encouraged both the NP and ANC to pursue peaceful negotiations The NP saw that majority rule did not mean the introduction of communism The collapse of communism was a critical factor that led to change in South Africa De Klerk's speech of 2 February 1990 brought an end to apartheid Start of talk about talks/negotiations Any other relevant response Conclusion: Candidates should tie up their argument with a relevant conclusion with regard to how the collapse of the Soviet Union led to change in South Africa or how external and internal pressure led to this change.