(“Stwot.motortrned.com”) (“2013 Ford Fusion debuts along…”) THE HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF THE AUTOMOBILE CALEB WILSON NICOLAS HAMMANN 2/27/13 ENGL 1102 HISTORY OF AUTOMOBILE- FORD HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE-TOYOTA HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE- GM Luxurious THE MOTOR CITY- DETROIT, MICHIGAN Ford Motor Company World Headquarters Total Distance Apart: 11.5 miles General Motors World Headquarters (Maps.google.com) 1897 PRÄSIDENT Vehicle Information •Two cylinder engine • First factory produced car •Top speed of 19mph •Handlebar steering •Wood body •Steel frame •Semi- elliptical leaf springs (“1897 Tatra President First Car”) •Rear Benz engine placed in rear •Wagon wheels with rubber tires Interior •Four people steering •Luxurious interior (“Cars History”) Vehicle Information •Crank start (electric offered in 1919 $75.00 more) 1925 MODEL T • 22hp 4 cylinder engine •Lateral leaf spring suspension •Contracting bands in transmission and rear drum •Color Black (Dried quickly) •Two speed transmission changed by foot pedals •Throttle lever •Weight of 1,200 pounds (AutoCad.ws.com) Price: $300 Interior •Ammeter (Optional Speedometer) (“1908- 1927 Ford Model T”) 1930 BENTLEY SPEED SIX Vehicle Information •Straight six engine • 180bhp engine •Top speed of 84mph •Four speed transmission •Drum brakes •Semi- elliptical leaf springs •Front mounted engine •0-60 mph in fourteen seconds •Won numerous twenty four hours of Lemans (“Bentley Speed Six “Blue Train Special”) Interior •Very advanced •Steering wheel •Speedometer •Tachometer •Clock 1938 FORD TUDOR SEDAN Vehicle Information • 85hp V8 engine •Manual Transmission •Front independent suspension •Leaf springs in the rear •Four wheel drum brakes and handbrake (mechanical) •Spare tire inside •Weight of 2,445 pounds (“1938 FORD PRE 1950 DELUXE COUPE”) Interior Price: $695 •Speedometer •Fuel Gauge •Radio •Clock •Horn •Opening Windshield •Heater (optional) (“1938 Ford Lineup”) 1949 FORD TUDOR SEDAN Vehicle Information • 95hp V8 engine •Three speed and reverse on steering column •Front independent suspension •Rear leaf springs •Four wheel drum brakes and handbrake •Weight of 3,130 pounds •Gas, brake, and clutch pedals Interior (“Television History- The First 75 Years”) Price: $1,590 •Speedometer •Radio •Horn •Heater (“The 1949 Ford”) 1958 ASTON MARTIN DB4 Vehicle Information •Straight six engine 3.7 liter • 240hp •Aluminum body panels •Top speed of 139mph •Four speed manual •Steel frame •Four wheel discs •Four wheel coil springs, wishbone-front, trailing armsrear Interior •Leather seating •Four person seating •Tachometer •Speedometer (“Aston Martin DB4 GT”) Vehicle Information • 225hp V8 cylinder engine 1957 FORD THUNDERBIRD •Automatic or manual transmission (three speeds) •Front independent suspension (springs) •Rear leaf springs •Four wheel drum brakes hydraulic brakes and handbrake •Fourteen inch wheels •Fog lamps (“1957 Ford Thunderbird Production Numbers/Specifications”) •Weight of 3,134 pounds Price: $2,944 Interior •Two passengers seating •Power windows •Removable hardtop •Floor vents (“1957 Ford Thunderbird Production Numbers/Specifications”) 1966 LAMBORGHINI MIURA P400 S Vehicle Information • 370hp V12 engine •Five speed transmission •Front and rear independent suspension •Coil springs and antiroll bars •Mid engine •Top speed 177mph Interior •Two seats •Power windows •Floor mounted pedals •Multiple gauges (Lepotta.com) (“Lamborghini Miura P400 SV/J”) 1964 ½ FORD MUSTANG Vehicle Information •260 cubic inch V8 engine •Three speed automatic or four speed manual •Front independent suspension •Rear leaf springs •Hydraulic drum brakes •Fourteen inch wheels •Weight of 2,445 pounds •Coupe or convertible (“Pace Car White 1964 Mustang Indianapolis Pace Car Hardtop “) Price: $2,368 Interior •Bucket seats •AM/FM radio •Four passenger seating •Tachometer (optional) •Air Conditioning (optional) (Lamas) Vehicle Information •Inline four cylinder engine (170hp) 1973 BMW 2002 TURBO •Four speed gearbox •Front disc brakes •Front independent suspension •Weight of 2,225 pounds •Top speed of 130 mph •Saved BMW from bankruptcy •Fuel injected •Turbocharged Price: $6,600 (“2002 Turbo”) Interior •Four passenger seating •Spacious trunk •Speedometer •Tachometer •Simplistic interior Vehicle Information 1978 FORD PINTO •Four cylinder (88hp) or V6 engine (90hp) •Automatic or four speed manual •Rear wheel drive •Front independent suspension •Rear leaf springs •Disc front brakes (optional) and rear drum brakes •Coupe •Weight of 2,300 pounds •Aluminum wheels (“1978 Ford Pinto rear three quarter”) Interior Price: $2,511 •Bucket seats •Seat belts •Four passenger seating •Air conditioning •8 track player •Cigarette lighter •Rear window defogger (“1978 Pinto Options”) Vehicle Information 1980 AUDI QUATTRO •Straight five cylinder (197hp) •Five speed manual •All wheel drive (Quattro) •Front and rear independent suspension •Four wheel disc brakes •Top speed of 138 mph (Motortorque.com) •Weight of 2,843 pounds •Very successful rally car Interior •Five passenger seating •Leather interior (Carsdatabase.com) (“1980 Audi Quattro Specs”) Vehicle Information 1990 TAURUS SHO •V6 engine (220hp) •Five speed manual •Front wheel drive •Front and rear independent suspension •Vented disc brakes •Weight of 3,538 pounds •Antilock braking system Interior (“Your 50's, 60's, 70's, 80's and 90's Garage”) Price: $21,155 •Five passenger seating •Cruise Control •Tilt steering •Cassette player •Power door locks (“1990 Taurus SHO”) 1992 FERRARI 512 TR Vehicle Information •5 liter flat 12 cylinder •430 hp •Five speed manual •Top speed of 195 mph •Rear wheel drive •Independent front and rear suspension •Weight of 3,659 pounds •11/16 miles per gallon (Cardomain.com) Interior Price: $195,600 •Two passenger seating •Leather seating •Power door locks and power windows (“1992 Ferrari 512 TR performance analysis”) 2005 FORD FIVE HUNDRED Vehicle Information •V6 engine (203hp) •Automatic transmission •All wheel drive •Front and rear independent suspension •Four wheel disc brakes •Weight of 3,664 pounds •Four wheel ABS Interior (Edmunds.com) Price: $24,165 •Five passenger seating •Driver and passenger airbags with passenger sensing intelligence •Tinted glass •Delayed fade courtesy lights •Digital keypad power locks •Heat reflective glass (“2005 Ford Five Hundred”) 2008 ASTON MARTIN DBS Vehicle Information •5.9 liter, V12 engine •510hp •Top speed of 220 mph •Front engine and rear wheel drive •Six speed automatic or manual transmission •Weight of 3,737 pounds •Four wheel vented disc brakes Interior Price: $275,461 (“2008 Aston Martin DBS”) •Two passenger •Lightweight interior features •Climate control •High performance seats Vehicle Information 2013 FORD FUSION HYBRID •2.5 liter 170bhp, 2.0 Liter turbo 237 bhp and a 1.6 liter turbo 178 hp •Six speed automatic transmission •Front wheel drive or all wheel drive •4 wheel disc brakes vented front, solid rear •Weight of 3,681 pounds •Engine start/stop feature •34 Miles per gallon Interior (“2013 Ford Fusion debuts along…” ) Price: $21,900$41,120 (“2013 Ford Fusion Technical Specifications”) •My Ford Touch •Blind spot monitoring system •Voice activated navigation system •Auto high beams •Rain sensing wipers •Active park assist 2013 BUGATTI VEYRON SUPERSPORT Vehicle Information •W-16 eight liter and four turbochargers •1,200hp and a top speed of 268mph •Mid engine four wheel drive •Seven speed transmission •Weight of 4,052 pounds •10.2/2.9 miles per gallon •Carbon ceramic brakes Interior (“Bugatti Veyron Review”) Price: $2.7 million •Two passenger •Suede steering wheel •Rear view camera in mirror •Climate control •Heated seats (“Bugatti Veyron 16.4”) A Car History Timeline of the Ford Motor Company 1925 MODEL T 1978 FORD PINTO 1990 TAURUS SHO 1938 FORD TUDOR SEDAN 1949 FORD TUDOR SEDAN 1964 ½ FORD MUSTANG 1957 FORD THUNDERBIRD 2005 FORD FIVE HUNDRED 2013 FORD FUSION HYBRID A Car History Timeline for the World 1897 PRÄSIDENT 1980 AUDI QUATTRO 1992 FERRARI 512TR 1930 BENTLEY SPEED SIX 1973 BMW 2002 TURBO 2008 ASTON MARTIN DBS 1958 ASTON MARTIN DB4 1966 LAMBORGHINI MIURA P400 S 2013 BUGATTI VEYRON SUPERSPORT CAR POEM- THE FORD MODEL-T CHANGED OUR COUNTRY BY: RANDEE SABER They massed produced The Ford Model T An affordable car Yet a luxury The horse and carriage Would have to go It couldn’t keep up It was too slow Our country changed Just overnight People could travel And what a delight A burger and fries They’d take a ride Where it was once The countryside (“The Model T”) Gas was cheap No need to worry Unpaved roads They couldn't hurry Bridges were built With the interstate Cars traveled faster Less people would wait More and more cars Traffic congested On the highways Fumes ingested A new century Since Ford’s invention What’s in the future Is now the question (“Randee’s Poems “Rhyme or Reason”) MILES PER GALLON- ADVANCEMENTS Model T Average MPG 21 (Writedesignonline.com) Fusion Hybrid Average MPG 47 (“2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid”) (“Gas Price: We've Had It Good for a Long Time”) EVOLUTION OF AUTOMOBILE ADVERTISING Model T Advertisement (Nilsson) Ford Racing Advertisement (Wesduenkel.com) CAR FEATURES TIMELINE BY: NICOLAS HAMMANN (“Automobile Timeline”) HOW HAS THE AUTOMOBILE CHANGED THROUGH THE YEARS? Looking at the vehicles of today, they have navigation, televisions for kids, parking assistance, and even eight cylinder engines that at different points can run like a four cylinder, a lot has changed through time in the automotive world. The automobile has evolved in three different components safety, technology, and performance throughout the last 115 years. First off safety features, back in the early 1900’s cars had no antilock braking systems, or traction control, danger was even possible just starting the vehicle. If an individual did not start their Ford Model T properly it could kickback and break their arm. This danger was only in getting the vehicle started not including the dangers on the roadway. Many car features have made driving or operating a vehicle extremely safe. One important feature was the introduction of antilock braking systems. The first vehicle that offered antilock brakes was a 1971 Chrysler Imperial. The system sensed lockup in the tires and pulsed the brakes to still continue braking but to try and stop the lockup (Zenlea). This important safety feature is one that saves many lives in wet and snowy weather conditions. Seatbelts and airbags are equally important features that have made the vehicle extremely safe. Safety has changed through the years but so has the technology offered in the vehicles. If you look at the average vehicle on the roadway, it has automatic headlights, tire pressure monitoring systems, climate control and much more. Compare that to Henry Ford’s Model T where the only thing that the vehicle had besides performance oriented parts were headlights. Automobile technology has evolved at an exponential rate the last twenty years. For example, my 1997 Ford Contour has a radio, climate control, and power locks. A 2013 Cadillac ATS has all those features, plus tire pressure monitoring systems, navigation, backup camera, water sensing wipers, noise reducing radio, safety alert driver seating, heated seats, and a heated steering wheel (“The All-New Cadillac ATS”). This is an incredible amount of technology that was not offered in the late 1990’s. The vehicle has become more like a spaceship with all kinds of cool gadgets and devices compared to just a way of transportation. Another way the automobile has changed, is in its performance. Performance has greatly changed through the years. For example, Ford’s first car, the Model T, barely went forty miles per hour; compared to today’s cars where a four cylinder hybrid can hit one hundred miles per hour (Ford.com). Today cars for example can be both electric and gas, like the Ford Fusion Hybrid. Also vehicles today are fairly maintenance free. Cars can start in a wide temperature range due to fuel injection, and engines are much more advanced so that 200,000 miles on an engine is a normal thing. This is only a small portion of the amazing advancements in the performance of the automobile. The automobile has changed immensely from its very beginning with respect to safety, technology, and performance. Today when we ride in a vehicle we have no clue, what people used to call a Sunday drive in the 1920’s. Cars have changed exponentially the past few years and I look forward for what the future holds for the evolution of the automobile. By: Nicolas Hammann CAR PRICES THROUGH THE YEARS $35,000.00 Average Car Price $30,000.00 Cost in dollars $25,000.00 $20,000.00 Avg. Car Prices 1930-2010 $15,000.00 $10,000.00 $5,000.00 $0.00 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Sources: (“Average New-Car Purchases Prices Rises in 2010”) (“Comparison of Prices Over 70 Years”) 1930 $600.00 1940 $850.00 1950 $1,510.00 1960 $2,600.00 1970 $3,542.00 1980 $7,574.00 1990 $15,042.00 2000 $20,355.00 2010 $29,217.00 WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS??? Once upon a time Americans were sick of paying too much for gasoline, and the environmental protection agency was sick and tired of all the smog alerts and pollution in California. The Environmental Protection Agency acted out and told the California Air Protection Board that something needed to be done. The California Air Protection Board issued the ten percent policy in 2003. This meant that in 2003 at least ten percent of all cars sold had to have zero percent emissions. In response to these high demands on car companies to produce more fuel efficient cars, General Motors astounded the world by producing their own all electric car called the EV1 in 1990. This car was based off General Motor’s Saturn division. The first production of the EV1 occurred in 1997. Six hundred and fifty EV1’s were built and leased to California residents in 1997. These cars had all kinds of problems and issues from bad batteries to leaky windshields. General Motors decided to recall all the vehicles in 2000 and fix the (“EV1 Electric Car was CRUSHED by GM”) problems. After about fourteen months General Motors returned all the vehicles back to the designated owners. Every single EV1 produced had an owner that loved the car. The owners enjoyed driving the car and would buy the EV1 at the nearest opportunity. After the upgrade, the EV1 was able to travel two hundred miles on a single charge. General Motors produced more EV1’s in 1999. They had a few issues and were released to the public a little later than normal. These cars had a one hundred and sixty mile range. While GM was selling these EV1’s, Ford, Toyota and many other manufacturers were getting involved in the electric car industry in California as well. Toyota produced the electric RAV4-EV which could travel over one hundred miles on one charge. The 1999 EV1’s were the last electric cars produced before the California Air Protection Agency demolished the ten percent mandate. CARB gave in from outside pressure from oil companies, the federal government, and car companies, and demolished the ten percent policy. Car companies like General Motors responded demolishing their electric car program. General Motors did not let anyone re-lease their EV1. Instead General Motors took all the cars to Arizona and crushed every single one of them (“EV1 Electric Car was CRUSHED by GM”). This likeable car was destroyed by higher powers. 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