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Bio-Process Kinetics Process Biotechnology Anondho WIJANARKO University of Indonesia Simplified Lecture Notes For Instructor To Dwi Imanti and Adam Aulia, Musa Maulana, Isa Dzulqarnain and Lovely Muhammad Al Muhammad CONTENTS Microbial Growth – Microbial Cell Growth – Classical & Empirical Growth Kinetics Environmental Alteration Studies – Light Illumination Effect – Temperature Effect Microbial Kinetic Studies – Non Elementer Reaction – Microbial Growth Reaction Kinetics Microbial Growth Microbial Cell Growth Mode of Growth – Selective assimilation of nutrients and convert into and also include Chemical rearrangement of protoplasmic material characteristic of the particular organism – Production of an increased amount of nuclear substance and cell division Growth Phase Growth Phase Induction Phase (Lag Phase) Transient Phase (Acceleration Phase) Exponential Phase Stationary Phase (Declining Phase) Death Phase Question Sheet Why microbial growth have an lag phase? Why death phase could be occurred in microbial growth? What is essential nutrient for growth of organism especially prokaryotes? What is important factor for cell division? Growth Approximation Growth Constants Exponential – Stationary Growth Phase Total Biomass Production(G) G (Xm Xi ) Incident growth rate, Incident mean division rate (mf) ln XX2 1 dX 1 mf t t X dt 2 1 Specific growth rate, Beginning mean division rate (m) 1 dX m lim t 0 X dt Doubling time of population (tD); exponential growth phase ln 2 tD m Classical Growth Kinetics Empirical Approximation Monod Growth Kinetic s μf μ Κs s Tessier Growth Kinetic mf m 1 e s / Ks Moser Growth Kinetic mf m 1 K s s Contois Growth Kinetic s mf m B X s 1 Empirical Growth Kinetics Medium constituent Inhibition Andrews Growth Kinetic s mf m 2 s Ks s K i Aiba Growth Kinetic mf m sKp K s s K p p Growth Kinetics Multiple essential nutrient Bailey Growth Kinetic s3 s1 s2 mf m ... K s1 s1 K s 2 s2 K s 3 s3 Home Work Which kinetic approximation do you choose in case of microbial growth of Hepatotoxin produced Oscilatoria Agardhii NIVA CYA 97 in low temperature? Which empirical equation that you choose of inoculation of microorganism in case of multiple content limitation of nutrients, such as Mg2+, phosphate, Nitrate and organic compound? Which kinetic approximation do you choose of cultivation photosynthetic microorganism that did not grew up in pH above 7.8? Simple Bio-Production Kinetic Cellular growth rate dX μ f X – Monod approximation dt s μf μ Κs s – Yield factor X dX dt YX / s ds s dt YP / X dX s X μ dt Ks s P dP dt dX X dt Substrate Utilization Product Formation (Beginning of Stationary Phase) ds μ s X dt Y X / s K s s dP s X YP / X m dt Ks s Environmental Alteration Studies Microbial Growth Kinetic Enviromental Condition Direct Effects – Light Illumination (Energy Source) – Temperature – Essential nutrients content Indirect Effects – Gas inlet volumetric rate – Gas inlet content – Liquid circulation rate – Non essential nutrients content Light Illumination Effect Oscillatoria agardhi Gomont – (Post AF, R de Witt, LC Mur, J. Plank. Res., 7 (1985) 487-495) Temperature effect Modified Arhenius Model m Ae Ea / RT T 1 e T Sd R H d R Temperature Effect Classification of Microorganism Question Sheet What is happen if microorganism is at 90oC? Why? In case of decreasing of temperature about 20oC from optimum temperature, what is happen in case of microbial growth rate? In case of ethanol production that was S. sake have ethanol tolerance around 10%, what do you do to make an whisky industry? Why a shade microbe does not grew well in high light illumination and commonly have not high temperature resistance? Temperature Effect Cellular Consideration Psychrophile – Obligate – Facultative Anabena cylindrica Lemmerman Oscillatoria Agardhi Gomont Nostoc commune Antartica Mesophile – – – Protococcus Agardh SS 100-3 Oscillatoria redekei Van Goor Oscillatoria sp. SS 100-5 Synechococcus leopoliensis Anabaena variabilis IAM M3 Microcystis Aeruginosa IAM M228 Thermophile – – – Mastigocladus laminosus HTF Synechococcus lividus OH75S Synechcocus elongatus It 7S Home Work Why optimum specific growth rate values of psychrophile factually, lower than thermophile? Why GC content of microbial DNA is important for classification of organism in terms of growth rate dependence on temperature? What is DBI? Microbial Kinetic Studies Non Elementer Reaction Common reaction rate ds n k s dt – N = integer – N = non integer Non Elementer Example : Elementer Non Elementer CH 3CHO CH 4 CO H 2 Br2 2HBr 3 d CH 3CHO k CH 3CHO 2 dt d Br2 k1 'Br2 2 H 2 dt [ HBr ] k2 'Br2 3 Reaction Mechanism 2NO 2H 2 N2 2H 2O k1 2 NO N 2O2 k2 k 1 N 2O2 H 2 N 2 H 2O2 k3 H 2 H 2O2 2 H 2O d H 2O2 0 dt d N 2 O2 0 dt N 2O2 / H 2O2 k2 N 2O2 H 2 k3 H 2O2 H 2 0 k1 NO k 1 N 2O2 k 2 N 2O2 H 2 0 2 H 2O2 k 2 N 2O2 k3 2 k1 NO N 2 O2 k 1 k 2 1 H 2 2 k1 d N 2 NO k1 k 2 H2 2 k 2 N 2O2 H 2 k 2 H 2 NO dt k 1 k 2 1 H 2 k 1 k 2 1 H 2 Question Sheet What is mechanism path? What definition of intermediate species? What was become determining factor of reaction rate? Microbial Growth Enzymatic Reaction/Kinetic consideration Michaelis-Menten Kinetics – Reaction mechanism k2 ES P E k1 – Kinetic equation E S ES k 1 mf m s Km s Substrate Actvation and Inhibition – Reaction mechanism k2 k1 – Kinetic equation E S ES k 1 mf ES S ES2 m s k1 E S ES – Kinetic equation ES P E K m s s 2 / Ki Product Activation and Inhibition – Reaction mechanism k 2 k3 k 1 mf m k2 ES P E sKp K s s K p p k3 ES P ESP k 3 Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Reaction mechanism k1 E S ES Kinetic derivation k 1 E0 E ES k2 ES P E ES 0 0 ES 0 d dt ES k1 S E k 1 k 2 ES d dt ES k1 k1 S E S E0 ES k 1 k 2 k 1 k 2 ES Ek0 S k S 1 2 k1 d dt P k 2 ES k2 E0 S k k S 1 2 k1 dtd Pmax S S Km Home Work Please exhibit kinetic derivation of substrate activation and inhibition? Please exhibit kinetic derivation of product activation and inhibition? What do you think about reaction kinetic if Km is high that was indicated in bioremediation of toluene by C. nivalis? Literature 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 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Symp., 13 (1983) 331-350 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Leopold AC and PE Kriedmann, Plant Growth and Development, Tata McGraw-Hill Publ. Co., New Delhi, 1975 Pilling MJ and PW Seakins, Reaction Kinetics, Oxford Sc. Publ., Tokyo Mosser JL and TD Brock, Temperature Optima for Algae Inhabiting Cold Mountains Stream, Arctic and Alpine Research, 8 (1976) 111-114 Murata N, Low Temperature effects on Cyanobacterial Membranes, J. Bioenerg. Biomembr., 21 (1989) 61-75 Post AF, R de Witt and LR Muur, Interaction between Temperature and Light Intensity on Growth and Photosynthesis of the Cyanobacterium Oscilatoria agardhii, J. Plankton Research, 7 (1985) 487-495 Sato N, N Murata, Y Miura and N Ueta, Effect of Growth Temperature on Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Blue Green Algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans, Biochim. Biophys. Act., 572 (1979) 1928 Seaburg KG, BC Parker, RA Wharton Jr. and GM Simmons Jr., Temperature-Growth Responses of Algal isolates from Antartica Oases, J. 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