Russian Revolution - Lakeland Regional High School

Industrial Revolution
Do Now:
 1.
List 5 inventions from the past 200 years that
you feel are the most significant in the
development of the world as we experience it
today! Explain you reasoning.
 2.
How does necessity help to create new
inventions? Explain.
 How
do you think John Meyer feels about
do we need prior to
being able to move forward
technologically as individuals,
or as a society?
Text Analysis
20.1 pgs 609 to 612: labeled “New
Economic Patterns”
out 8 important facts from the
Keep these questions in mind as
you read!
 How
did improvements in agriculture effect
European development in the 1700s.
 What
are preconditions [what has to occur
before] to industrialization?
 Is
industrialization an evolution or revolution?
Do Now:
 How
might a typical day for a farmer and factory
worker during the Industrial revolution differ?
Fact #1: Rising Population
1700s = 120 million / 1780s=190 million people
Death Rate Decreases
Made at home, cottage industry ( the putting out system), factory
expansion of trade networks / globalization
Fact #2: Agricultural Improvements
 new
staple crops  maize and potatoes
 More
farm land
Fact #3: Importance of Textiles
 Cottage
 Guilds
Fact #4: Demand for Cotton
 New
methods of manufacturing / new
inventions developed
 Water
Frame  Machines
Fact #5: A Global Economy
Gold and Silver traded for goods
 Tea,
spices, silk and cotton goods
Fact #6: Plantations
Tobacco, cotton, coffee and sugar = high
European demand
Fact #7: Slave Trade
Triangular trade
 Allowed
for growth of plantations
Fact #8: Emergence of England
England and France built colonial empires
 France
lost empire ca. 1763
Do Now
 Get
a copy of “Britain’s Industrial Advantages and
the Factory System” by Edward Baines from the
front of the room.
 As
you read, identify (as discussed by Baines)
 What
advantages does Britain possess that allow it to
 What were the factory system’s advantages over the
domestic system of production?
Revolution Cause
and Effects
Agricultural Revolution
Natural Resources
Do Now
 Get
a “Factory Discipline: Factory Rules” reading
from the front of the room.
 Answer:
 Describe factory
life during the Industrial Revolution.
 Judging by the Berlin factory rules, what were the
differences between preindustrial and industrial work
 How might these rules have affected the lives of families.
Development of the Domestic
System of Production
Domestic system developed in England
Late 1600s-late 1800s
Domestic system of production – “putting out” system
Businesspeople delivered raw materials to workers’ homes
Workers manufactured goods from these raw materials in their homes
(typically articles of clothing)
Businesspeople picked up finished goods and paid workers wages based
on number of items
Domestic system could not keep up with demand
Factory System
 Developed
 Faster
method of production
 Workers
concentrated in a set location
 Production
to replace the domestic system of production
anticipated demand
For example: Under the domestic system, a woman might select
fabric and have a businessperson give it to a home-based worker
to make into a dress. Under the factory system, the factory owner
bought large lots of popular fabrics and had workers create
multiple dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women would
buy them.
Industrial Capitalism and the
Working Class
Pre-Industrial Revolution rural families did not rely solely on
wages for sustenance
Owned their own farms or gardens where they raised most of
their own food
Made their own clothing
Unemployment was rare
Industrialization destroyed workers’ independence
Workers in cities did not have the means to grow their own food
or make their own clothing
Workers relied entirely upon their employers for wages with
which they bought everything they needed
Changing Employee-Employer
 Domestic
Workers and employers knew each other personally
 Workers could aspire to become employers
 Factory
Workers no longer owned the means of production
 Employers no longer knew workers personally
Factories often run by managers paid by the corporation
Relationships between employers and employees grew
Domestic System
Factory System
•Hand tools
Ownership / Kinds
of Tools
•Small hand tools owned by
•Large power-driven machines owned
by the capitalist
Production Output •Small level of production
•Sold only to local market
•Manufactured on a per-order
•Large level of production
•Sold to a worldwide market
•Manufactured in anticipation of
Nature of Work
Done by Worker
•Worker manufactured entire
•Worker typically made one part of the
larger whole.
•Henry Ford’s assembly line (early 20th
century) kept workers stationary.
Hours of Work
•Worker worked as much as
he/she would & could, according
to demand.
•Worker worked set daily hours.
Dependence on
•Worker had multiple sources of
sustenance – other employers,
•Worker relied entirely on capitalist for
his/her income – urban living made
Problems of the Factory System
 Factories
 Workers
 Young
were crowded, dark, and dirty
toiled from dawn to dusk
children worked with dangerous machinery
 Employment
of women and children put men out of work
Women and children were paid less for the same work
 Technological
unemployment – workers lost their jobs as
their labor was replaced by machines
Rights of Female and Child
Women and children could legally be paid less than men for the same work
English child laborers
Factory owners were more willing to hire them
Male workers grew resentful
England had a history (going back to the 17th century) of training pauper children
(even those younger than five years old) in a trade
Poor children followed their mothers into factories
Early male-dominated unions fought to banish women and children from
the workplace
Eventually this strategy was abandoned
Women eventually won right to equal pay for equal work
Improvements: Rise of Labor
Before labor unions, workers bargained individually – “individual
Before factories, a worker could bargain for better wages and working
conditions by arguing his or her particular skills
But in factories, work is routine and one worker can easily replace another
With labor unions, workers bargained together as a group, or
collective – “collective bargaining”
Organized groups of workers elected leaders to bargain on their behalf
Used tools (such as strikes) to gain rights
Short Reading Exercise
660-661 in your textbook: “Young
People in the Industrial Revolution: Child
questions 1 and 2 that follow
Poor Living Conditions
 Factories
driven solely by profit
Businesses largely immune to problems of workers
 Factory
(also company or mill) towns
Towns built by employers around factories to house workers
 Workers charged higher prices than normal for rent, groceries, etc.
Workers often became indebted to their employers
Created a type of forced servitude as workers had to stay on at their jobs to pay their
Considered paternalistic by workers
Some employers had workers’ interests at heart
But workers wanted to control their own lives
Slum Living Conditions
 Factory
towns – often built and owned by factories
Full of crowded tenements
 Few amenities
 Tenements
– buildings with rented multiple dwellings
Apartment buildings with a more negative connotation
 Overcrowded and unsanitary
 Workers
were unsatisfied both inside and outside the
The First and Second Industrial
The first, or old, Industrial Revolution took place between about 1750 and
Took place in England, the United States, Belgium, and France
Saw fundamental changes in agriculture, the development of factories, and ruralto-urban migration
The second Industrial Revolution took place between about 1870 and 1960
Saw the spread of the Industrial Revolution to places such as Germany, Japan,
and Russia
Electricity became the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homes
Mass production, particularly of consumer goods
Use of electrical power saw electronics enter the marketplace (electric lights,
radios, fans, television sets)
The Spread of the Industrial
Mid-1800s – Great Britain, the world leader in the Industrial
Revolution, attempted to ban the export of its methods and
technologies, but this soon failed
1812 – United States industrialized after the War of 1812
After 1825 – France joined the Industrial Revolution following the
French Revolution and Napoleonic wars
Circa 1870 – Germany industrialized at a rapid pace, while Belgium,
Holland, Italy, Sweden, and Switzerland were slower to industrialize
By 1890 – Russia and Japan began to industrialize
Do Now
Based off your understanding of the Industrial
Revolution thus far, identify the Political, Social,
and Economic effects of Industrialization on
Results of the Industrial Revolution
•Expansion of world trade
•Factory system
•Mass production of goods
•Industrial capitalism
•Increased standard of living
•Decline of landed aristocracy
•Growth and expansion of democracy
•Increased government involvement in society
•Increased power of industrialized nations
•Nationalism and imperialism stimulated
•Rise to power of businesspeople
•Development and growth of cities
•Improved status and earning power of women
•Increase in leisure time
•Population increases
•Problems – economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc.
•Science and research stimulated
Social Structure
Industrial Middle Class
 Industrial
Working Class
The Emerging Social Structure of the
Industrial Era
The Elite
The Middle Classes
5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth
Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class
White-collar workers
Middle class values in the Victorian period
The Lower classes
80 percent of the European population
Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers
The Emergence of Urban Society
New Urban Environment
 Growth of cities: by 1914, 80 percent of the population in
Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France
(25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in
1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800)
Improving living conditions
Housing needs
 Why
did governments begin to push
 New
types of jobs
 Political goals
Education in an Age of Mass
In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class
Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least
primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12
State teacher training schools
 Needs of industrialization
 Need for an educated electorate
 To instill patriotism
Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most
were women
“Natural role” of women
Experience of Women
 New
Job Opportunities
 Marriage
and Family
 Women’s
 Emmeline
The Experiences of Women
Marriage and the Family
 Difficulty for single women to earn a living
Birth control
Female control of family size
Middle-class family
Most women married
Men provided income and women focused on household and child care
Fostered the idea of togetherness
 Victorian ideas
Working-class families
Daughters work until married
1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wages
Material consumption
Movement for Women’s Rights
Fight to own property
Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women
Access to jobs dominated by men: teaching, nursing
Demand for equal political rights
 Most vocal was the British movement
 Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903
 Suffragettes
Support of peace movements
The New Woman
 Bertha von Suttner
Social Thought: Socialism
 Socialists
– viewed the capitalist system as inherently
Belief that capitalism is designed to create poverty and poor working
conditions because of its end goal of earning maximum profits for
 Socialism
– government owns the means of
Belief that if the government (“the people”) owns the means of
production, these factories and industries will function in the public (as
opposed to private) interest
Social Thoughts
Utopianism – Robert Owen & New Lanark
First Socialists
Strove to create a fair and just system
Community divided tasks and rewarded equitability
Robert Owen
 Utopian
 Owned
a textile factory in New Lanark, Scotland
 Decreased
 Improved
 Shared
 Proved
working hours
working conditions and employee housing
management and profits with employees
that a socialist-based company could be
Social Thought
 Socialism
Utopianism – Robert Owen & New Lanark
Communism – Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
Bourgeois vs. Proletariat
Marxism – Communism
Interpretation of
• Economic changes lead to historical changes.
• Historically, the wealthy classes have held all power.
Class Struggle
• History has been a struggle between the rich and the poor.
• In the Industrial Revolution, the struggle is between the Bourgeois
capitalists (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat
Surplus Value
• Workers produce all wealth but receive only enough to survive.
• “Surplus value” (profit) of the workers’ labor goes to the capitalists.
Inevitability of
• Industrial wealth leads to the concentration of wealth among fewer
and fewer capitalists, while the living and working conditions of the
proletariat grow worse.
• The proletariat will eventually rebel and create a socialist state.
Social Thought
Utilitarianism – Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill
Capitalism – David Riccardo & Thomas Malthus
Laissez Faire
“Iron Law of Wages”
Social Thought
Social Darwinism and Nationalism
Charles Darwin & Herbert Spencer
Social Thought
 With
all of the possible hardships that can
be associated with industrialization how did
people find comfort in their daily lives?
 Methodism
 evangelical
Protestant denominations founded in
18th century England by John Wesley
 worldwide
Protestant movement dating from 1729,
when a group of students at the University of Oxford,
England, began to assemble for worship, study, and
Christian service. Their fellow students named them
the Holy Club and “methodists,” a derisive allusion to
the methodical manner in which they performed the
various practices that their sense of Christian duty and
church ritual required.
Art and Leisure
Charles Dickens & Gustave Flaubert
Claude Monet
Tourism and Sport
Thomas Cooke
Social Changes:
Increase in Leisure Time
Labor-saving devices invented and produced
Entrepreneurs and inventors developed new forms of entertainment
Vacuum cleaners
Washing machines
Moving pictures
Amusement parks
Birth of the weekend
Traditionally, Western nations had Sunday (the Christian day of rest) as the only day
off from work
Saturday was added to accommodate the religious observances of Jewish factory
workers (whose Sabbath, or Shabbat, runs from Friday at sundown to Saturday at
 Acute
labor problems
 Workers
guilds decline
 Development
 Socialism
of proletariat class vs. capitalist class
and early utopian societies based on utilitarian
ideas (utopian socialists): Scotland and U.S. = Robert
 Communism
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
Spread and Growth: 1900s
Steel replaces iron
1831: Michael Faraday produces electric generator
1870: improved practical generator
1910: Hydroelectric power
Thomas Edison: Light bulb
1876: Alexander Gram Bell: telephone
Guglielmo Marconi: first trans-Atlantic radio wave transmission
Workers now could effectively/efficiently work 24 hours a day
The Automobile
Role of Science and
Technology: The Automobile”
691 in your textbook
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
New Products and New Patterns
Toward a World Economy
Substitution of steel for iron
Internal combustion engine
Increased industrial production
Germany replaces Britain as industrial leader
Europe’s two economic zones
Products from all over the world
Europe dominates
The Spread of Industrialization in Russian and Japan
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
Organizing the Working Class
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895),
The Communist Manifesto
History is that of class struggles
Overthrow the bourgeoisie
Eventually there would be a classless society
Organizing the Working Class
German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875
In the Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve the conditions
of the worker
4 million votes in 1912 elections in Germany
Reject revolutionary approach and believed in reform
Trade Unions
Right to strike in Britain gained in 1870s
4 million members by 1914 in Britain
Leisure in an Age of Mass
 Created
by the industrial system
 Transportation
 Working
systems meant:
class could go to amusement parks,
dance halls, beaches, and team sporting