22_Addressing LTEL Handout Accountability

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Reparable Harm:
Meeting the Needs of Long Term
English Learners
Laurie Olsen, Ph.D.
[email protected]
CDE Accountability Institute
December 2012
English Learners
“There is no equality of treatment merely
by providing students with the same
facilities, textbooks, teachers and
curriculum…for students who do not
understand English are effectively
foreclosed from any meaningful
education…”
Lau v. Nichols, Supreme Court
Their double challenge – our legal
responsibility
“English learners cannot be permitted to
incur irreparable academic deficits during
the time in which they are mastering
English”
“School districts are obligated to address
deficits as soon as possible, and to ensure
that their schooling does not become a
permanent deadend.”
Building Block#1:
Know who your English Learners
are --the extent and magnitude
of the LTEL issue in your schools
III’s Forever
Long Term English
Learner
The 1.5 Generation
The 5
Plusers
Protracted English
Learners
ESL Lifers
Struggling Readers
English Learner Typologies
• Newly arrived with adequate schooling
(including literacy in L1)
• Newly arrived with interrupted formal
schooling - “Underschooled” - “SIFE”
• English Learners developing normatively (1-5
years)
• Long Term English Learner
Californians Together Survey (2010)
• Data from 40 school districts
• Data on 175,734 English Learners in
grades 6 - 12
• This is 31% of California’s English
Learners in grades 6 – 12
• Districts vary in EL enrollment, size
and context
Across all districts
59% of secondary school ELs are long term
(103,635 in sample)
ELs 6+
Differs significantly from district to district (21% - 96%)
Definition:
An English Learner in secondary schools who…..
Has been continuously or cumulatively enrolled in
US schools for 6+ years
Not met reclassification critera
Evidence of inadequate progress (e.g., slow,
inadequate or stalled progress in English language
development
Is struggling academically (e.g., GPA of 2.0 or
below; grades of D or F in two or more core classes)
Action Steps

• A formal definition of “EL Types”
• Designated annual benchmark indicators/
expectations
• A data system that can disaggregate
achievement data by # of years in U.S. schools
and by English proficiency levels
• A calendar of regular reviews of LTEL data to
inform and trigger planning AND to trigger
supports for students
Building Block #2:
Understand the characteristics of
“Long Term English Learners”
Contributing Factors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3 of 4 spent at least two years in “no services”
Trend has increased in past decade
Weakest EL program models
Inconsistent program placements
Inconsistent implementation within programs
Social segregation and linguistic isolation
Transnational moves – transnational schooling
Narrowed curriculum
Core approaches inadequate
Inappropriate interventions as solution
Resulting in typical profile
• Struggling academically (accumulated gaps),
• Distinct language needs, basic social
functioning English, stuck in progressing
towards English proficiency, English dominant
but very weak language
The continuum:
learning English as a second language
1
–
years
3 years
7 – 10
LTELs STUCK HERE
_______________________________________________________________________
No English
I
II
Oral,
social
English
III
CELDT
Proficient
CST Basic
IV
V
Proficient
for
Academic
work
Big discrepancy between CELDT Proficiency
and Basic on CST/ELA
Percent English Learners attaining these benchmarks statewide
What is an AMAO?
Annual Measurable Achievement Objective
• AMAO #1 – progress towards English proficiency
measured by CELDT levels (target 56%)
• AMAO #2 – attainment of English proficiency
which is defined as “CELDT proficient” (overall
Early Advanced, no domain less than
Intermediate) - (target: 45.1% those <5yrs)
• AMAO #3 – academic performance in English
measured by scoring proficient on CST in ELA and
Math (target: 67%)
Which levels on CELDT are meeting
growth targets?
% meeting growth
target of 1 level
State % meeting growth
target of l level
Beginning (I)
69%
64%
Early
Intermediate (II)
Intermediate (III)
52%
60%
30%
37%
Early Advanced
(IV)
Advanced (V)
42%
50%
70%
72%
Typical profile: Behavior, attitudes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Habits of non-engagement
Silent
Don’t ask questions or ask for help
Tend not to complete homework or understand
the steps needed to complete assignments
Not readers
Typically desire to go to college – high hopes and
dreams but unaware of pathway to those dreams
Do not know they are doing poorly academically
– think they are English fluent
Needs unrecognized, unaddressed
Typical profile: Academics
• Several grade levels below actual grade level
in both English and L1
• Cumulative high school GPA is very low (D+
average) – credit deficient by end of 9th grade
• More than one in five have F averages
• Grade retention frequent
• Gaps in academic background
In secondary schools….. (from the
Californians Together survey)
• 3 of 4 districts have no approach to serving
Long Term English Learners
• Majority of CA districts place their Long Term
English Learners into mainstream
• Three CA districts place Long Term English
Learners by English proficiency level with
other English Learners (in NYC, this is the
common placement)
Typical program placements
for English Learners
Intensive or strategic interventions!
SDAIE
Still English Learner, but in Mainstream
1 –
3 years





_______________________________________________________________________
No English
I
II
Oral,
social
English
III
CELDT
Proficient
CST Basic
IV
V
Proficient
for
Academic
work
Placements NOT designed for them…..
• Placed/kept in classes with newcomer and
normatively developing English Learners – by
CELDT level
• Unprepared teachers
• No electives – and limited access to the full
curriculum
• Over-assigned and inadequately served in
intervention and reading support classes
For you to do…..
• Be sure there is understanding about what
constitutes sufficient English proficiency for
academic access – clarify the terms
• Check your AMAOs – for movement (#1) and for
LTELs reaching CELDT Proficiency (#2b)
• Analyze grades and GPAs
• Analyze CELDT levels and growth/stagnation/loss
• Shadow – check for engagement/ participation
• Student Voice and surveys
• Interventions designed FOR LTELs
Building Block #3:
Know the research and
undo myths that lead to harmful
practices
New generation of research
• National Literacy Panel on Language Minority
Children and Youth
• California Department of Education:
Research-based Practices for English Language
Learners (commissioned papers)
1.
Importance of rich oral language
development
• Producing language encourages learners to
process language more deeply than just listening
or receptive.
• Verbal interaction is essential in the construction
of knowledge
• Oral language is the bridge to academic language
and the development of literacy
• It is not enough to teach reading skills alone to
language minority students; extensive oral
English development must be incorporated into
successful literacy instruction
So……
• Multiple and frequent structured
opportunities for students to be engaged in
producing oral language should be features of
classroom instruction
• The amount, type and quality of student talk
that is generated is a mark of good instruction
• Emphasize complex vocabulary development
• Model rich, expressive, amplified oral
language
#2: Academic Language is
essential
• “Academic language” is different from social
language, is discipline specific and takes
longer to develop
• Academic language and literacy for ELs
develops most powerfully where background
knowledge is also being built
• Learning a second language for academic
success requires explicit language
development across the curriculum (ELD alone
is not sufficient)
SIMPLE,
BASIC,
FUNCTIONAL
LANGUAGE
RICH,
COMPLEX,
PRECISE
LANGUAGE
SOCIAL
CONTEXTS
ACADEMIC
CONTEXTS


X
X
So…….
• Identify key academic vocabulary and
discourse patterns – and explicitly teach them
• Monitor the rigor and complexity of the
language used in text and instruction
• Set a high bar for sophisticated, complex,
precise language in both social and academic
domains
#3.
Language develops in context
• An enriched environment is important for
stimulating language development and
making language comprehensible for all
English Learners
• Academic language develops in the context of
learning academic subjects. A strong EL
program infuses intentional language
development throughout the entire
curriculum.
So……
• Attention to the classroom environment
• Intentional language development across the
curriculum
• Full curriculum – including rich science and
social studies
• Hands-on activities, realia, visuals provide
context for learning language.
4. To access the curriculum, English
Learners need specially designed
instruction
• Along the continuum, as they are developing
English, an English Learner cannot access
grade-level academic content without
specially designed instruction and support.
• The support that is needed differs depending
on where along the continuum – pacing,
questioning, activities, forms of participation,
etc. need to be differentiated
So……
• SDAIE strategies/differentiation is essential
• Language objectives for content lessons based
on analyzing the linguistic demands of the
content
• Identify key academic vocabulary and
discourse patterns and explicitly teach them
• Professional development related to making
content accessible to English Learners
• Home language support
#5: ELD instruction can advance
knowledge and use of English
• Sequential, predictable steps along continuum
from no English to English proficiency
• Carefully planned, dedicated ELD instruction
facilitates and accelerates movement towards
proficiency
• ELD instruction should emphasize listening and
speaking, explicitly teach foundational elements
of English
• ELD instruction should continue at least through
Early Advanced levels of proficiency
These are related – but not the same –
they need all three
ELD
instruction
English
Language
Arts
(scaffolded)
Academic
language across
curriculum
#6: Development of the home language is
powerful – but neglected
• The best foundation for literacy is a rich
foundation in language - not necessarily in
English, but in the language strongest for the
child and his or her family.
• Link between L1 reading ability and L2 reading
ability is the most direct cross-linguistic
relationship
• Effects of L2 literacy are long-lasting and
extend to performance on 8th grade
assessments
• Students have more extended and complex
vocabulary and language skills if their home
language is developed
• 1st and 2nd language are interdependent - and
they transfer; instruction in the first language
facilitates proficiency in English.
• English Learners make more academic
progress when they have the opportunity to
learn in both their home language and English
• Systematic, deliberate exposure to English +
ongoing development of L1 = highest
achievement in both languages by end of 3rd
grade and beyond.
Does introducing native language instruction in
secondary schools have benefit?
The case for Native Language classes
• Activates the language system facilitating
meta-linguistic benefits
• Bolsters English
• Can increase college preparation and collegegoing rates
• Develops skill with personal, family, labor
market and societal benefits
• Addresses identity and culture
So……
• Home language instruction and development
whenever possible to high levels of proficiency
• Native speakers classes through Advanced
Placement
• Transfer focus and contrastive analysis
• Parent education about the crucial role of
developing the home language and what can
be done at home to support that
• Two-way/dual language programs if you can
Action Steps

• Know the research
• Determine which aspects of the research are
most important to make known at this point in
to order to clarify myths/misconceptions that
may be in the way of delivering a strong EL
research-based program
Building Block #4
Understand the implications of the
Common Core Standards
Old Paradigms
then
Learn English
Academic
content
OR
Academic vocabulary
Language
Academic
Content
New CCS Paradigm
MATH
SCIENCE
language
LANGUAGE ARTS
• instructional
discourse
• express and
understand reasoning
Speaking and Listening
 Comprehension and Collaboration
Day to day, purposeful academic talk one to one,
small group and large group setting
 Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Formal sharing of information and concepts,
including through the use of technology
for all students, across the curriculum
Language focus across the curriculum
• The CCSs call upon all academic content teachers
to focus on academic vocabulary, oral language
and discourse patterns that are essential for
participation in academic work within their
disciplines
(Anchor standards: Language #1-5,
Reading #4, Speaking and Listening #1,
4 & 6)
Active engagement in collaboration
• The CCSs recognize that students need to
develop skills to collaborate in academic work
– skills for teamwork, active and skillful
participation in discussions, and inquiry-based
collaboration.
(Anchor standard: Speaking and
Listening #1)
Three converging forces
Long Term
English
Learner
Research
The Common
Core
Standards
English Learner
Research
Shared Imperative
• More focus on structured, rich oral language
• More focus on writing
• More emphasis on language in and through
social studies and science – a full academic
curriculum
• More focus on interaction, collaboration,
discussion
• More focus on academic vocabulary and
discourse
Building Block #5:
Design Programs
Recommendations
• Acceleration, focus on distinct needs
• Specialized ELD or LTEL language class
• Clustered in heterogeneous classes
mainstream academic classes with
differentiated SDAIE strategies used
• Explicit language/literacy development across
the curriculum
• Emphasis on engagement, oral language and
academic language, study skills, rigor
• Native speakers classes (through AP)
The “LTEL” Course
• 38 districts have created/adopted some kind
course for LTELs in middle school and/or high
school
• Variety of “buckets” and intentions: ELD for
LTELs; English support classes; academic
language; academic intervention/support; SDAIE
English for LTELs
• Range of materials, programs, approaches drawn
upon – and diverse combinations of components
Four case studies
• Tracy Unified School District: “ALAS” class
paired with regular English class
• Arroyo Valley High School (San Bernardino):
schoolwide approach
• Anaheim Union High School District: High
school special ELD IV class; middle school
support class
• Ventura Unified School District: Multiple
placement options
Essential components
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oral language
Student Engagement
Academic Language
Expository text (reading and writing) plus other
genres
Consistent routines
Goal Setting
Empowering pedagogy
Rigor
Community and Relationships
Study Skills
Materials/Curriculum
• Major challenge
• Drawn from existing materials, added
supplementary and created additional materials
• Needs to be relevant, high interest, age
appropriate
• Needs to incorporate whole books
• Curriculum explicitly provides opportunities for
active engagement
• Curriculum should touch on all essential
components
• Materials should align and connect to core
academic courses
New resources
• English 3D
• AVID Excel for Long Term English Learners
(middle school)
Structural Considerations
•
•
•
•
Smaller class size
More fluid pacing guide
Dedicated LTEL class just for LTELs
Attention to maximizing graduation credits
and fulfillment of the A-G
• Same teacher for dedicated LTEL class as for
core English class (?)
• Careful teacher selection/assignment
Challenges and Lessons Learned
• It’s complex, requires time, collaborative effort
and resources
• MUST address motivation and re-engaging
• Everyone has to understand purpose of class
• Begin with and keep data in forefront
• Provide professional development and support
for teachers
• Build leadership and infrastructure at the site and
district
Language development across the
curriculum
• Attention to the language demands of
academic subjects
• Use of language objectives to focus instruction
for ELs
• Use of “scaffolds” to bolster comprehension
and access to content (e.g., visuals, primary
language resources, graphic organizers)
• SIOP, Constructing Meaning, GLAD, ELLA,
SDAIE strategies
Case Examples
Ventura Unified School District
Modesto City Schools
Anaheim Union High School District
El Monte School Districts
Ventura: A District Action Plan
• Title III Improvement Plan “Operation
Prevent LTELs”
• ELD/ELL course sequence rewritten
• Clear placement criteria for all courses
• Appropriate curriculum and technology
• Pacing guides and assessment routines
• Common sequence of language functions for
ELD K-5
Investment in
•
•
•
•
•
•
Intensive professional development
PLCs across academic content areas
Bilingual Opportunities Pathway Program
Multilingual Recognition Awards
Student Pep Talks
Administrative and leadership structures to
keep issue on table and to maintain
accountability
Ventura Unified School District
Results so far….
• Substantial increase in reclassification rates at
pilot high schools (from 14% to 20.9% compared to district average 9.1% - 9.5%)
• Improved growth on CELDT (from 44.9%
moving 1 level to 60.9%; from 22.2% achieving
proficiency to 26.8%)
Increase in LTEL scoring “Proficient”
2007
2008
2008
-
2009
Language Arts
Math
Language Arts
Math
8.7%
17.4%
25%
32.7%
Pilot
11.3%
School B
33.3%
17.5%
33.3%
Pilot
School A
Modesto City Schools
• K-8 and 9-12 Districts
Title I and Title III Program Improvement Status
Year 5
• Established a Working Group (representative)
• One year to “study” and develop
recommendations
• Investment in implementing plan
66
Who are our English Learners?
# Years in
US School
2008 - 2009
Grades 7-12
Language Institute
Tier I
Tier II
1
2
(92)
3%
Tier III
Tier IV
3
4
(178)
7%
5+ Program
5
Or more
(2,344) 90%
67
5+ Program
9th Grade
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Course
ELA
READ 180
OR READ 180
ALD
Spanish for Spanish Speakers
Math
Earth Science
PE
Elective (A-G) : Visual
Performing Arts, Support, or
AVID
NOTE:
World Religions/Health
classes in summer
school or senior year.
Computers in any four
years, summer school,
or test out
68
Differentiated placement in 9th gr.
• 2 period block of Read 180, using L book by
Kate Kinsella (accepted as ELD) with a bilingual
paraprofessional (for students who are really
intensive and struggling at all levels
academically) – for Freshman year only
• High end of Below Basic/low Basic 
ELA + ALD
• Advanced or Proficient on ELA-CST 
opt out of ALD and are monitored
Anaheim Union High School District
• Commitment to a broad, full 21st century
curriculum (decrease placements in support
classes, CAHSEE prep classes, etc.; no more
double blocking; institute 2 science/social
studies at junior h.s.; build career technical
education – industry pathways)
• Literacy and language across curriculum
• Biliteracy as a 21st century skill
In two years….
“Takes a 3-5 year commitment”
• API has gone up 31 points
• Reclassification has increased
• Higher English Learner 10th grade CAHSEE
passage rates
El Monte districts
• 2 elementary districts + 1 high school district
• “Expectations” and commitment in common
• Summer programs – thematic instruction, science
and social studies based, intensive language
development
• Mentoring
• Investment in professional development for
content area teachers
• ELA/ELD Articulation across the districts
• New ELD/ALD courses and materials
Action Steps

• Fact finding
• District EL Master Plan describes research-based
program models for different typologies of EL
students (or site)
• Specific LTEL program and placements
• Support development of new courses
• Provide materials and professional development
– as high priority for use of resources
• System of monitoring placements
• Mechanisms to change status of L1 and promote
biliteracy
Because without the power of
language, they do not have a
voice!
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