Week 3 News Writing Marissa Kluger September 11, 2012 Week 3 Intro LECTURE: Journalism Today Chapters 1 & 2 If time permits: 10 minute in-class writing Week 2 Tasks wrap-up Assign new Tasks Odds & Ends Textbook Introduction The Information Age continues to reshape how we gather and disseminate information Although the lines between print and online continue to blur, there will always be a need for reporters and editors It’s not the delivery system that counts but the information itself All journalists have an obligation to the public Essentials and ethics of journalism: to report news fairly, accurately, and well TIME to Write feature will help you complete assignments Journalism in a Democracy covers the rise and responsibilities of the American media Chapter 1: covers the development of journalism in America Chapter 2: covers the roles and responsibilities of journalists Chapter 1 Journalists need good sense, good judgement, good writing, poise under pressure, and ethical and moral standards News does not gather itself 17th century America: communication was by letter and word of mouth America’s history is inseparable from the history of journalism help a democratic make historic decisions by providing the facts and opinions needed to elect the leaders who decide national policy. FACT-CHECKING America’s First Newspapers Only one sheet long and contained little of what we think is news Boston 1690: Publick Occurences was published 1704: Boston-News-Letter, first continuously published newspaper “by authority” tag - closely supervised by the British government Establishment of Freedom of the Press newspapers that criticized the government were guilty of sedition or stirring rebellion “the greater the truth, the greater the libel” false criticism was easier to turn aside than well-founded criticism 1735: New York Weekly Journal printed critical articles of the Governor tried in court; found not guilty first establishment of freedom of the press The Birth of the Nation 1775: 37 newspapers most were allied with the patriots b/c of the Stamp Act (taxes on periodicals) Newspapers deliberately aligned themselves with a political party, also called the partisan press today’s papers try to report objectively, but some ally themselves on the editorial (op-ed) page The Constitution did not grant freedom of the press; state constitutions did this The Bill of Rights - the first 10 amendments to the Constitution - address it First Amendment, in 1791, guarantees a free press 1783: first daily, the Pennsylvania Post 1777: first student newspaper, the Students Gazette, also in PA The Penny Press little actual news: filled with opinions in the form of essays, letters, editorials, plus a few advertisements 1833: Benjamin Day founded The New York Sun, filled it with news, and sold it for a penny his staff covered the police beat, wrote about tragedies and natural disasters with less opinion achieved a mass audience b/c it was inexpensive and distributed by street sales advertising took on a major role 1851: The New York Times “All the News That’s Fit to Print” The Effect of the Telegraph 1861: reporters at Civil War battle sites began using the telegraph to transmit their stories became more concise and developed the inverted-pyramid format of writing: giving the most important facts in the first few sentences first news-gathering service, or wire service, was formed called the Harbor News Association forerunner to the Associated Press sold news to client papers By 1910, there were 2,600 daily newspapers; some had bureaus in the nation’s capital and around the world Yellow Journalism 19th century; its peak was during the late 1800s refers to an unethical, irresponsible kind of journalism involving hoaxes, altered photos, frauds, and self-promotion by the papers yellow journalists: William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer Nellie Bly, famous female journalist often making the news herself Spanish-American War yellow journalism played a part in the US getting involved also contributed to an atmosphere of suspicion and conflict Muckraking significant social consciousness was born magazines arrived during the late 19th and early 20th century battled corruption Ex- patent medicine companies, child labor, the status of African Americans, and the meatpacking industry investigative reporting was the child of muckraking Minority Media 1905: The Chicago Defender, one of the nation’s largest and most influential African-American newspapers encouraged Southern blacks to move to the North in search of better jobs 1945: Ebony magazine still in circulation Hispanic media includes newspapers, radio, magazines, and news websites first Native-American newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix, in 1828 Various publications for Asian-American consumers as well FACT-CHECKING The Advent of Radio 1916: first presidential election broadcast returns 1920: regular daily programs started in Detroit KDKA in PA broadcast the Harding-Cox presidential election returns; first milestone in radio journalism NBC formed in 1926 (renamed ABC in 1945) and CBS in 1927 regulation became necessary 1990s: shock jocks began to dominate the air waves mixed opinions: some people find them offensive while others say it is exactly within America’s tradition keep in mind shock jocks and radio talk-show hosts are not journalists; they’re entertainers The Impact of Television late 1940s: first television newscast claimed much of the spot-news, or breaking news role traditionally held by newspapers newspapers do not emphasize breaking news, instead they examine the background of current news events and covering trends and lifestyles in depth TV has created what communications philosopher Marshall McLuhan calls “the global village” sensationalism on TV = yellow journalism practices interest does seem to be waning The Effects of Technology Internet, the last great media advance of the 20th century News on the Net development of hypertext links no space constraint on-line publications offer not just news stories, but restaurant reviews, travel tips, e-mail addresses of columnists and even community forums Computer-Assisted Reporting valuable tool for getting complicated information quickly must still be selective and always verify the reliability of the sources you use Journalism Today: Internet is a two-way medium, allowing news sites to interact with readers in addition Web news sites can print as much info as they like, offer video and audio clips, and operate cooperatively with TV, radio, and magazines Chapter 1 Wrap-up potential journalists need to stick to the basics impossible to separate the nation’s history from the history of journalism the First Amendment electronic media is a complement to print media no one edition of a newspaper, one issue of a magazine, or one newscast can provide the “truth” on any issue muckraking and yellow journalism are still alive today muckraking happens any time a journalist goes on a crusade Chapter 2 Trust is the “most important product” of journalism widespread criticism of journalists and the media Consumer: be a more discerning consumer of news Journalist: ensure you properly use the power society entrusts to you The Functions of a Journalist political - “watchdog of government” economic - con: advertising sentry - current and upcoming problems record-keeping - an accurate record of local, national, and world news entertainment - soft news that serves as a diversion social - passing information on through word of mouth marketplace - forum for the public’s ideas to be heard agenda-setting - they tell us what to think about or place certain issues before the public The Ethics of Journalism Credibility - the ability to inspire belief and trust Accuracy Objectivity - the ability to make fair, neutral observations about people and events; “On Display” page 37 Other ethical principles Good taste Right of reply, or simultaneous rebuttal fairness to all plagiarism - the taking and using as one’s own the writing or inventions of another person attribution - (“the teacher said today...”) the truth Libel Law slander is spoken (or broadcasted) false defamation and is included under libel libel is usually not considered a crime Libel defenses truth privilege fair comment admission of error public officials and public figures Scholastic Journalism censorship for school publications The Tinker Decision the concept of in loco parentis was struck down The Hazelwood Decision arguments for - administrators should have the final word; students are too young and inexperienced; student activities arguments against - students inherit responsibility; students are sophisticated; learning experiences limits: forum theory Chapter 2 Wrap-up newspapers and magazines will not die journalists’ ethical and legal dilemmas remain unchanged, but have been complicated by the Internet three main ethical areas plagiarism - presenting the work of others as your own; this includes outright copying and using others’ ideas without acknowledging sources inventing quotes - words in quotation must be exactly the words spoken editorializing - NO OPINION In-class writing Please summarize or paraphrase one specific idea, sub-topic, or area of today’s lecture. Additionally, I’d like your thoughts or opinions on WHY we have covered these two chapters. Week 2’s Tasks Task 1 What do some journalists think of their profession? What is the day in the life of a journalist like? How would you spend a day if you became a reporter? Task 2 What are some of your ideas for news stories? Translation school, XISU, China, Asia, & World Week 3 Tasks Journalism Today Workbook: Chapter 1 & 2 Exercises 1.1 (Choose 2 of the 5) 1.2 (Choose 3 of the 10) 1.5 (20 minute internet search) 2.1 (Code of Ethics is on page 557 in the Appendix; Choose 2 of the 5) 2.2 (Choose 4 of the 8) 2.3 (only answer the questions) Read Chapter 2: Meeting Ethical and Legal Responsibilities Odds & Ends Week 4: Gathering News for the School Newspaper; How Newsrooms Work Please do your best to keep up with class readings Please check your class e-mail. I usually send mail on Friday afternoons. Please let me know if this is not enough time and I will amend this.