ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY: EASING THE TRANSITION TO EMI SCIENCES COURSES “4-4-3-6” INROADS! Sharon Hannigan, M.A.T. TESOL / Ph.D. Behavioral Neuroscience -New Economic School Masters Program in Economics -New Economic School & Higher School of Economics Joint Bachelors Program in Economics Moscow, Russian Federation ~ COURSE OVERVIEW ~ “4-4-3-6” INROADS! EST COURSE APPROACH PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING (PBL) The course consisted of 4 three-week modules, each revolving around a “big problem” in science and technology: WEEK 1: Introduce the module problem WEEK 2: Solve the module problem WEEK 3: Express the module problem CHOOSING PROBLEMS: AT WHAT LEVEL OF ANALYSIS? 1st LOA (wide scope, or inter-field) Problems drawn from three different fields: A science problem, a literature problem, a history problem 2nd LOA (intermediate scope, or intra-field) Problems drawn from three disciplines within a single field: Field = science: An engineering problem, a biology problem, a physics problem 3rd LOA (narrow scope, or intra-disciplinary) Problems drawn from three subject areas within a single discipline: Discipline = engineering: An aerospace engineering problem, a biomedical engineering problem, a civil engineering problem 4th LOA (narrower scope, or within-subject area) Problems drawn from a single subject area: Subject area = civil engineering: A structural engineering problem, a transportation engineering problem, an environmental engineering problem BALANCING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT NEEDS AT NES-HSE! Happy Compromise: Provocative issues outside the discipline of economics yet within the domain of science! Need for English assistance in EMI economics courses Need to think outside the “economics box” FOR NES-HSE UNDERGRADUATES: “BIG PROBLEMS” CHOSEN AT THE 2ND LOA … Module 1: Threat of asteroid impact Module 2: Oceanic garbage mega-patches Module 3: Loss of planetary biodiversity Module 4: X Bid-winning team choice! PBL PROPELLED BY A 4-PART CRITICAL THINKING FRAMEWORK (CTF): SPRE … S = Situation: Who? What? When? Where? (Objectively describe or report dilemma) P = Problem(s): What’s wrong/the matter? (Identify & prioritize problems: 1°, 2°, etc. ) R = Response: Reaction to problem(s). (How do we go about solving the problems? What specific actions should be taken? What form should intervention take?) E = Evaluation: Overall critical assessment. (Will our response be effective? What are its pros/cons, costs/benefits? What should be applied/eliminated/modified going forward?) ~ CIFA Critical Thinking Framework~ C = Contemplate: CIFA! AN ALTERNATIVE CTF Consider the dilemma! (Listen, read, watch, discuss, debate, role play, The 8 Millennium Development Goals! reflect, empathize - from multiple perspectives.) I = Investigate: Look into and analyze the dilemma! (Research; credible and reliable examples, reasoning, statistical evidence, etc…) F = Formulate: Seek a solution to the dilemma! (With classmates, hatch an “action plan”, brainstorm a solution, etc…) A = Activate: Put your plan into action! (Fundraising; surveys; volunteer at school, soup kitchen, orphanage, nursing home, clinic; assist the homeless; HSE/NES food bank; consciousnessraising; tree planting, micro-lending, etc…) OR CREATE YOUR OWN CTF! (CTF Stage 1) __________________________ (CTF Stage 2) __________________________ (CTF Stage 3) __________________________ (CTF Stage 4) __________________________ …EXPRESSED IN 3 MODALITIES… Verbal Graphic Visuospatial … ALL AIMED AT SATISFYING THE 6 300-LEVEL DEPARTMENTAL LEARNING OUTCOMES! Speaking Writing Listening Reading Continue developing the ability to give well-planned, organized, informative, and engaging academic presentations. Achieve high proficiency at engaging in live discussions and debates across a wide range of subjects. Master various registers and pragmatics. Produce clear and detailed academic text in all basic rhetorical modes, develop genre awareness and begin to write in different genres (reviews, long form essays, research papers, etc.), begin to exercise creativity in writing, continue to improve in all aspects of the writing process such as prewriting, planning, drafting, revising, peer review, demonstrate mastery of language mechanics and the ability to self-correct and proofread independently, master proper citation methods and standard styles; understand the gravity and definition of plagiarism. Comprehend ~90% of the content and meaning of an academic lecture, with the ability to summarize main ideas and record significant details. Expand the range of comprehension to include various media and genres. Further develop a comprehensive, detailed, understanding of academic texts and research papers within and across disciplines, cultivate close reading skills and the ability to perceive subtlety in texts, exhibit awareness of a wide range of genres and the ability to approach common genres appropriately, accurately evaluate sources for credibility, relevance, and timeliness, increase pace and volume of reading without sacrificing comprehension, increased independence from dictionaries and ability to decipher words in context, improved ability to recognize cultural references. Grammar Mastery of basic through advanced grammatical structures. Declarative linguistic knowledge should be functional and productive. Awareness of different grammatical patterns in different genres. Pragmatics Increased exposure to a wide range of cultural customs, beliefs and traditions and greater sensitivity to cultural differences, develop greater familiarity with fundamental Anglophone cultures and cultural artifacts, broad historical knowledge about Anglophone cultures. My EST course “guinea pigs” 1 – 2 – 3 SPRE ! ~ COURSE DETAILS ~ MODULE 1 (WEEKS 1-3): THREAT OF ASTEROID IMPACT Introduce the module problem! MODULE 1: WEEK 1 MODULE 1 1ST WEEK A. Introduce module problem • Podcasts & video segments (TED, NPR, PBS, YouTube) • Academic lectures (publically available seminars, guest lectures, etc.) MODULE 1 1ST WEEK TED Talks! Dr. Phil Plait (astronomer): How to defend the earth from asteroids Dr. Ed Lu (NASA astronaut): http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature= player_detailpage&v=KAlF4xxRTwI MODULE 1 1ST WEEK B. Listening Comprehension NOTE: For all exercises, language is extracted from the audio-visual segments that introduced the module problem. • Comprehension: (Cloze exercises; gist/details; shifts in topic, voice, mood, & opinion, etc.) • Vocabulary: (Scientific jargon; synonyms/antonyms; collocations; roots, prefixes, suffixes/word families; word associations, etc.) TEDx TALKS: How to Defend the World from Asteroids, by Dr. Phil Plait: CLOZE EXERCISES (1) Fill in the following blanks with the numbers you hear. 0:12 I want to talk to you about something kind of big. We'll start here. __________ million years ago the dinosaurs had a bad day. (Laughter) A chunk of rock ___________ miles across, moving something like __________ times the speed of a rifle bullet, slammed into the Earth. It released its energy all at once, and it was an explosion that was mind-numbing. If you took every nuclear weapon ever built at the height of the Cold War, lumped them together and blew them up at the same time, that would be __________ __________ __________ of the energy released at that moment. The dinosaurs had a really bad day. Okay? (2) Fill in the following blanks with the places you hear. 1:03 Now, a six-mile-wide rock is very large. We all live here in __________. If you look out your window and you can see __________ Peak, you're probably familiar with it. Now, scoop up __________ Peak, and put it out in space. Take __________, Mt. __________. Lump that in there, and put that in space as well, and Mt. __________, and __________, and the Indian peaks. Then you're starting to get an idea of how much rock we're talking about, okay? We know it was that big because of the impact it had and the crater it left. It hit in what we now know as __________, the Gulf of __________. You can see here, there's the __________ Peninsula, if you recognize __________ off the east coast there. (3) Now try both numbers and places. 1:41 Here is how big of a crater was left. It was huge. To give you a sense of the scale, okay, there you go. The scale here is __________ miles on top, __________ kilometers on the bottom. This thing was __________ kilometers across -- __________ miles -- an enormous crater that excavated out vast amounts of earth that splashed around the globe and set fires all over the planet, threw up enough dust to block out the __________. It wiped out __________ percent of all species on __________. Now, not all asteroids are that big. Some of them are smaller. Here is one that came in over the __________ __________ in October of __________. It came in on a Friday night. Why is that important? Because back then, video cameras were just starting to become popular, and people would bring them, parents would bring them, to their kids' __________ __________ to film their kids play football. And since this came in on a Friday, they were able to get this great footage of this thing breaking up as it came in over West __________, __________, Pennsylvania and New __________ until it did that to a car in New ___________. (Laughter) ~ Word Families: Linking Parts of Texts ~ (1) Find two words from the same family in each extract. The Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) exploded several kilometers above the earth’s surface. The 10-15 megaton explosion set the forest below ablaze and flattened trees for hundreds of square kilometers. At first, many assumed the TCB to be a comet. This assumption, however, appears to be false in light of significant evidence indicating it was an asteroid. (2) Complete the table by changing the verbs into nouns belonging to the same family. verb noun(s) verb establish estimate vary indicate explode explosion noun(s) interpret assess process distribute prioritize define occur investigate assume priority, prioritization (3) Choose three verb-noun families from the above table and write one sentence with the verb form and another with the noun form. Example: explode/explosion: Verb form: Noun form: The TCB exploded to bits about 7 kilometers above the earth, igniting the forest below and sending shock waves throughout the region. The explosion, estimated at 10-15 megatons, blew out windows and doors and knocked several people unconscious. Solve the module problem! MODULE 1: WEEK 2 MODULE 1 2ND WEEK A. Prepare for “Expert” Panel Discussion (PD) Speak-to-write philosophy (a prewriting as well as listening and speaking exercise)… • Teacher explains task and establishes 4-member teams (might need to improvise). • Each team member assigned a SPRE (situation, problem, response, evaluation) role for PD. • In teams, students help each other prepare for PD, scheduled to take place the following week. • Teacher monitors discussions for participation (rubrics) and errors (exercises); assists teams upon request. ~ Module 1: Asteroid Impact ~ Speaking Assessment: Expert Panel Discussions! IMMINENT THREAT: An asteroid approximately 1.02 kilometers in diameter is hurtling toward Earth at speed of 40 km per second. Ground-zero is estimated within 100 kilometers of the Siberian city of Novosibirsk, Russian Federation; estimated time of impact is 15 days - 2 hours - 31 seconds - 17 milliseconds and counting! TASK 1: As a leading team of astrophysicists and aeronautical engineers at the IPPA (International Planetary Protection Agency), your job is to avert cataclysmic disaster by clearly and concisely articulating an ironclad solution consisting of 4 parts: Situation, Problem(s), Response, and Evaluation. You will present your solution as “experts” in a series of “asteroid panel discussions” scheduled to take place in class next week. TASK 2: Reach consensus with teammates as to panel discussion roles by filling out the chart, below. I will collect one from each team by the end of class today. Expert Panel Members Problem-Solving Roles (1) SITUATION (2) PROBLEM (3) RESPONSE (4) EVALUATION SPRE! (1) Situation (2) problem (3) Response (4) Evaluation EXPRESSION IN 3 MODALITIES: SPRE FRAMEWORK SITUATION: STUDENT 1 Verbal, graphic & visuospatial objective description of asteroid impact PROBLEM: STUDENT 2 Verbal, graphic & visuospatial problem statement of asteroid impact based on S RESPONSE: STUDENT 3 Verbal, graphic & visuospatial action plan in response to asteroid impact based on S & P EVALUATION: STUDENT 4 Verbal, graphic & visuospatial critique of S, P, & R; pros/cons, costs/benefits of asteroid impact NOTES: 1. Presentations will typically take the form of expert panel discussions or team debates. 2. Written claims & figures will be documented & formatted according to scientific convention(s). SPRE ROTATION Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 X Student 1 Situation Problem Response Evaluation Student 2 Evaluation Situation Problem Response Student 3 Response Evaluation Situation Problem Student 4 Problem Response Evaluation Situation MODULE 1 2ND WEEK B. Special Focus: Science Trade Journals • Close reading: (annotation of journal article sections for content, scientific discourse patterns and grammar, transitional devices) • Comprehension and proper formatting of figures: (e.g., graphs, tables, charts, models, etc.) • Genre-appropriate documentation: (citation, references, figures, footnotes, etc.) ~ 1908 Siberian Impact ~ Report 1: The Russians collected a number of accounts [of the Tunguska Event] from eyewitnesses at the Vanavara trading station, which was probably the closest permanent habitation. These included: "I was sitting on the porch of the house at the trading station, looking north. Suddenly in the north...the sky was split in two, and high above the forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared covered with fire. I felt a great heat, as if my shirt had caught fire... At that moment there was a bang in the sky, and a mighty crash... I was thrown twenty feet from the porch and lost consciousness for a moment.... The crash was followed by a noise like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The earth trembled.... At the moment when the sky opened, a hot wind, as if from a cannon, blew past the huts from the north. It damaged the onion plants. Later, we found that many panes in the windows had been blown out and the iron hasp in the barn door had been broken." [William K. Hartmann, 1908 Siberia Explosion: Reconstructing an Asteroid Impact from Eyewitness Accounts] Report 2: The height of the explosion is closely related to the value of the energy emitted, usually estimated to be equal to about 10–15 MT* (Hunt 1960; Ben-Menahem 1975), although some authors consider the energy value to be higher, up to 30–50 MT (Pasechnik 1971, 1976, 1986). In agreement with the first energy range, which seems to have more solid grounds, the height of the TCB** explosion was found equal to 6–14 km. A height of 10.5 ± 3.5 km was obtained by Fast (1963) from data on forest devastation. Using more complete data on forest devastation, Bronshten and Boyarkina (1975) subsequently obtained a height equal to 7.5 ± 2.5 km. From seismic data, Ben-Menahem deduced an explosion height of 8.5 km. Data on the forest devastation examined, taking into account the wind velocity gradient during the TCB flight (Korotkov and Kozin, 2000), gave an explosion height in the range 6–10 km. [Longo, Giuseppe (2007). "18: The Tunguska event". In Bobrowsky, Peter T.; Rickman, Hans. Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society, An Interdisciplinary Approach. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 303–330] *MT = megatons; **TCB = Tunguska Cosmic Body COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING MATRIX. THEN COMPARE IT WITH A PARTNER OR TWO. PURPOSE(S) REPORT 1 REPORT 2 CONTEXT(S) NOW TRY YOUR HAND AT THIS MATRIX. HOW IS EACH REPORT UNIQUE IN TERMS OF GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE? UNIQUE GRAMMATICAL FEATURES REPORT 1 REPORT 2 Module 3: Loss of Planetary Biodiversity 10 SEPTEMBER 2004 VOL 305 SCIENCE Figure-Caption Matching Exercise Module 3: Loss of Planetary Biodiversity Figure _____ With a partner or two, closely examine the three figures, below, with the goal of matching each of them with the correct figure caption. To assist you in making sense of the figures, please refer to the JA authors’ description of the Nomographic Model of Affiliate Extinctions. Figure _____ Figure _____ 10 SEPTEMBER 2004 VOL 305 SCIENCE Fig. 1. Proportion of affiliate species expected to go extinct through coextinction for a given proportion of host extinction in eight affiliate-host systems: pollinating Agaonidae Ficus wasps– Ficus, primate Pneumocystis fungi–primates, primate nematodes–primates, primate lice–primates, seabird lice–seabirds, bird mites– birds, butterflies– host plants, and Lycaenidae ant butterflies–ants. Coextinction curves were estimated with a rigorous probabilistic model. Briefly, we used an explicit combinatorial model (20) as implemented in EstimateS 7 (21) to estimate, for each data set, the number of affiliate species expected to survive, given a decreasing number of surviving host species. The estimated number of affiliate extinctions for a given number of host extinctions was then computed by subtracting the number of surviving species from the respective total number of species. See (10) for details. Fig. 2. Nomographic model expressing affiliate extinction probability as a function of host extinction probability and mean host specificity for 20 affiliate-host systems of varying mean host specificities: pollinating Agaonidae Ficus wasps–Ficus, primate Pneumocystis fungi–primates, primate nematodes–primates, primate lice–primates, seabird lice–seabirds, bird mites (including Avenzoariidae, Alloptidae, Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Pterolichidae, Pteronyssidae, Ptiloxenidae, Syringobiidae, and Xolalgidae)– birds, butterflies (including Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Hesperiidae)– host plants, and Lycaenidae ant butterflies–ants. See (10) for method. The affiliate extinction levels predicted by the nomographic model were highly concordant (concordant correlations Rc _ 0.99) with those predicted from the probabilistic model (10). Symbols and lines represent predicted affiliate extinction levels from the probabilistic and nomographic models, respectively. Fig. 3. Predictions of affiliate extinctions from the nomographic and combinatorial models. (A) Estimated numbers of historically extinct affiliate species based on the number of host species recorded as extinct. (B) Projected numbers of affiliate species extinctions, were all currently endangered hosts to go extinct. The first value in parentheses represents the absolute number and the second value the percentage of species extinct or endangered as predicted by the nomographic model; the second set of values in parentheses represents predictions from the combinatorial model for selected affiliate-host groups for which affiliation matrices are available. See (10) for details. Express the module problem! MODULE 1: WEEK 3 MODULE 1 3RD WEEK A. Panel discussions or debates happen! (1) Teacher role: • Assesses each speaker separately according to speaking rubric (2) Audience roles: • Note-taking toward oral/written summary, Q&A period (possible graded assignments) • Timer, moderator • Judges (content/arguments – class vote) SPRE EXPERT PANEL DISCUSSION (PD) SCHEME S E Team 1 S P E R Team 3 R P R PD 1: SITUATION PD 2: PROBLEM PD 3: RESPONSE PD 4: EVALUATION S E Team 2 S P E Team 4 R P OARC TEAM DEBATE (TD) SCHEME (Key: O=opener, A=attacker, R=rebutter, and C=closer.) O O C Team 1 A C R Team 3 R A R TD #1: PRO/FOR VS. TD #1: CON/AGAINST TD #2: PRO/FOR VS. TD #2: CON/AGAINST O C Team 2 O A C Team 4 R A Set forth your debate team’s claim/thesis (center circle) and brainstorm key points you could make in support of it (rectangles). Also, think of ways you can convincingly support each key point. Key point: Key point: SIDE 1 Your team’s claim: Key point: Key point: Key point: Key point: Now set forth your opponent’s claim/thesis (center circle) and try to anticipate the key points they’ll make in support of it (rectangles). What winning strategy(s) can you develop – both offensive and defensive?! Key point: Key point: SIDE 2 Your opponent’s claim: Key point: Key point: Key point: Key point: MODULE 1 3RD WEEK B. SPRE writing assignment (can begin in class) The following should be handed out and reviewed with students well in advance of the assignment due date: (1) Different assignment for each SPRE component clearly specifying the task, due date, criteria, formatting, documentation (2) Different rubric for each SPRE component (informing students of expectations!) ~ English for Science and Technology (English 371) ~ “Problem” Writing Assignment: Problem Statement Writing goal. The purpose of this paper is to state your team’s understanding of the Module Problem (MP) as clearly and as succinctly as possible. In the very least, this will entail (1) identifying the root, or core, problem, (2) delineating sub- and/or “downstream” problems, and (3) prioritizing core and subproblems terms of relative severity, or the “magnitude of threat” each poses. Critically, your problem statement should also imply a “causal chain of events”, whereby the inability to effectively deal with one problem could result in “cascading”, or a catastrophic “domino effect”. Do NOT, in this paper, map out the sequence with which core and sub- problems should be solved/tackled as that is the sole responsibility of your Response (action plan) teammate. Writing criteria. Taking into account the module video(s), Linked chapters, class exercises, SPRE team analysis and problem-solving strategy, panel discussions (PDs), and journal article (JA) analyses you’ve experienced to date, you must: Write an introductory paragraph containing a (1) clever hook to capture the reader’s attention, (2) brief overview of the MP your team has attempted to solve, and (3) a “good” thesis, one containing both your topic (SPRE role/purpose = to clearly and succinctly state the MP) and controlling ideas (a listing of the core and sub- problems mentioned in “Writing goal”, above). Develop each problem (limit =4) in separate body paragraphs. All four body paragraphs should be properly structured (i.e., contain a topic sentence, support for the topic sentence, and a concluding statement) and conform to the “rules” of unity and coherence. Support each problem you state by way of clear examples, sound reasoning, and/or and credible evidence. Not mandatory, but you may include a figure or two. Write a concluding paragraph, where you (1) restate (paraphrase more directly/forcefully) your thesis, and (2) leave the reader with a thought provoking “concluding remark”, for example, a question, a prediction, a warning, a call to action, etc. Submission due date. One electronic copy (email attachment, MS Word) of your paper is due by the beginning of class on Thursday, October 23rd. Format. Carefully adhere to the following specifications. Your paper must: Bear, in the upper left corner of the 1 st page, your full name and paper due date (line 1), and the writing assignment (line 2). Be written in prose: Carefully crafted, complete sentences; clear, well-organized discourse; attention to both substance and style. Be 2 or 3 pages in length (no more, no less). Be double-spaced. Be typed in MS Word with black, size “12”, Times New Roman font. Include 2 or 3 in-text citations with “notes” according to Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) convention; see “my.nes” for CMS guidelines and examples. Brainstorm by “free writing” Simply jot down in the space below anything about your subject (thesis topic and controlling ideas) that comes to mind. The idea is to keep writing without stopping. It doesn’t matter if you drift off topic – just continue writing without being critical of yourself. Don’t worry at all about grammar and spelling. Just write! Brainstorm with a “cluster diagram” Write your thesis topic in the center circle and its controlling ideas (CI) in the surrounding circles. Also feel free to brainstorm supporting details for each of the controlling ideas. CI #1: CI #2: My Thesis Topic: CI #3: PROBLEM: PROBLEM STATEMENT ~ Introductory Paragraph ~ CRITERIA: Write an introductory paragraph containing a (1) clever hook to capture the reader’s attention, (2) brief overview of the MP your team has attempted to solve, and (3) a “good” thesis, one containing both your topic (SPRE role/purpose = to clearly and succinctly state the MP) and controlling ideas (a listing of core and sub-problems). STEP 1: Come up with a clever hook, one that captures your readers’ attention. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ STEP 2: Provide your readers with a brief overview of the Module Problem (MP). MP: __________________________________________________________________________ Briefly describe the MP to your readership. Provide just enough background information (context) so that they can understand it – but make sure not to overdo it! ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ STEP 3: Set forth your thesis. A thesis is a statement that indicates the main point of an essay or argument. It consists of two parts: a topic and controlling ideas for that topic. With reference to your panel discussion recording sheet and your team’s collective memory, please develop your thesis in the spaces provided below. OPTION: You may want to first brainstorm your thesis by “free writing” about it and/or mapping it out on a “cluster diagram” (see below). (1) thesis topic: _____________________________________________________________ (2) thesis controlling ideas (4, one core problem & three sub-problems): a. (core) _________________________________________________________________ b. (sub-) _________________________________________________________________ c. (sub-) _________________________________________________________________ d. (sub-) _________________________________________________________________ NOTE: Each controlling idea will be supported in its own “body paragraph” & be expressed in a “topic sentence”). (3) State your thesis by combining “1” and “2”, above, into a coherent sentence or two. The sentence(s) should be complete and concise. Use signal words and sentence transitions where needed. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ~ Problem Writing Rubric: Problem Statement ~ STUDENT: ___________________________________________ SPRE! Problem Identification (core & sub-problems? prioritize: magnitude/severity?) Causal Reasoning (problems causally linked? cascading/domino threat?) Written Fluency (clarity? word choice? style? cadence? transitions?) Introductory Paragraph (hook? essential background? thesis with topic and claims?) Body Paragraphs (topic sent.? point-by-point? support? unity & coherence?) Concluding Paragraph (thesis restated? provocative concluding remark?) Mechanics & CMS Doc. (sentence structure? punc.? spelling? citation & notes?) ___________ /28 = ___________________ 4 3 2 1 0 Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs Work Not Submitted MODULE “X”: BID-WINNING TEAM CHOICE! SPEAKING BIOTERRORISM THREAT Module 4: Bioterrorism threat Speaking Assessment: Expert Panel Discussions! TERRORIST ATTACK: Epidemic of a recently discovered virus ESH8 has already caused many deaths in Equatorial Africa. The first deaths were registered in September, and, mainly due to lack of funding, scientists haven't found any vaccine yet. ESH8 is an airborne virus (i.e. it can be transmitted through the air), so the speed of spread is extremely high. DEATHS IN AFRICA 512.894 1.534 AUG 10.384 SEPT 103.568 OCT NOV Our intelligence agency reported that the spread of ESH8 is a deliberate attack of a group of terrorists and their next target is Moscow! The infection predicted day is December, 2 and the source of infection is unknown. MISSION: As a leading team of security agents, doctors, epidemiologists and biologists, your job is to clearly and concisely articulate an ironclad solution to the bioterrorism treat problem consisting of 4 parts: Situation, Problem(s), Response, and Evaluation. You will present your solution as “experts” in a series of “bioterrorism panel discussions” scheduled to take place in class next week. FOREWARNED IS FOREARMED! TEAM CAPSTONE PROJECT (COURSE SYNTHESIS) CAUSAL WEB: X THE CHALLENGE IS FOR TEAMS OF STUDENTS TO DEMONSTRATE HOW MODULE PROBLEMS 1-4 ARE INTERRELATED; THAT IS TO SAY, “INEXTRICABLY ENTWINED” - ILLUSTRATING HOW PRECARIOUSLY OUR PLANET HANGS IN THE BALANCE! SPRE!