File - News Writing

Week 3
News Writing
Marissa Kluger
September 11, 2012
Week 3 Intro
LECTURE: Journalism Today Chapters 1 & 2
If time permits: 10 minute in-class writing
Week 2 Tasks wrap-up
Assign new Tasks
Odds & Ends
Textbook Introduction
The Information Age continues to reshape how we gather and
disseminate information
Although the lines between print and online continue to blur, there will
always be a need for reporters and editors
It’s not the delivery system that counts but the information itself
All journalists have an obligation to the public
Essentials and ethics of journalism: to report news fairly, accurately, and
TIME to Write feature will help you complete assignments
Journalism in a Democracy
covers the rise and responsibilities of the American media
Chapter 1: covers the development of journalism in America
Chapter 2: covers the roles and responsibilities of journalists
Chapter 1
Journalists need good sense, good judgement, good writing, poise under
pressure, and ethical and moral standards
News does not gather itself
17th century America: communication was by letter and word of mouth
America’s history is inseparable from the history of journalism
help a democratic make historic decisions by providing the facts and opinions
needed to elect the leaders who decide national policy. FACT-CHECKING
America’s First Newspapers
Only one sheet long and contained little of what we think is news
Boston 1690: Publick Occurences was published
1704: Boston-News-Letter, first continuously published newspaper
“by authority” tag - closely supervised by the British government
Establishment of Freedom of the Press
newspapers that criticized the government were guilty of sedition or stirring
“the greater the truth, the greater the libel”
false criticism was easier to turn aside than well-founded criticism
1735: New York Weekly Journal printed critical articles of the Governor
tried in court; found not guilty
first establishment of freedom of the press
The Birth of the Nation
1775: 37 newspapers
most were allied with the patriots b/c of the Stamp Act (taxes on periodicals)
Newspapers deliberately aligned themselves with a political party, also called the
partisan press
today’s papers try to report objectively, but some ally themselves on the
editorial (op-ed) page
The Constitution did not grant freedom of the press; state constitutions did this
The Bill of Rights - the first 10 amendments to the Constitution - address it
First Amendment, in 1791, guarantees a free press
1783: first daily, the Pennsylvania Post
1777: first student newspaper, the Students Gazette, also in PA
The Penny Press
little actual news: filled with opinions in the form of essays, letters, editorials, plus
a few advertisements
1833: Benjamin Day founded The New York Sun, filled it with news, and sold it for
a penny
his staff covered the police beat, wrote about tragedies and natural disasters
with less opinion
achieved a mass audience b/c it was inexpensive and distributed by street sales
advertising took on a major role
1851: The New York Times “All the News That’s Fit to Print”
The Effect of the Telegraph
1861: reporters at Civil War battle sites began using the telegraph to transmit their
became more concise and developed the inverted-pyramid format of writing:
giving the most important facts in the first few sentences
first news-gathering service, or wire service, was formed called the Harbor News
forerunner to the Associated Press
sold news to client papers
By 1910, there were 2,600 daily newspapers; some had bureaus in the nation’s
capital and around the world
Yellow Journalism
19th century; its peak was during the late 1800s
refers to an unethical, irresponsible kind of journalism involving hoaxes, altered
photos, frauds, and self-promotion by the papers
yellow journalists: William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer
Nellie Bly, famous female journalist often making the news herself
Spanish-American War
yellow journalism played a part in the US getting involved
also contributed to an atmosphere of suspicion and conflict
significant social consciousness was born
magazines arrived during the late 19th and early 20th century
battled corruption
Ex- patent medicine companies, child labor, the status of African
Americans, and the meatpacking industry
investigative reporting was the child of muckraking
Minority Media
1905: The Chicago Defender, one of the nation’s largest and most influential
African-American newspapers
encouraged Southern blacks to move to the North in search of better jobs
1945: Ebony magazine
still in circulation
Hispanic media includes newspapers, radio, magazines, and news websites
first Native-American newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix, in 1828
Various publications for Asian-American consumers as well
The Advent of Radio
1916: first presidential election broadcast returns
1920: regular daily programs started in Detroit
KDKA in PA broadcast the Harding-Cox presidential election returns; first
milestone in radio journalism
NBC formed in 1926 (renamed ABC in 1945) and CBS in 1927
regulation became necessary
1990s: shock jocks began to dominate the air waves
mixed opinions: some people find them offensive while others say it is exactly
within America’s tradition
keep in mind shock jocks and radio talk-show hosts are not journalists;
they’re entertainers
The Impact of Television
late 1940s: first television newscast
claimed much of the spot-news, or breaking news role traditionally held by
newspapers do not emphasize breaking news, instead they examine the
background of current news events and covering trends and lifestyles in depth
TV has created what communications philosopher Marshall McLuhan calls “the
global village”
sensationalism on TV = yellow journalism practices
interest does seem to be waning
The Effects of Technology
Internet, the last great media advance of the 20th century
News on the Net
development of hypertext links
no space constraint
on-line publications offer not just news stories, but restaurant reviews, travel tips, e-mail
addresses of columnists and even community forums
Computer-Assisted Reporting
valuable tool for getting complicated information quickly
must still be selective and always verify the reliability of the sources you use
Journalism Today: Internet is a two-way medium, allowing news sites to interact with readers in
addition Web news sites can print as much info as they like, offer video and audio clips, and
operate cooperatively with TV, radio, and magazines
Chapter 1 Wrap-up
potential journalists need to stick to the basics
impossible to separate the nation’s history from the history of journalism
the First Amendment
electronic media is a complement to print media
no one edition of a newspaper, one issue of a magazine, or one newscast can
provide the “truth” on any issue
muckraking and yellow journalism are still alive today
muckraking happens any time a journalist goes on a crusade
Chapter 2
Trust is the “most important product” of journalism
widespread criticism of journalists and the media
Consumer: be a more discerning consumer of news
Journalist: ensure you properly use the power society entrusts to you
The Functions of a Journalist
political - “watchdog of government”
economic - con: advertising
sentry - current and upcoming problems
record-keeping - an accurate record of local, national, and world news
entertainment - soft news that serves as a diversion
social - passing information on through word of mouth
marketplace - forum for the public’s ideas to be heard
agenda-setting - they tell us what to think about or place certain issues before the
The Ethics of Journalism
Credibility - the ability to inspire belief and trust
Objectivity - the ability to make fair, neutral observations about people and events; “On Display”
page 37
Other ethical principles
Good taste
Right of reply, or simultaneous rebuttal
fairness to all
plagiarism - the taking and using as one’s own the writing or inventions of another person
attribution - (“the teacher said today...”)
the truth
Libel Law
slander is spoken (or broadcasted) false defamation and is included under libel
libel is usually not considered a crime
Libel defenses
fair comment
admission of error
public officials and public figures
Scholastic Journalism
censorship for school publications
The Tinker Decision
the concept of in loco parentis was struck down
The Hazelwood Decision
arguments for - administrators should have the final word; students are too
young and inexperienced; student activities
arguments against - students inherit responsibility; students are
sophisticated; learning experiences
limits: forum theory
Chapter 2 Wrap-up
newspapers and magazines will not die
journalists’ ethical and legal dilemmas remain unchanged, but have been
complicated by the Internet
three main ethical areas
plagiarism - presenting the work of others as your own; this includes outright
copying and using others’ ideas without acknowledging sources
inventing quotes - words in quotation must be exactly the words spoken
editorializing - NO OPINION
In-class writing
Please summarize or paraphrase one specific
idea, sub-topic, or area of today’s lecture.
Additionally, I’d like your thoughts or opinions
on WHY we have covered these two chapters.
Week 2’s Tasks
Task 1
What do some journalists think of their profession?
What is the day in the life of a journalist like?
How would you spend a day if you became a reporter?
Task 2
What are some of your ideas for news stories?
Translation school, XISU, China, Asia, & World
Week 3 Tasks
Journalism Today Workbook: Chapter 1 & 2 Exercises
1.1 (Choose 2 of the 5)
1.2 (Choose 3 of the 10)
1.5 (20 minute internet search)
2.1 (Code of Ethics is on page 557 in the Appendix; Choose 2 of the 5)
2.2 (Choose 4 of the 8)
2.3 (only answer the questions)
Read Chapter 2: Meeting Ethical and Legal Responsibilities
Odds & Ends
Week 4: Gathering News for the School Newspaper; How Newsrooms Work
Please do your best to keep up with class readings
Please check your class e-mail. I usually send mail on Friday afternoons. Please
let me know if this is not enough time and I will amend this.