argument notes - Warren County Public Schools

Argument Writing
An argument in writing
What is an argument?
Characteristics of Argument
• Convinces reader claim is true
• Uses evidence—facts and data
• Acknowledges counterclaims—the other side of the
• Critical thinking. Argument is not simply a dispute, as when
people disagree with one another or yell at each other.
Argument is about making a case in support of a claim in
everyday affairs—in science, in policy making,in
courtrooms, and so forth.
• Appeals to people’s logic
• Claims, evidence, and rebuttals
Sound Reasoning
• One type of arguing is called “reasoning.” When
using reasoning in your argument, you use logic or
common sense to persuade—you use brain power to
convince the other person. This type of argument
often uses reasonable sounding opinions that help
prove the point. Using good reasoning is often called
“sound reasoning.”
• Reasoning doesn’t require the person to prove what
they have said with facts, they just need to make sure
what they are saying sounds reasonable.
Sound Reasoning
• Animal Experimentation – against (should not
experiment on animals to test things like drugs that
people will eventually use)
• People and animals are different genetically and
therefore it is useless to use animals in experiments
to see the effects of some substances on people—
they are too different to be compared to people. It is
better to use people directly since the results of
experiments on animals aren’t reliable since what
you see on animals is different than what you would
see with humans.
Reasoning Samples
• If a criminal attacks you on the street or in your
home, you cannot afford to wait 30 minutes, 20
minutes, or even 10 minutes for the police to
arrive—if you even get the chance to call police and
they come. Ten minutes is more than enough time
for a thug to rob, murder, or cripple you for life. In
fact, the Supreme Court has ruled that you, as an
individual, have no right to protection by the police.
Their only obligation is to protect “society”—
whatever that means. So if you want to protect your
home and family, you have to rely upon yourself.
And self-defense does work.
An Effective Argument
• Takes a clear position
• Has two sides
• Is narrow enough to be supported within essay
• Can be supported by facts or citations from a text
• Or you can provide sound reasoning
Types of Arguments
• Cause and effect—a person, thing, or event caused
something else to happen
Types of Arguments
• Claims of definition or fact—argue what a definition
is or if something is really a fact
• Example: The assassination of JFK was a
Types of Arguments
• Claims about values—argue the worth of something
and if it is valued.
• Ex: iPhones are better than Android devices
Types of Arguments
• Claims about solutions or policies—argue for or
against certain approaches to problems.
• Example: Cafeteria Seating, Cell Phones
• The opposing viewpoint’s response to your argument
or one of your claims.
Addressing the
• Refutes or proves wrong, another point
• Recognizes the other side’s points
• Lends credence to the writer’s claims
Writing is Like Art
• Different approaches can all results in a masterpiece
• 3 ways to include the counterclaim…find what
works for you.
5 Paragraph Format
• Include a counterclaim to each of your topics and
place those counterclaims in each of your body
• you may only have one or two counterclaims and
you incorporate those into your body paragraphs
Think about the style of Zero Zoos
5 Paragraph Format
• Introduction
• Reason 1
• Reason 2
• Counterclaim(s)
• Conclusion
6 Paragraph Format
• Introduction
• Reason 1
• Reason 2
• Reason 3
• Counterclaim
• Conclusion
Components of Effective
Argument Writing?
• Clear and forceful claim
• Well-constructed argument
• Strong textual support with explanations of text
support if possible, sound reasoning can work too
• Addresses counterclaims with a rebuttal
• Strong conclusion- Call to Action