Reparable Harm: Meeting the Needs of Long Term English Learners Laurie Olsen, Ph.D. [email protected] CDE Accountability Institute December 2012 English Learners “There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum…for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education…” Lau v. Nichols, Supreme Court Their double challenge – our legal responsibility “English learners cannot be permitted to incur irreparable academic deficits during the time in which they are mastering English” “School districts are obligated to address deficits as soon as possible, and to ensure that their schooling does not become a permanent deadend.” Building Block#1: Know who your English Learners are --the extent and magnitude of the LTEL issue in your schools III’s Forever Long Term English Learner The 1.5 Generation The 5 Plusers Protracted English Learners ESL Lifers Struggling Readers English Learner Typologies • Newly arrived with adequate schooling (including literacy in L1) • Newly arrived with interrupted formal schooling - “Underschooled” - “SIFE” • English Learners developing normatively (1-5 years) • Long Term English Learner Californians Together Survey (2010) • Data from 40 school districts • Data on 175,734 English Learners in grades 6 - 12 • This is 31% of California’s English Learners in grades 6 – 12 • Districts vary in EL enrollment, size and context Across all districts 59% of secondary school ELs are long term (103,635 in sample) ELs 6+ Differs significantly from district to district (21% - 96%) Definition: An English Learner in secondary schools who….. Has been continuously or cumulatively enrolled in US schools for 6+ years Not met reclassification critera Evidence of inadequate progress (e.g., slow, inadequate or stalled progress in English language development Is struggling academically (e.g., GPA of 2.0 or below; grades of D or F in two or more core classes) Action Steps • A formal definition of “EL Types” • Designated annual benchmark indicators/ expectations • A data system that can disaggregate achievement data by # of years in U.S. schools and by English proficiency levels • A calendar of regular reviews of LTEL data to inform and trigger planning AND to trigger supports for students Building Block #2: Understand the characteristics of “Long Term English Learners” Contributing Factors • • • • • • • • • • 3 of 4 spent at least two years in “no services” Trend has increased in past decade Weakest EL program models Inconsistent program placements Inconsistent implementation within programs Social segregation and linguistic isolation Transnational moves – transnational schooling Narrowed curriculum Core approaches inadequate Inappropriate interventions as solution Resulting in typical profile • Struggling academically (accumulated gaps), • Distinct language needs, basic social functioning English, stuck in progressing towards English proficiency, English dominant but very weak language The continuum: learning English as a second language 1 – years 3 years 7 – 10 LTELs STUCK HERE _______________________________________________________________________ No English I II Oral, social English III CELDT Proficient CST Basic IV V Proficient for Academic work Big discrepancy between CELDT Proficiency and Basic on CST/ELA Percent English Learners attaining these benchmarks statewide What is an AMAO? Annual Measurable Achievement Objective • AMAO #1 – progress towards English proficiency measured by CELDT levels (target 56%) • AMAO #2 – attainment of English proficiency which is defined as “CELDT proficient” (overall Early Advanced, no domain less than Intermediate) - (target: 45.1% those <5yrs) • AMAO #3 – academic performance in English measured by scoring proficient on CST in ELA and Math (target: 67%) Which levels on CELDT are meeting growth targets? % meeting growth target of 1 level State % meeting growth target of l level Beginning (I) 69% 64% Early Intermediate (II) Intermediate (III) 52% 60% 30% 37% Early Advanced (IV) Advanced (V) 42% 50% 70% 72% Typical profile: Behavior, attitudes • • • • • • • • Habits of non-engagement Silent Don’t ask questions or ask for help Tend not to complete homework or understand the steps needed to complete assignments Not readers Typically desire to go to college – high hopes and dreams but unaware of pathway to those dreams Do not know they are doing poorly academically – think they are English fluent Needs unrecognized, unaddressed Typical profile: Academics • Several grade levels below actual grade level in both English and L1 • Cumulative high school GPA is very low (D+ average) – credit deficient by end of 9th grade • More than one in five have F averages • Grade retention frequent • Gaps in academic background In secondary schools….. (from the Californians Together survey) • 3 of 4 districts have no approach to serving Long Term English Learners • Majority of CA districts place their Long Term English Learners into mainstream • Three CA districts place Long Term English Learners by English proficiency level with other English Learners (in NYC, this is the common placement) Typical program placements for English Learners Intensive or strategic interventions! SDAIE Still English Learner, but in Mainstream 1 – 3 years _______________________________________________________________________ No English I II Oral, social English III CELDT Proficient CST Basic IV V Proficient for Academic work Placements NOT designed for them….. • Placed/kept in classes with newcomer and normatively developing English Learners – by CELDT level • Unprepared teachers • No electives – and limited access to the full curriculum • Over-assigned and inadequately served in intervention and reading support classes For you to do….. • Be sure there is understanding about what constitutes sufficient English proficiency for academic access – clarify the terms • Check your AMAOs – for movement (#1) and for LTELs reaching CELDT Proficiency (#2b) • Analyze grades and GPAs • Analyze CELDT levels and growth/stagnation/loss • Shadow – check for engagement/ participation • Student Voice and surveys • Interventions designed FOR LTELs Building Block #3: Know the research and undo myths that lead to harmful practices New generation of research • National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth • California Department of Education: Research-based Practices for English Language Learners (commissioned papers) 1. Importance of rich oral language development • Producing language encourages learners to process language more deeply than just listening or receptive. • Verbal interaction is essential in the construction of knowledge • Oral language is the bridge to academic language and the development of literacy • It is not enough to teach reading skills alone to language minority students; extensive oral English development must be incorporated into successful literacy instruction So…… • Multiple and frequent structured opportunities for students to be engaged in producing oral language should be features of classroom instruction • The amount, type and quality of student talk that is generated is a mark of good instruction • Emphasize complex vocabulary development • Model rich, expressive, amplified oral language #2: Academic Language is essential • “Academic language” is different from social language, is discipline specific and takes longer to develop • Academic language and literacy for ELs develops most powerfully where background knowledge is also being built • Learning a second language for academic success requires explicit language development across the curriculum (ELD alone is not sufficient) SIMPLE, BASIC, FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE RICH, COMPLEX, PRECISE LANGUAGE SOCIAL CONTEXTS ACADEMIC CONTEXTS X X So……. • Identify key academic vocabulary and discourse patterns – and explicitly teach them • Monitor the rigor and complexity of the language used in text and instruction • Set a high bar for sophisticated, complex, precise language in both social and academic domains #3. Language develops in context • An enriched environment is important for stimulating language development and making language comprehensible for all English Learners • Academic language develops in the context of learning academic subjects. A strong EL program infuses intentional language development throughout the entire curriculum. So…… • Attention to the classroom environment • Intentional language development across the curriculum • Full curriculum – including rich science and social studies • Hands-on activities, realia, visuals provide context for learning language. 4. To access the curriculum, English Learners need specially designed instruction • Along the continuum, as they are developing English, an English Learner cannot access grade-level academic content without specially designed instruction and support. • The support that is needed differs depending on where along the continuum – pacing, questioning, activities, forms of participation, etc. need to be differentiated So…… • SDAIE strategies/differentiation is essential • Language objectives for content lessons based on analyzing the linguistic demands of the content • Identify key academic vocabulary and discourse patterns and explicitly teach them • Professional development related to making content accessible to English Learners • Home language support #5: ELD instruction can advance knowledge and use of English • Sequential, predictable steps along continuum from no English to English proficiency • Carefully planned, dedicated ELD instruction facilitates and accelerates movement towards proficiency • ELD instruction should emphasize listening and speaking, explicitly teach foundational elements of English • ELD instruction should continue at least through Early Advanced levels of proficiency These are related – but not the same – they need all three ELD instruction English Language Arts (scaffolded) Academic language across curriculum #6: Development of the home language is powerful – but neglected • The best foundation for literacy is a rich foundation in language - not necessarily in English, but in the language strongest for the child and his or her family. • Link between L1 reading ability and L2 reading ability is the most direct cross-linguistic relationship • Effects of L2 literacy are long-lasting and extend to performance on 8th grade assessments • Students have more extended and complex vocabulary and language skills if their home language is developed • 1st and 2nd language are interdependent - and they transfer; instruction in the first language facilitates proficiency in English. • English Learners make more academic progress when they have the opportunity to learn in both their home language and English • Systematic, deliberate exposure to English + ongoing development of L1 = highest achievement in both languages by end of 3rd grade and beyond. Does introducing native language instruction in secondary schools have benefit? The case for Native Language classes • Activates the language system facilitating meta-linguistic benefits • Bolsters English • Can increase college preparation and collegegoing rates • Develops skill with personal, family, labor market and societal benefits • Addresses identity and culture So…… • Home language instruction and development whenever possible to high levels of proficiency • Native speakers classes through Advanced Placement • Transfer focus and contrastive analysis • Parent education about the crucial role of developing the home language and what can be done at home to support that • Two-way/dual language programs if you can Action Steps • Know the research • Determine which aspects of the research are most important to make known at this point in to order to clarify myths/misconceptions that may be in the way of delivering a strong EL research-based program Building Block #4 Understand the implications of the Common Core Standards Old Paradigms then Learn English Academic content OR Academic vocabulary Language Academic Content New CCS Paradigm MATH SCIENCE language LANGUAGE ARTS • instructional discourse • express and understand reasoning Speaking and Listening Comprehension and Collaboration Day to day, purposeful academic talk one to one, small group and large group setting Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas Formal sharing of information and concepts, including through the use of technology for all students, across the curriculum Language focus across the curriculum • The CCSs call upon all academic content teachers to focus on academic vocabulary, oral language and discourse patterns that are essential for participation in academic work within their disciplines (Anchor standards: Language #1-5, Reading #4, Speaking and Listening #1, 4 & 6) Active engagement in collaboration • The CCSs recognize that students need to develop skills to collaborate in academic work – skills for teamwork, active and skillful participation in discussions, and inquiry-based collaboration. (Anchor standard: Speaking and Listening #1) Three converging forces Long Term English Learner Research The Common Core Standards English Learner Research Shared Imperative • More focus on structured, rich oral language • More focus on writing • More emphasis on language in and through social studies and science – a full academic curriculum • More focus on interaction, collaboration, discussion • More focus on academic vocabulary and discourse Building Block #5: Design Programs Recommendations • Acceleration, focus on distinct needs • Specialized ELD or LTEL language class • Clustered in heterogeneous classes mainstream academic classes with differentiated SDAIE strategies used • Explicit language/literacy development across the curriculum • Emphasis on engagement, oral language and academic language, study skills, rigor • Native speakers classes (through AP) The “LTEL” Course • 38 districts have created/adopted some kind course for LTELs in middle school and/or high school • Variety of “buckets” and intentions: ELD for LTELs; English support classes; academic language; academic intervention/support; SDAIE English for LTELs • Range of materials, programs, approaches drawn upon – and diverse combinations of components Four case studies • Tracy Unified School District: “ALAS” class paired with regular English class • Arroyo Valley High School (San Bernardino): schoolwide approach • Anaheim Union High School District: High school special ELD IV class; middle school support class • Ventura Unified School District: Multiple placement options Essential components • • • • • • • • • • Oral language Student Engagement Academic Language Expository text (reading and writing) plus other genres Consistent routines Goal Setting Empowering pedagogy Rigor Community and Relationships Study Skills Materials/Curriculum • Major challenge • Drawn from existing materials, added supplementary and created additional materials • Needs to be relevant, high interest, age appropriate • Needs to incorporate whole books • Curriculum explicitly provides opportunities for active engagement • Curriculum should touch on all essential components • Materials should align and connect to core academic courses New resources • English 3D • AVID Excel for Long Term English Learners (middle school) Structural Considerations • • • • Smaller class size More fluid pacing guide Dedicated LTEL class just for LTELs Attention to maximizing graduation credits and fulfillment of the A-G • Same teacher for dedicated LTEL class as for core English class (?) • Careful teacher selection/assignment Challenges and Lessons Learned • It’s complex, requires time, collaborative effort and resources • MUST address motivation and re-engaging • Everyone has to understand purpose of class • Begin with and keep data in forefront • Provide professional development and support for teachers • Build leadership and infrastructure at the site and district Language development across the curriculum • Attention to the language demands of academic subjects • Use of language objectives to focus instruction for ELs • Use of “scaffolds” to bolster comprehension and access to content (e.g., visuals, primary language resources, graphic organizers) • SIOP, Constructing Meaning, GLAD, ELLA, SDAIE strategies Case Examples Ventura Unified School District Modesto City Schools Anaheim Union High School District El Monte School Districts Ventura: A District Action Plan • Title III Improvement Plan “Operation Prevent LTELs” • ELD/ELL course sequence rewritten • Clear placement criteria for all courses • Appropriate curriculum and technology • Pacing guides and assessment routines • Common sequence of language functions for ELD K-5 Investment in • • • • • • Intensive professional development PLCs across academic content areas Bilingual Opportunities Pathway Program Multilingual Recognition Awards Student Pep Talks Administrative and leadership structures to keep issue on table and to maintain accountability Ventura Unified School District Results so far…. • Substantial increase in reclassification rates at pilot high schools (from 14% to 20.9% compared to district average 9.1% - 9.5%) • Improved growth on CELDT (from 44.9% moving 1 level to 60.9%; from 22.2% achieving proficiency to 26.8%) Increase in LTEL scoring “Proficient” 2007 2008 2008 - 2009 Language Arts Math Language Arts Math 8.7% 17.4% 25% 32.7% Pilot 11.3% School B 33.3% 17.5% 33.3% Pilot School A Modesto City Schools • K-8 and 9-12 Districts Title I and Title III Program Improvement Status Year 5 • Established a Working Group (representative) • One year to “study” and develop recommendations • Investment in implementing plan 66 Who are our English Learners? # Years in US School 2008 - 2009 Grades 7-12 Language Institute Tier I Tier II 1 2 (92) 3% Tier III Tier IV 3 4 (178) 7% 5+ Program 5 Or more (2,344) 90% 67 5+ Program 9th Grade Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Course ELA READ 180 OR READ 180 ALD Spanish for Spanish Speakers Math Earth Science PE Elective (A-G) : Visual Performing Arts, Support, or AVID NOTE: World Religions/Health classes in summer school or senior year. Computers in any four years, summer school, or test out 68 Differentiated placement in 9th gr. • 2 period block of Read 180, using L book by Kate Kinsella (accepted as ELD) with a bilingual paraprofessional (for students who are really intensive and struggling at all levels academically) – for Freshman year only • High end of Below Basic/low Basic ELA + ALD • Advanced or Proficient on ELA-CST opt out of ALD and are monitored Anaheim Union High School District • Commitment to a broad, full 21st century curriculum (decrease placements in support classes, CAHSEE prep classes, etc.; no more double blocking; institute 2 science/social studies at junior h.s.; build career technical education – industry pathways) • Literacy and language across curriculum • Biliteracy as a 21st century skill In two years…. “Takes a 3-5 year commitment” • API has gone up 31 points • Reclassification has increased • Higher English Learner 10th grade CAHSEE passage rates El Monte districts • 2 elementary districts + 1 high school district • “Expectations” and commitment in common • Summer programs – thematic instruction, science and social studies based, intensive language development • Mentoring • Investment in professional development for content area teachers • ELA/ELD Articulation across the districts • New ELD/ALD courses and materials Action Steps • Fact finding • District EL Master Plan describes research-based program models for different typologies of EL students (or site) • Specific LTEL program and placements • Support development of new courses • Provide materials and professional development – as high priority for use of resources • System of monitoring placements • Mechanisms to change status of L1 and promote biliteracy Because without the power of language, they do not have a voice!