northern industrialization

Early Industrialization
in the North
HIS 103
Travel Times from New York City in 1800
Copyright 2000, Bedford/St.
Transportation Revolution
built & operated by private
companies (300 by 1810)
Mostly in New England &
Middle States
Erie Canal (1817-1825)
cut shipping costs from
$100/ton to under $9/ton
Carried $15 million worth of
freight annually
Delaware & Hudson Canal
(1828) connected
Pennsylvania coalfields to
New York City
Transportation Routes, 1840
Copyright 2000, Bedford./St. Martin’s
Erie Canal Map
Transportation Revolution (cont.)
Robert Fulton & Robert
Livingston’s Clermont (1807)
1st successful commercial
Supreme Court ruled in
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) that
state licenses couldn’t
invalidate federal ones
Packet service
Black Ball Line (NYC –
Liverpool) was 1st (1818)
52 lines by 1845
Railroads take over beginning
in 1840s
Railroads in 1860
Copyright 2000, Bedford./St. Martin’s
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad est.
in 1827 to compete against NYC
& Erie Canal
3,328 miles of track by 1840
30,626 miles of track by 1860;
2/3 in the North
Reduced transportation costs by
$150-175 million
1859: 2 billion tons shipped by
rail; 1.6 billion by canal
Panic of 1837 partly due to
states’ heavy investment in
railroads & canals
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
Replica of
Charles Carroll laying the Cornerstone, July 4, 1828
Strap iron rails
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
Carrollton Viaduct, Carrollton, MD
Communication Revolution
U.S. Postal Service est. network of post offices
& post roads, & provided stage transportation
104,521 miles of post roads by 1829
Rates varied by mileage: 6 – 25 cents (1825-38)
Cheap printing
 Telegraph
Samuel F. B. Morse invented it in 1832
1st commercial line established in 1844 between
Baltimore & Washington, D.C.
Western Union & American Telegraph Co. created
national networks in the 1850s
San Francisco connected by 1861
Samuel Morse & the Telegraph
Two-Stage Process of
1st Stage = Involution (1790s - 1820s)
Intensification of local, traditional practices
Merchants needed to introduce cash to bridge gap
between local barter economy & international
cash/credit economy
Young, unmarried women take in “out-work”
2nd Stage = Revolution (1830s - 1860s)
Long-distance, capitalist practices take over
Merchants invest capital in new factories
Young, unmarried women move to factories
Early Factories
Samuel Slater est. 1st power loom
at Pawtucket, RI in Dec. 1790
 Boston Manufacturing Co.
opened 1st full cotton textile factory
at Waltham, Mass. in 1813
 Woolen mills opened in Lowell
(1830) & Lawrence (1845)
 Conn. gunmakers Eli Whitney &
Simeon North introduced use of
machine-made interchangeable
 Conversion from water to steam
(powered by coal), 1830-50
 Value of industrial products
exceeded value of agricultural
products for 1st time in 1859
Slater & his mill
The Lowell System
Merrimack Mills & Boarding
Houses, Lowell, Mass.
Boott Cotton Mill, Lowell
National Historical Park
Weave room
Exterior – canal
No Marxist “Class Consciousness”
 Work
in factories offered independence
from family control
 Wages were low, & kept down by influx
of cheaper immigrant labor
 Factory workers insisted on middle-class
identity as “producers”
 Factory owners also claimed to be
middle-class producers
 Many
had been former master craftsmen
 Way of reducing class conflict
Fueled by Consumerism
More widespread desire to
imitate genteel lifestyle
Gentility now associated with
middle class, rather than
Link between morality &
respectability tied evangelicals to
material culture
Factory goods seen as superior
to, as well as cheaper than,
 Women played increasing role
as consumers, creating “tastes”
& “styles”
Ackerman Fashion
Plate, 1821
1840s Advertising
Changed Spatial & Social
Work separated from home
Production separated from management and
retail space
Women less likely to learn & participate in business
Instead, became moral guardians in domestic sphere
Located in different buildings, in different parts of city
Housing clustered around jobs, creating class
Had to live within walking distance of work
Ethnic enclaves further segregate working class