Trench Warfare in World War I Trench Structure • Protected by barb wire fences 5 feet high • Concrete machine gun nests • Trench’s on each side were separated by a strip of land known as “no-man’s land” Tactics of Trench Warfare • Begin with artillery to flatten the enemy’s barbed wire • Mass of soldiers would climb out with bayonets and run toward the enemy’s trench • Men were often killed charging the enemy trench • Planes were mostly used to spot the enemy’s position Horrors of Trench Warfare • Poisonous gases like chlorine and mustard were used – Blindness, burns, and paralysis. • Most trenches were infested with large rats and lice Horrors cont’d • Many soldiers suffered from a fungal infection known as Trench foot – Caused feet to swell to two to three times their normal size – Could result in amputation of the feet • Many suffered from “Shell Shock,” which today would be called Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Some men had psychological breakdowns leading to suicide and desertion Questions to consider… • If your country is at war, whose responsibility is it to make sure that your side is winning? • What do civilians at home have to do? – Would they be willing to give up certain foods? To drive their cars less? • American citizens were expected to do these things for their country World War I: The Home Front Propaganda • Governments use propaganda to gain support from the people • In World War I it was used to… – Convince people to go to war – To get men to join the military – To get people to invest money in the government – To get people to ration food Examples • Look at the posters and be able to answer the following questions: – What is the poster about? – What is the poster trying to convince people to do? – Who, exactly, is the poster appealing to? – Is the poster effective? • 1) What is the poster about? • 2) What is the poster trying to convince people to do? • 3) Is the poster convincing? Why or why not? What are the characteristics of these propaganda posters? • • • • They have a CLEAR MESSAGE They are colorful and appealing They appeal to people’s sense of DUTY They are convincing Break into partners… • You and your partner are government officials during World War I • It is your job to design a propaganda poster advertising one of the following issues – Using less food – Saving energy (gasoline and coal) – Joining the military • Remember the four characteristics of propaganda poster!