midterm review sheet - global history

Date of exam:
Wednesday, June 12, 2013
8:00 am – 10:00 am (GYM 1)
Materials needed:
At least 2 sharpened pencils and 2 pens (blue or black ink)
Chapters to study:
Bentley 1-22, 24 (sections) & 25 (one section)
Exam format:
1) 50 Multiple Choice Questions
2) DBQ (AP World style)
Some of the chapter topics that will be covered on the exam include:
General Terms and Vocabulary
 Culture
 Agriculture
 Economy
 Cultural Diffusion
 Anthropology
 Syncretism
 History
 Barter system
 Pre-History
 Golden Age
Chapter One (Before History):
 The Leakeys
 Paleolithic Age
 Donald Johansen
 Nomadic Role of
 Hominids
 Nomad
 Cave Paintings
 Hunter/gatherer
 Neolithic Revolution
 Migration
 Subsistence
 Technology of Early
 Gender & Agriculture
Chapter Two (Early Societies in SW Asia):
 Tigris & Euphrates
 Cuneiform
 Mesopotamia
 Epic of Gilgamesh
 Sumerians
 Ziggurat
 Traditional Societies
 Ethnocentrism
Technology of
 Population Growth
 Civilization
 Pastoralism
 Hammurabi’s Code
 Babylonia
 New Babylonians
 Wheel
 Trade Networks
 Patriarchal
 Role of Women
o Veils
 Palestine
 Diaspora
 Monotheism
 Phoenicians
 Alphabet
Chapter Three (Early African Societies):
 Nile River
 Pyramids
 Cataracts
 Pharaohs
 Desertification
 Hieroglyphics
 Sahel
 Demotic
 Ancient Egypt
 Akhenaton
 “Gift of the Nile”
 Cult of Osiris
 Mummification
 Nubia
Chapter Four (Early Societies in South Asia):
 Indus River
 Early Aryan
 Hindu-Kush Mtns
 Ganges River
 Vedas
 Monsoons
 Caste & Varna
 Mohenjo-Daro
 Subcastes & Jati
 Harappa
 Rig Veda
Chapter Five (Early Societies in East Asia):
 Yellow River
 Iron Metallurgy’s
 Xia
 Shang
 Role of merchants
 Zhou
 Veneration of
 Millet
 Bronze Metallurgy
 Patriarchal
 Decentralized gov’t
 Oracle Bones
 Mandate of Heaven
 Chinese Writing
Chapter Six (Early Societies in the Americas & Oceania):
 Olmecs
 Ceremonial centers
 Maize
 Jade & obsidian
o Language
o Horses
o Hittites
o Iron Metallurgy
o War Chariots
Role of Women
 Meroitic Writing
 Kush
 Hyksos
 Trade Networks
 Bantu Migration
 Upanishads
 Moksha
 Karma
 Dharma
 Brahman
Book of Songs
 Warring States
 Steppe Nomads
 Yangzi River
 Terraced farming
Yucatan Peninsula
 Maya
Mayan terraced
 Tikal
 City-kingdoms
 Chichen Itza
 Popol Vuh
 Bloodletting
 Ball game
 Maya calendar
 Maya writing
 Pyramids of the
Moon & Sun
 Andes Mtns
 Chavin
 Terraced farming
 Irrigation
 Alpacas & llamas
 Mochica
 Waru waru
Chapter Seven (Empires of Persia):
 Achaemenid
 Persian Royal Road
 Cyrus
 Qanat system
 Darius
 Persian Wars
 Persepolis
 Seleucid/Parthains/
 Satrapies
 Lydian coins
 Free peasants
Chapter Eight (The Unification of China):
 Confucius
 Shi Huangdi
 Analects
 Book burning
 Daoism
 Centralization
 Laozi
 The Great Wall
 Daodejing
 1 Emperor’s Tomb
 Legalism
 Standardization
 Han Feizi
 Han
 Qin
 Liu Bang
Australian hunting &
gathering societies
 Austronesian
 Agriculture in New
 Polynesia
 Lapita peoples
 Ahura Mazda
 Influence of
Han Wudi
 Confucian education
 Xiongnu
 Ban Zhao
 Silk, Paper,
 Yellow Turban
Chapter Nine (State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India):
 Mauryan Dynasty
 Indian Ocean Trade
 Siddhartha
 Ashoka Maurya
 Epics
 Rock & Pillar Edicts
 Vaisyas
 Mahayana Buddhism
 Regional Kingdoms
 Jainism
 Bodhisattvas
 Gupta Dynasty
 Ahimsa
 Bhagavad Gita
 Arabic Numerals
 Buddhism
 Popular Hinduism
 Gupta Golden Age
Chapter Ten (Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase):
 Minoans
 Direct Democracy
 Mycenaean Society
 Greek colonies
 City-States (Polis)
 Mediterranean
 Sparta
 Military Society
 Olympic Games
 Lycurgus
 Slavery
 Athens
 Socrates, Plato &
 Solon
 Pericles
 Pythagoras
 Parthenon
 Greek Deities
Chapter Eleven (Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase):
 Etruscans
 Octavian/Augustus
 Roman Republic
 Pax Romana
 Law (12 Tables)
 Roman roads
 Patricians &
 Commercial agric.
 Meditrn. trade
 Punic Wars
 Aqueducts
 Roman Expansion
 “Bread & Circus”
 Julius Caesar
 Paterfamilias
Cult of Dionysus
 Comedy & Tragedy
 Persian Wars
 Delian League
 Peloponnesian War
 Philip of Macedon
 Alexander the
 Hellenistic
 Roman Deities
 Cicero & Stoicism
 Mithras & Isis cults
 Judaism
 Christianity
 Jesus of Nazareth
 Paul of Tarsus
Chapter Twelve (Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads):
 Zhang Qian
o Christianity
 Constantine
 Monsoon System
o Manichaeism
 Germanic Invasions
 Hellenistic Trade
 Spread of Disease
 The Huns
 Silk Roads
 Fall of the Han
 St. Augustine
 Mare Nostrum
 Sinicization of
 Orthodox
 Spread of…
o Buddhism
 Fall of W. Rome
 Patriarchs
o Hinduism
 Diocletian
Chapter Thirteen (The Expansive Realm of Islam):
 Arabian Peninsula
 Hajj
 Bedouin
 The Five Pillars
 Islamic Golden Age
 Hijrah/Hegira
 Expansion & policies
 Muhammad
 Mecca/Makkah
 Quran/Koran
 Caliph
 Umayyad Dynasty
 Abbasid Dynasty
 Sunni/Shia
Dar al-Islam
 Spread of new crops
 Hemispheric trading
Camels & caravans
 Al-Andalus
 Veiling of women
 Sufis
Chapter Fourteen (The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia):
 Sui Dynasty
 Fast-Ripening Rice
 Grand Canal
 Internal trade
 Tang Dynasty
 Population &
 Li Bo
 Xuanzang
 Foot binding
 Equal-Field System
 Porcelain
 Tributary states
 Gunpowder
 Buddhist Influence
 Block printing &
 Dunhuang
moveable type
 Chan/Zen Buddhism
 Naval technology
 Song Dynasties
 Paper money
 Neo-Confucianism
 Silla Dynasty
Chapter Fifteen (India and the Indian Ocean Basin):
 Mahmud of Ghazni
 Internal trade
 Delhi Sultanate
 Indian Ocean trade
 Chola
 Dhows & junks
 Monsoons & irrigation
 Emporia
 Specialized
 Temples as
community centers
 Axum
Chapter Sixteen (The Two World of Christendom):
 Byzantine
 The Franks
 Constantinople
 Charlemagne
 Caesaropapism
 Vikings
 Justinian & Theodora
 Heavy plow
 Justinian Code
 Feudalism
 Hagia Sophia
 Manorialism
 Mosaic
 Population decrease &
 Theme System
 Byzantine trade
 Pope
 Greek fire
 Patriarch
Influences on Islam
(Persian, Indian,
Chinese influence on
Korea, Vietnam &
 Nara Japan
 Heian Japan
 Shintoism
 The Tale of Genji
 Feudal Japan
 Shogun
 Samurai
 Code of Bushido
Expansion of the
caste system
 Hindu cults
 Bhakti
 Indian influence in SE
 Angkor Wat
 Monasticism
 Cyril & Methodius
 Schism
 Black Sea-Baltic
 Slavs
 Kiev & Vladimir
 Onion domes
Chapter Seventeen (Nomadic Empires & Eurasian Integration):
 Nomadic pastoralism
o Society
 Silk Road travel
 Turks
o Conquest
o Trade
 Saljuq/Seljik Turks
 Mongol impacts
o Missionaries
o Persia (Abbasid)
o Persia
o Diplomats
o Anatolia (Byzantine)
o China (Kublai)
o Bubonic plague
o India
o Russia (Golden
 Tamer Lane
 Mongols
 Ottoman
o Genghis
 Pax Mongolica
Chapter Eighteen (States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa):
 Bananas
 Camels
 Swahili Coast
 Early Africa
 Ghana
o Kilwa & Sofala
 Kin-based society
o Gold & Salt
 Great Zimbabwe
 Animism
o Islam
 Axum
 Slavery
 Mali
 Ethiopia
 Role of women
o Mansa Musa
o King Lalibela
 Zanj revolts
o Jenne & Timbuktu
o Rock churches
Chapter Nineteen (The Increasing Influence of Europe):
 Holy Roman Empire
o Urban women
 William the
 Meditrn. Trade
 Hanseatic League
 Agricultural growth
 Three Estates
 Development of towns
 Chivalry
& cities
 Troubadours
 Early Commercial Rev.
 St. Thomas Aquinas
o Guilds
 Lay Investiture
Chapter Twenty (Worlds Apart: The Americas & Oceania):
 Maize
 Inca
 The Mexica/Aztec
o Empire
o Tribute
o Roads/Bridges
o Trade
o Terraces
o Chinampas
o Quipu
 Pueblo/Navajo/
o Trade
 Australian foragers
 Religious orders
 Heresy
 Vinland
 Crusades
 Reconquista
 Spanish Inquisition
(chapter 23)
Pacific islanders
o Long-distance
o Maori & sweet
o Society
o Religion
Chapter Twenty-one (Reaching Out: Expanding Horizons of Cross-Cultural Interaction):
 Travelers
o Rabban Sauma
o Humanism
o Marco Polo
 Exchanges
o Machiavelli
o Ibn Battuta
o Sugarcane
 Hundred Years War
 Diplomats
o Gunpowder
 Spain
o John of
o Plague
 Ivan the Great
 Italian city-states
 Ming
 Missionaries
 The Renaissance
o Neo-Confucianism
o Sufis
o Leonardo da Vinci
o Zheng He
Chapter Twenty-two (Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections):
 Portuguese est. of
 Christopher Columbus
 Conquest of Java
Medit. sugar
 Ferdinand Magellan
 Seven Year’s War
 James Cook
 Columbian Exchange
 Caravel
 Portuguese trading
o Impacts on areas
 Maritime technology
 Environmental
 Volto do mar
 Trading Companies
impacts of trade
 Prince Henry the
 Conquest of the
 Vasco da Gama
o Manila Galleons
Chapter Twenty-four (The Americas and Oceania):
 Taino
 Viceroys
 Encomienda
 Las Castas
 Smallpox
 Silver Mining
 Conquistadores
 Mita
o Cortes
 Hacienda
o Pizarro
 Engenho
 Council of the Indies
Chapter Twenty-five (Africa and the Atlantic World):
 Portuguese slave
 Chattel slavery
 The Middle Passage
 Triangular trade
 Olaudah Equiano
Settler colonies in N.
 Fur trade
 Tobacco
 Mercantilism
 Indentured labor
 Impact of Catholicism
African Diaspora
9H Themes (Possible Essay Topics)
The AP World History course requires students to engage with the dynamics of continuity and
change across the historical periods that are included in the course. Students should be taught to
analyze the processes and causes involved in these continuities and changes. In order to
do so, students and teachers should focus on FIVE overarching themes which serve throughout
the course as unifying threads, helping students to put what is particular about each period or
society into a larger framework. The themes also provide ways to make comparisons over time
and facilitate cross-period questions. Each theme should receive approximately equal attention
over the course of the year.
Interaction between humans and the environment
Demography and disease
Patterns of settlement
Development and interaction of cultures
Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies
Science and technology
The arts and architecture
State-building, expansion, and conflict
Political structures and forms of governance
Nations and nationalism
Revolts and revolutions
Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations
Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems
Agricultural and pastoral production
Trade and commerce
Labor systems
Capitalism and socialism
Development and transformation of social structures
Gender roles and relations
Family and kinship
Racial and ethnic constructions
Social and economic classes
9H Habits of Mind
The AP World History course addresses habits of mind in two categories: (1) those addressed by any rigorous
history course, and (2) those addressed by a world history course.
Four habits of mind are in the first category:
Constructing and evaluating arguments: using evidence to make plausible arguments
Using documents and other primary data: developing the skills necessary to analyze point of view and
context, and to understand and interpret information
Assessing continuity and change over time and over different world regions
Understanding diversity of interpretations through analysis of context, point of view, and frame of
Five habits of mind are in the second category:
Seeing global patterns and processes over time and space while connecting local developments to
global ones
Comparing within and among societies, including comparing societies' reactions to global processes
Considering human commonalities and differences
Exploring claims of universal standards in relation to culturally diverse ideas
Exploring the persistent relevance of world history to contemporary developments
9H Key Concepts
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 BCE
 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
 Archaeological evidence indicates that during the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of
humans gradually migrated from their origin in East Africa to Eurasia, Australia and the
Americas, adapting their technology and cultures to new climate regions.
 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
 Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and
more complex economic and social systems.
 Agriculture and Pastoralism began to transform human societies.
 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies
 Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental
settings where agriculture flourished.
 The first states emerged within core civilizations.
 Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion,
myths and monumental art.
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 BCE to 600 CE
 The Development and Codification of religious and Cultural Traditions
 Codification and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among
the people and an ethical code to live by.
 New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
 Belief systems affected gender roles (such as Buddhism’s encouragement of a monastic life or
Confucianism’s emphasis on filial piety).
 Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written belief systems
in core civilizations.
 Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture and sculpture, show distinctive
cultural developments.
 The Development of States and Empires
 The number and size of imperial societies grew dramatically by imposing political unity on
areas where previously there had been competing states.
 Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the
success of earlier political forms.
 Imperial societies displayed unique social and economic dimensions.
 The Roman, Han, Maurya, and Gupta empires created political, cultural and administrative
difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse and
transformation into successor empires or states.
 Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange
 Land and water routes created transregional trade, communication and exchange networks in
the Eastern Hemisphere, while separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the
Americas somewhat later.
 New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange.
 Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs,
food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks
of communication and exchange.
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 CE to 1450 CE
 Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks
 Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of
trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.
 The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.
 Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing or the creation of new,
networks of trade and communication.
 There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere
along the trade routes.
 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions
 Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.
 Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant
technological and cultural transfers (for example, between Tang China and the Abbasids, across
the Mongol empires and during the Crusades).
 Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences
 Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.
 The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of
increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.
 Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were
also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversions on
gender relations and family life.
Period 4: Global Interactions, c. 1450 CE to c. 1750 CE
 Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange
 In the context of the new global circulation of goods, there was an intensification of all existing
regional trade networks that brought prosperity and economic disruption to the merchants and
governments in the trading regions of the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Sahara and overland
 European technological developments in cartography and navigation built on previous
developed in the classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds, and included the production of new tools,
innovations in ship designs, and an improved understanding of global wind and currents
patterns – all of which made transoceanic travel and trade possible.
 Remarkable new transoceanic maritime reconnaissance occurred in this period.
 The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal chartered European monopoly
companies that took silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for
the Atlantic markets, but regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-Eurasia by using
established commercial practices and new transoceanic shipping services developed by
European merchants.
 The new connections between the Eastern and Western hemispheres resulted in the Columbian
 The increase in interactions between newly connected hemispheres and intensification of
connections within hemispheres expanded the spread and reform of existing religions and
created syncretic belief systems and practices.
 As merchants’ profits increased and governments collected more taxes, funding for the visual
and performing arts, even for popular audiences, increased.
 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production
 Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed, plantations expanded, and demand for
labor increased. These changes both fed and responded to growing global demand for raw
materials and finished products.
 As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial and gender
 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
 Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power.
 Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons and armed trade to
establish large empires in both hemispheres.
 Competition over trade routes, state rivalries and local resistance all provided significant
challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
Middle East
Eastern Europe
Latin America
North America
East Asia
Southeast Asia
South Asia
Central Asia
Middle East
Latin America
North America
East Asia
Southeast Asia
South Asia
AP® World History Document-Based Question Scoring Guidelines
BASIC CORE (competence)
0–7 Points
1. Has an acceptable thesis.
 The thesis cannot be split and must be located in either the introductory paragraph
or the conclusion. It may be a number of contiguous sentences. It cannot simply
repeat the question.
 The thesis must explicitly answer the essay question as evidenced in the documents.
1 Point
2. Understands the basic meaning of documents. May misinterpret one document.
 Students must address all documents in the essay and demonstrate understanding
of the basic meaning of all (or all but one) documents.
1 Point
3. Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one document.
For 2 points:
 Evidence must be drawn from all (or all but one) documents and be connected to the thesis.
For 1 point:
 Evidence must be drawn from all but two documents and must be connected to the thesis.
2 Points
4. Analyzes point of view in at least two documents.
 Students must correctly analyze point of view in at least two documents.
o Point of view explains why this particular person might have this particular
opinion OR what particular feature informs the author’s point of view.
o Students must move beyond mere description of that individual by considering
and explaining the tone, the characteristics of the author, the intended audience
and/or how the intended outcome may have influenced the author’s opinion.
1 Point
5. Analyzes documents by grouping them in two or three ways, depending on the question.
 Students must explicitly group the documents in two or three ways that answer the essay
 A minimum of two documents constitutes a group or subgroup (students cannot receive
credit for both the larger group and the subgroups within it).
1 Point
6. Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document
or source.
 Students must identify an appropriate additional document or source and explain how
the document or source will contribute to their argument.
EXPANDED CORE (excellence)
The basic core score of 7 must be achieved before a student can earn expanded core points.
 Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis (well beyond the minimum acceptable thesis).
 Shows careful and insightful analysis of the documents (historical context or analyzes all).
 Analyzes point of view in most or all documents.
 Analyzes the documents in additional ways – groupings, comparisons, synthesis.
 Brings in relevant “outside” historical content.
1 Point
0–2 Points