Chapter 11 Motivation

Chapter 11
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The Meaning and Patterns of
 Motivation
deals with the explanation of why
people do the things they do.
 The motivational patterns are evident in human
 Direction of decisions.
 Persistence.
 Intensity.
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The Extrinsic-Intrinsic Debate
 There
are two major approaches to motivation:
Extrinsic views (behaviorist approach)—people
are motivated by external rewards and
punishments; this is also called the carrot and stick
 Intrinsic views (cognitive or humanist approach)—
people are motivated by internal capacities, such as
aspirations, perceptions, attitudes, or thoughts that
can be motivating or demotivating.
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Individual and Group Motivation
When individuals act in an organization, they act as
members of a group.
 Groups are dynamic social systems that establish
interdependent relationships between and among
 These dynamics give rise to basic assumptions and
values that are the essence of group climate and
culture (see Chapter 6).
 Group norms have the power to motivate or
demotivate people.
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The Western Electric Studies Revisited
These studies are also called the Hawthorne
Studies (from the Hawthorne plant of Western
 The term Hawthorne effect comes from these
 Hawthorne effect is defined as a direct
relationship between behavior and psychological
phenomena caused by unusual conditions in
which people may be placed.
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The Relay Inspection Group Studies
The experimental group was consulted on changes in
the work environment.
 Output rose even though working conditions returned
to earlier circumstances.
 Findings included:
The workers were involved in the new form of supervision
in which their opinions mattered.
The group had been transformed by this experience and
developed a distinctive esprit.
They were empowered through participative decision
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Impact of the Studies
Many misread the results of these studies when
applying them to organizations. The Hawthorne effect
does not simply mean that if you pay attention to
someone and change conditions, their motivation will
 The Hawthorne experiments resulted in motivated
employees through participative leadership in which
people were part of a team that made important
decisions for the organization.
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Individual Differences
 Leaders
must understand and accept diversity
between and among people in a nonjudgmental way. This means that leaders create
environments that:
Foster and enhance growth and development of
participants in terms of their own perceptions,
needs, aspirations, etc.
 Accept the fact that not only do individuals differ,
but that this diversity can be a source of great
strength to the organization.
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Human Intelligence
Howard Gardner explained that there are several
kinds of intelligence that are independent of one
another (see Chapter 2).
 William James and Sigmund Freud met in the US in
1909 and agreed on the importance of the individual,
his/her personality, growth and fate.
 Carl Jung, as student of Freud broke with Freud to
suggest that motivation varied among people. His
work laid the foundations for the concept of
personality types.
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Four Basic Dimensions of Human
 Carl
Jung indicated that three dimension
 Sensation-intuition.
 Thinking-feeling.
 Myers
and Briggs added:
 Myers
and Briggs developed the Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator instrument (MBTI).
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 About
75% of the population is thought to
have extraverted attitudes.
Westerns culture tends to sanction the outgoing,
sociable and gregarious.
 Many non-Western cultures are more supportive of
those who turn their energy inward.
 Individuals
are not either-or in terms of being
introverts or extraverts. This is a dimension in
which individuals are on a continuum, mostly
one, but may have qualities of the other.
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Individuals are either one or the other.
 Individuals who use sensation must gather
information from their senses.
 Whereas, people who are intuition perceive the world
through the unconscious.
 These two different types may have trouble
empathizing with one another.
The sensing person is detail-oriented.
The intuitive person will not worry about the facts so much,
and be impatient with others who do.
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Cognitive Views of Motivation
John Atkinson views motivation as driven by two
The desire to achieve success (n Achievement or n Ach).
The desire to avoid failure.
In some circumstances, low n Ach individuals may
become highly competitive, i.e., those who seek to
avoid failure can be highly motivated.
 Ferdinand Hoppe’s work with Kurt Lewin focused on
self confidence.
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Cognitive Views of Motivation (continued)
 David
McClelland (The Achieving Society)
took these ideas a step further indicating that
high n Ach people contribute to economic
 He believed high n Ach can be taught in home
and school through attitudes, skills, and habits.
 He expanded Max Weber’s ideas from The
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
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Cognitive Views of Motivation (continued)
Matina Horner’s work demonstrated that women
were different than men in motivation, and she added
a third form of motivation: fear of success.
 She believed this to be based on fear of losing the
social/cultural norm of femininity.
 This is not just a female issue, as men are also
motivated by fear of success, e.g., bright students
may not want to appear to be successful by being
singled out as a high achiever.
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The Humanistic Perspective
 Abraham
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
Basic Physiological Needs: food, water, shelter.
 Security and Safety: physical and financial.
 Social Affiliation: love, belonging, acceptance.
 Esteem: self-esteem and recognition.
 Self-actualization: self-fulfillment.
 Prepotency:
one cannot be motivated by a
higher need until the lower needs are met.
 See Figure 11.2.
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Application to Work Motivation
 Lyman
Porter adapted Maslow’s theory to the
 He added Autonomy, or the need for
individuals to be involved in making decisions
that affect him or her.
 Porter and others were interested in how
individuals in jobs experienced either:
Need satisfaction.
 Need deficiency.
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Application to Work Motivation
Thomas Sergiovanni led studies that found teachers,
as a group, had satisfied lower-order needs. They
were ready to respond to higher-order needs.
 Younger teachers were most concerned with esteem.
 Older teachers’ levels of aspiration dropped since
they become resigned to things as they are.
 Application of these finding would indicate that job
security, salary, or benefits have little likelihood of
motivating teachers, but fulfilling higher-order needs
would be motivating.
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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivational Factors: these can lead to satisfaction.
Maintenance Factors: these are required to be
satisfied before motivational factors can work, and
lack of which can lead to job dissatisfaction.
On a continuum from satisfaction to no satisfaction (but not
necessarily dissatisfied).
On a continuum from no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction
(but not necessarily satisfied).
See Figure 11.3.
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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation (continued)
 Maintenance
Factors (dissatisfiers; originally
called hygiene factors):
e.g.: work environment (climate), supervision,
salary, job security, attitudes of administration and
 Motivators
e.g.: achievement, advancement, work itself,
growth, responsibility, recognition.
 See
Figure 11.4.
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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation (continued)
Herzberg suggested three ways to practice his theory:
Enrich the job: redesign work to tap potential, making job
interesting, challenging, and rewarding.
Increase autonomy: more participation in decision making
about the work.
Expand personnel administration: administration should be
concerned about motivational factors, not maintenance
Research in school settings has generally supported
Herzberg’s motivation-maintenance theory.
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