A2 PBIS 101 - NorthWest PBIS Network

PBIS 101
Teri Lewis
NW PBIS Network, Oregon Director
Goal of this Training
• Overview/Review of School-wide Positive Behavior
Support (SWPBS)
• Understand Core Features of PBIS
• Readiness for Implementation
• Action Planning for Roll Out
• How are you doing with Tier I?
• Successes
• Challenges
• Concerns
• Data sources
• TIC, ODR, SET, BoQ, …
• For any concerns or challenges, add an item to
your action plan
Tier I – Universal
• Emphasis will be placed on the processes, systems, &
organizational structures that are needed to enable the
accurate adoption, fluent use, & sustained application of
these practices.
• Importance of data based decision making, evidence
based practices, & on-going staff development & support
will be emphasized.
• To examine the features of a proactive systems approach
to preventing and responding to school-wide discipline
• Big Ideas
• Examples
Student Wellbeing
• One in five (20%) of students are in need
of some type of mental health service
during their school years, yet 70% of
these students do not receive services
(Surgeon General’s Report on Mental
Health, 2011)
• It is estimated that the number of students
being identified as having an
Emotional/Behavioral Disorder has
doubled in the last 30 years (US Dept of
Ed, 2007).
Impact of Behavior on
• More than 30% of our teachers will leave the
profession due to student discipline issues
and intolerable behavior of students (Public
Agenda, 2004).
• Student problem behavior can consume
more than 50% of teachers’ and
administrators’ time (U.S. Department of
Education, 2000).
The Challenge
• Exclusion and punishment are the most common
responses to conduct disorders in schools.
Lane & Murakami, (1987)
Rose, (1988)
Nieto, (1999)
Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, (2002)
• Punishing problem behaviors (without a proactive
support system) is associated with increases in (a)
aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping
• Mayer, 1995
• Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991
• Skiba & Peterson, 1999
• In one school year, Jason received 87
office discipline referrals.
• In one school year, a teacher processed
273 behavior incident reports.
• A middle school principal must teach classes when
teachers are absent, because substitute teachers refuse
to work in a school that is unsafe & lacks discipline.
• During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many
students that overflow is sent to counselor’s office. Most
students have been assigned for being in hallways after
the late bell.
Why are school important places for
• Regular, predictable, positive learning &
teaching environments
• Positive adult & peer models
• Regular positive reinforcement
• Academic & social behavior development &
Challenges to Implementation
(Kratochwill, Albers, & Steele Shernoff, 2004)
Primary focus on education
Lack of emphasis on prevention programs
Organization impedes collaboration, working as team
Lack of skills, training, resources
“Positive Behavior Support”
PBS is a broad range of systemic &
individualized strategies for achieving
important social & learning outcomes while
preventing problem behavior with all
“EBS” = “PBS” = “PBIS” etc.
Critical Features
High status leadership team
Active administrator participation
High priority in school improvement planning
Proactive (positive and preventive) systems approach
Data-based decision making
Continuum of behavior supports
Long term commitment
Research validated practices
Systems: To sustain
the implementation
Data: For
decision making
and doable
Emphasis on Prevention
• Primary
• Reduce new cases of problem behavior
• Secondary
• Reduce current cases of problem behavior
• Tertiary
• Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases
Why implement SWPBS?
Create a positive school culture:
School environment is predictable
common language and vision (understanding of expectations)
common experience (everyone knows)
School environment is positive
regular recognition for positive behavior
School environment is safe
violent and disruptive behavior is not tolerated
School environment is consistent
adults use similar expectations
School-wide & Classroom-wide Systems
Common purpose & approach to discipline
Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors
Procedures for teaching expected behavior
Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected
 Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate
 Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
Classroom Management Systems
 Behavior & classroom management
Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged
Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
Active supervision
Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors
Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
 Instructional management
 Selection
 Modification & design
 Presentation & delivery
 Environmental management
Specific Setting Systems
 Positive expectations & routines taught
& encouraged
 Active supervision by all staff
 Scan, move, interact
 Precorrections & reminders
 Positive reinforcement
Individual Student Systems
Behavioral competence at school & district levels
Function-based behavior support planning
Team- & data-based decision making
Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound
 Targeted social skills & self-management instruction
 Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations
Experimental Research on SWPBIS
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized
effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary
schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.
Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled
effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.
Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations
from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.
Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A
randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in
elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145.
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive
behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.
Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions
and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics.
Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and
Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of
Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156
Implementation Features
Establish PBIS leadership team
Secure SW agreements & supports
Establish data-based action plan
Arrange for high fidelity implementation
Conduct formative data-based monitoring
Working Smarter Matrix
Link to SIP
Increase % of students
attending daily
All students
Eric, Ellen,
Goal #2
Improve character
Improve character
All students
Marlee, J.S.,
Goal #3
Safety Committee
Improve safety
Predictable response to
Screened In
Has not met
Goal #3
School Spirit
Enhance school
Improve morale
All students
Has not met
Improve behavior
Decrease office
Bullies, antisocial
students, repeat
Ellen, Eric,
Marlee, Otis
Drug and Alcohol
Prevent drug use
Decrease Drug and
High/at-risk drug
Screened In
Behavior Work
Implement 3-tier
Decrease office
referrals, increase
attendance, enhance
academic engagement,
improve grades
All students
Eric, Ellen,
Marlee, Otis,
Goal #3
Goal #2
Goal #3
Schoolwide Social
• Guidelines
Identify 3-5 Expectations That:
• Desired Behaviors that Replace Your Problem
• Short, Positive Statements (what to do!)
• Easy to remember
• Consider the Culture of Community
• For all students, staff, parents and others who
come to your school
Be Responsible
Respect Yourself
Respect Others
Promoting: Pulling in the students
Behavior Matrix
• The behavior matrix identifies specific student
behavior across various school settings
• It establishes universal expectations to guide
all students and staff
• It provides the language for giving behavioral
feedback to students
• It uses positive statements
Kuleana: Be Responsible
Have lunch card ready
Be orderly in all lines
Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
Use proper table manners
Eat your own food
Laulima: Be Cooperative
Wait patiently/ quietly
Malama: Be Safe
Walk at all times
Wash hands
Chew food well; don’t rush
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Behavioral Errors
• More often occur because:
 Students do not have appropriate skills- “Skill Deficits”
 Students do not know when to use skills
 Students have not been taught specific
classroom procedures and routines
 Skills are not taught in context
Why Develop a System for
Teaching Behavior?
• Behaviors are prerequisites for
• Procedures and routines create structure
• Repetition is key to learning new skills:
• For a child to learn something new, it needs to
be repeated on average of 8 times
• For a child to unlearn an old behavior and
replace with a new behavior, the new behavior
must be repeated on average 28 times
A Comparison of Approaches
to Academic and Social Problems
We Assume:
• Student learned it wrong
• Student was (inadvertently)
taught it the wrong way
Next We:
• Diagnose the problem
• Identify the misrule/ reteach
• Adjust presentation. Focus on
the rule. Provide feedback.
Provide practice and review
Finally We Assume:
• Student has been taught skill
• Will perform correctly in future
We Assume:
• Student refuses to cooperate
• Student knows what is right and has
been told often
Next We:
• Provide a“punishment”
• Withdraw student from normal
social context
• Maintain student removal from
normal context
Finally We Assume:
• Student has“learned” lesson and
will behave in future
Colvin, 1988
Teaching Expectations
• Teach at the start of the year and review when needed
• Define and offer a rationale for each expectation
• Describe what the behavior looks like
• Actively involve students in discriminating between non-examples
and examples of the expectations
• Have students role play the expected behaviors
• Re-teach and Acknowledge
Source: Washbrun S., Burrello L., & Buckman S. (2001). Schoolwide behavioral support. Indiana University.
Creative Ideas: “Putting it into
• Provide lesson format for teachers/students
• Expand lesson plan ideas throughout the year
• Teach behaviors in settings where behaviors occur
• Have classes compete to come up with unique ideas (student
projects, bulletin boards, skits, songs, etc…)
• Recognize staff for creative activities
Encouraging Behavioral
• Build on positive person-to-person relationships
• Strive for a ratio of 6-8 positive interactions for every
1 negative interaction
• Label the behavior for which the positive
acknowledgement is intended
Focusing on the positives
generates positive outcomes
Buehlman & Gottman predicted whether 700 newlywed
couples would stay together or divorce by scoring their
positive and negative interactions in one 15-minute
conversation between each husband and wife. Ten years
later, the follow-up revealed that they had predicted
divorce with 93.6% accuracy.
1992 study (Buehlman, K., Gottman, J.M., & Katz, L.)
Every Child Needs a Champion
Eagle Tickets
Behavior Intervention
We developed a method of positively reinforcing expected
behaviors through the use of our “I Spy” pads.
Promoting: Pulling in the Community
Establish System for Rewarding
Behavioral Expectations
System for acknowledging student
Reminder for staff
Distributed with high rate of frequency
System for acknowledging staff
Are Rewards Dangerous?
“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews
and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is
that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our
analyses indicate that the argument against the use of
rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of
• Cameron, 2002
• Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002
• Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
Discouraging Problem
• Clearly defined problem and context
• e.g., hat in class, tardies, transitions, etc.
• Precorrection/preventive strategy
• for identified risk times or settings
• Consistent procedures
• e.g, all staff, settings, minor behaviors
• Teaching Opportunity
• focus on appropriate expectation
• Classroom
• Office Behavior
Manage minor (low
intensity/frequency) problem
behaviors positively & quickly
Signal occurrence
• State correct response
• Ask student to restate/show
• Acknowledge compliance
Office Discipline Referral
• Coherent system in place to collect office discipline referral
• Faculty and staff agree on categories
• Faculty and staff agree on process
• Office Discipline Referral Form includes needed information
Name, date, time
Problem Behavior and motivation
Behavior Intervention
We developed a method of positively reinforcing expected
behaviors through the use of our “I Spy” pads.
Establish System for Responding to
Behavioral Violations
 Staff and Administration agree on what
problems are office managed and what
problems are staff managed.
 Clearly defined and consistent consequences
and procedures for undesirable behaviors are
Moving Forward
• Resources
• www.pbis.org
• www.pbisnetwork.org
• www.pbisapps.org
• www.swis.org
Next Steps