Chapter Seventeen

Mgmt 371
Chapter Seventeen
Managing Leadership and Influence
Much of the slide content was created by Dr, Charlie Cook, Houghton Mifflin, Co.©
The Nature of Leadership
 Process: what leaders actually do.
Using noncoercive influence to shape the
group’s or organization’s goals.
 Motivating others’ behavior toward goals.
 Helping to define organizational culture.
 Property: who leaders are.
Characteristics attributed to individuals
perceived to be leaders.
 Leaders
People who can influence the behaviors of
others without having to rely on force.
 People who are accepted as leaders by
Kotter’s Distinctions Between
Management and Leadership
The Nature of Leadership (French &
 The Five Bases of Power (French & Raven)
 Legitimate power is granted through the
organizational hierarchy.
Reward power is the power to give or withhold
Coercive power is the capability to force compliance
by means of psychological, emotional, or physical
Referent power is the personal power that accrues to
someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or
Expert power is derived from the possession of
information or expertise.
The Nature of Leadership
 Using Power
 Legitimate request
 A subordinate’s compliance with a manager’s request
because the organization has given the manager the
right to make the request.
 Instrumental compliance
 A subordinate complies with a manager’s request to
get the rewards that the manager controls.
 Coercion
 Threatening to fire, punish, or reprimand subordinates
if they do not do something.
The Nature of Leadership
Rational persuasion
 Convincing subordinates that compliance is in their
own best interest.
Personal identification
 Using the superior’s referent power over a subordinate
to shape his behavior.
Inspirational appeal
 Influencing a subordinate’s behavior through an
appeal to a set of higher ideals or values (e.g.,
Information distortion
 Withholding or distorting information (which may
create an unethical situation) to influence
subordinates’ behavior.
Generic Approaches to Leadership
 Leadership Traits Approach (Stogdill)
Assumed that a basic set of personal traits that
differentiated leaders from nonleaders could be used to
identify leaders and as a tool for predicting who would
become leaders.
The trait approach was unsuccessful in establishing
empirical relationships between traits and persons
regarded as leaders.
Leadership Behaviors
 Michigan Studies (Rensis Likert)
Identified two forms of leader behavior
Job-centered behavior
Employee-centered behavior
The two forms of leader behaviors were
considered to be at opposite ends of the same
continuum and similar to (respectively) Likert’s
System 1 and System 4 of organizational design.
Leadership Behaviors (Ohio State
 Ohio State Studies
Did not interpret leader behavior as being onedimensional as did the Michigan State studies.
Identified two basic leadership styles that can be
exhibited simultaneously:
Initiating-structure behavior - the degree to which a
leader defines and structures his or her role and the
roles of the subordinates towards achieving the goals
of the group.
Consideration behavior - the degree to which a
leader acts in a friendly and supportive manner
towards his or her subordinates.
Leadership Behaviors (Ohio State
 Ohio State Studies - Initial assumption of the
research was that leaders who exhibit high levels of
both behaviors would be most effective leaders.
Subsequent research indicated that:
 Employees of supervisors ranked high on initiating
structure were high performers, but had low levels of
satisfaction and had higher absenteeism.
 Employees of supervisors ranked high on
consideration had low- performance ratings, but had
high levels of satisfaction and had less absenteeism.
 Other situational variables make consistent leader
behavior predictions difficult.
The Leadership [Managerial] Grid
(Blake & Mouton)
Middle of the Road (5,5) Push
for adequate production get wor
k done with minimal
Situational Approaches to
 Situational Models of Leader Behavior
 Assume that:
 Appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation
to another.
 Key situational factors that are interacting to determine
appropriate leader behavior can be identified.
 Leadership Continuum (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)
 Variables influencing the decision-making continuum:
 Leader’s characteristics
 Subordinates’ characteristics
 Situational characteristics
Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s
Leadership Continuum
Situational Approaches to
Leadership (Fiedler)
 Contingency (LPC) Theory (Fiedler)
 The appropriate style of leadership varies with
situational favorableness (from the leader’s viewpoint).
 Least preferred coworker (LPC)
 The measuring scale that asks leaders to describe the
person with whom they are least able to work well.
 High LPC scale scores indicate a relationship orientation;
low LPC scores indicate a task orientation on the part of
the leader.
Contingency variables determining situational
 Leader-member relations
 Task structure
 Position Power
The Contingency (LPC) Theory of
Leadership (Fiedler)
Situational Approaches to
Leadership (Evans & House)
 Path-Goal Theory (Evans & House)
The primary functions of a leader are:
To make valued or desired rewards available in the
To clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that
will lead to goal accomplishment or rewards
Leader Behaviors:
Directive leader behavior
Supportive leader behavior
Participative leader behavior
Achievement-oriented leader behavior
The Path-Goal Framework (Evans &
Situational Approaches to
Leadership (Vroom )
 Vroom Decision Tree Approach
Attempts to prescribe a leadership style appropriate to
a given situation.
Basic Premises:
Subordinate participation in decision making depends
on the characteristics of the situation.
No one decision-making process is best for all
After evaluating problem attributes, a leader can
choose a path on the decision trees that determines
the decision style and specifies the amount of
employee participation.
 Decision significance
 Decision Timeliness
Situational Approaches to
Leadership (Vroom )
 Vroom Decision Tree Approach
Decision-Making Styles
Consult (individually)
Consult (group)
Vroom’s Time-driven Decision
Vroom’s Development-driven
Decision Tree
Situational Approaches to
Leadership (LMX)
 The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
Stresses the importance of variable
relationships between supervisors and each of
their subordinates.
Vertical dyads
Leaders form unique independent relationships
with each subordinate (dyads) in which the
subordinate becomes a member of the leader’s
out-group or in-group.
Related Approaches to Leadership
 Charismatic Leadership (House)
 Charisma, an interpersonal attraction that inspires
support and acceptance, is an individual characteristic
of a leader.
 Charismatic persons are more successful than noncharismatic persons.
 Charismatic leaders are:
 Self-confident
 Have a firm conviction in their belief and ideals
 Possess a strong need to influence people
Related Approaches to Leadership
 Charismatic Leadership Charismatic
leaders in organizations must be able
envision the future, set high
expectations, and model behaviors
consistent with expectations.
energize others through a
demonstration of excitement, personal
confidence, and patterns of success.
enable others by supporting them, by
empathizing with them, and by
expressing confidence in them.
Related Approaches to Leadership
 Transformational Leadership (Burns)
 Leadership that goes beyond ordinary expectations, by
transmitting a sense of mission, stimulating learning,
and inspiring new ways of thinking.
 Seven keys to successful leadership
Trusting in one’s subordinates
Developing a vision
Keeping cool
Encouraging risk
Being an expert
Inviting dissent
Simplifying things
Political Behavior in Organizations
 Political Behavior
 The activities carried out for the specific purpose of
acquiring, developing, and using power and other
resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes.
 Common Political Behaviors
 Inducement
 Persuasion
 Creation of an obligation
 Coercion
 Impression management
Political Behavior in Organizations
 Managing Political Behavior
Be aware that even if actions are not politically motivated,
others may assume that they are.
Reduce the likelihood of subordinates engaging in political
behavior by providing them with autonomy, responsibility,
challenge, and feedback.
Avoid using power to avoid charges of political motivation.
Get disagreements and conflicts out in the open so that
subordinates have less opportunity to engage in political
Avoid covert behaviors that give the impression of political
intent even if none exists.