cabinet shop safety - Alabama Home Builders Self Insurers Fund

These handouts and documents with attachments are not final, complete, or definitive instruments. This information
is for guidance purposes only. You should independently verify and satisfy yourself as to its accuracy. The AHBSIF
does not assume any liability for damages arising from the use of this information or exhibits and attachments
thereto and renders no opinion that any of the terms, conditions, and/or cited federal standards in this document and
the exhibits and attachments should be explicitly followed by the fund member. Seek specific guidance from the
appropriate regulator (OSHA) or professional advisor.
• This guide was created to assist cabinet
shop/wood fabrication shop owners on
how to eliminate or control common safety
• This is not a definitive or comprehensive
plan for this type of work.
• Please consult necessary safety sources
when developing your own site specific
Material Storage and Handling
Tool/Machine Hazards
Paint & Stain Operations
Dust Collection Systems
Hazard Communication
Personal Protective Equipment
Emergency Procedures
• Walking and Working Surfaces
– Permanent Aisles and passageways must be appropriately marked
– Routes can be delineated with floor paint or physical barrier
• Exit Routes
– Each exit must be clearly visible and marked
– “EXIT” must be legible and no less than six inches high and three
quarters of an inch wide
– Must have an illumination rating of 5 foot-candles on permanent
power, self luminescent or electroluminescent .06 footlamberts
– All doors not an exit must be labeled as such (e.g. closet)
• Visitor Warnings
– Must alert all visitors to potential exposures/hazards of facility
– Prevent entrance from unauthorized personnel
• Hazardous Material Storage
– Location must be fenced and posted to prevent entrance from
unauthorized personnel
• Flammable and Combustible Liquids
– Storage cabinet where flammable and combustible
liquids are stored must be conspicuously labeled
• Spray Finishing
– All spraying areas and paint storage rooms
• Personal Protective Equipment
– For processes that require specific protective equipment
• Accident Prevention Signs
Color specifications are found in Subpart J 1910.145
“DANGER” (red-black-white)
“CAUTION” (yellow-black)
“WARNING” (no uniform color code)
Listed colors must meet ANSI Z53.1-1967
• Fire Protection
– Location of extinguishers shall be labeled so location is easily
• Materials Handling
– All permanent aisleways where mechanical equipment operates will be
appropriately marked
– Sufficient safe clearances maintained with no aisle obstruction
– Overhead gantry cranes must display rated load mark on both sides
– Each hoisting unit must display rated load
– Rated load marks must be visible from floor
– During maintenance crane must be labeled “OUT OF ORDER” and floor
space below must also be labeled
• Radial Arm Saws
– The direction of saw rotation must be conspicuously marked on the
• Electrical
– Breaker panel must display manufacturer’s name, trademark, or
other descriptive identification
– Must provide voltage, current, wattage, and other ratings
– Labels must withstand the environment
– All breaker switches inside the panel must be labeled
– Covers for boxes ≥ 600v must be permanently marked “HIGH
VOLTAGE”, must be on the outside of the box and highly visible
– Lock out Tag Out, see electrical portion of guide
• Hazard Communication
– See Hazard Communication portion of guide
• Mandatory Postings
– “It’s the Law” poster
– OSHA poster 3165 (English), 3167 (Spanish).
• Mandatory Postings
– OSHA 300 logs
• 300A, Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses
• Must be filed on an annual basis even if there are no
• Summary from the following year must be posted from
February 1st to April 30th of current year
• Must be certified by a companies highest officer
– Citations
• Employer must post copy of citations at inspection
location for three days or until violations are abated,
whichever is longer.
Log 300A
OSHA's Form 300A
(Rev. 01/2004)
Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses
U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Adm inistration
Form approved OMB no. 1218-0176
All establishments covered by Part 1904 must complete this Summary page, even if no injuries or
illnesses occurred during the year. Remember to review the Log to verify that the entries are complete
Using the Log, count the individual entries you made for each category. Then write the totals below,
mak ing sure you've added the entries from every page of the log. If you had no cases write "0."
Employees former employees, and their representatives have the right to review the OSHA Form 300
in its entirety. They also have limited access to the OSHA Form 301 or its equivalent. See 29 CFR
1904.35, in OSHA's Recordk eeping rule, for further details on the access provisions for these forms.
Establishment information
Your establishment name
Number of Cases
Industry description (e.g., Manufacture of motor truck trailers)
Total number of
Total number of
cases with days
away from work
Total number of cases
with job transfer or
Total number of
other recordable
Number of Days
OR North American Industrial Classification (NAICS), if known (e.g., 336212)
Employment information
Total number of
days away from
Total number of days of
job transfer or restriction
Annual average number of employees
Total hours worked by all employees last
Injury and Illness Types
Total number of…
(1) Injury
(2) Skin Disorder
(3) Respiratory
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), if known (e.g., SIC 3715)
Sign here
Knowingly falsifying this document may result in a fine.
(4) Poisoning
(5) Hearing Loss
(6) All Other Illnesses
Post this Summary page from February 1 to April 30 of the year following the year covered by the form
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 50 minutes per response, including time to review the instruction, search and
gather the data needed, and complete and review the collection of information. Persons are not required to respond to the collection of information unless it
displays a currently valid OMB control number. If you have any comments about these estimates or any aspects of this data collection, contact: US Department
of Labor, OSHA Office of Statistics, Room N-3644, 200 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20210. Do not send the completed forms to this office.
I certify that I have examined this document and that to the best of my knowledge the entries are true, accurate, and
Company executive
Material Storage & Handling
General Storage Requirements
Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Manual Handling
General Mechanical Handling
Fork Trucks
Waste Material Disposal
General Storage Requirements
• Storage areas must be kept free
from materials that may cause
tripping, fires, or explosions.
• Storage areas should not block
or intrude on facility pathways
• When stacking and piling
materials consider
Condition of the container
General Storage Requirements
• Compressed gas cylinders must be secured and
upright. Different gases must be separated by at
least 20 ft. or by partition with specific dimension
and fire retardant capabilities.
• Observe height limitations for stacked materials.
– Ex. Lumber must be stacked no more than 16 ft. high if
it is handled manually, 20 ft. for forklift use
• Used lumber must have all nails removed before
• Lumber must be stacked and leveled on solidly
supported bracing.
General Storage Requirements
• Bags and bundles must be stacked in
interlocking rows.
• Drums, barrels, and kegs must be stacked
symmetrically. If stored on their sides, the
bottom tiers must be blocked.
• Boxed materials must be banded and baled.
• Paper or rags stored inside a trailer must not be
closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or
sprinkler heads.
• Non-compatible materials must be separated in
General Storage Requirements
• Consider availability of the material, safe
movement of material handling equipment,
and personnel.
• Any employee required to work in stored
material vessels shall be equipped with a
personal fall arrest system.
• When a difference in work levels exists,
some means of smooth transition must be
employed, i.e. grading, ramps, blocking.
General Storage Requirements
• If space above office or any other elevated
area is used for storage, handrails must be
installed per the OSHA’s handrail
– Top Rail height: 42” (+ or – 3”)
– Mid Rail height: 21” (+ or – 3”)
– Must be able to support 200 lbs of outward
and downward force on the top, 150 lbs on
the mid rail
– Toe Boards are necessary only if an exposure
exists for those below
Flammable Liquid Classification
Flammable Liquid refers to any liquid having
a flash point below 100° F
FP - Flash Point BP - Boiling Point
Class IA
Class IB
Class IC
FP < 73°
FP < 73°
FP ≥ 73°
BP < 100°
BP ≥ 100°
BP < 100°
Combustible Liquid Classification
Combustible Liquid refers to any liquid
having a flash at or above 100° F
FP - Flash Point
Class II
Class IIIA
Class IIIB
FP ≥ 100°
FP ≥ 140°
FP ≥ 200°
FP < 140°
FP < 200°
Flammable and Combustible
• The quantity of flammable or combustible
liquid that may kept outside of a storage
room or cabinet inside the building shall
not exceed:
– 25 gallons of Class IA liquids in containers
– 120 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, III liquids in
– 660 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, III liquids in a
single portable tank
Inside Storage Rooms
• Shall be of fire resistant construction
• Liquid tight were the walls join the floor
• Have approved self closing doors at all
• At least 4” sills, ramps, or depressed floors
or open integrated trench which drains to
safe location
Inside Storage Rooms
• A ventilation system that provides at least
six room changes / hour
• For Class I liquids, electrical wiring
approved for hazardous locations
• Explosion resistant lighting fixtures
• Wood at least 1 inch nominal thickness for
shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards,
floor overlay, and similar installations
Flammable Storage
• All solvent wastes and flammable liquids must
be kept in fire-resistant, covered containers until
they are removed from the worksite
• Firm separation should be placed between
containers of combustibles or flammables, when
stacked one upon another, to assure their
support and stability
• Permanently installed sprinkler system heads
must not spray into operating electrical switch
boards and equipment
Flammable Liquids
• Spills of flammable or combustible liquids must be
cleaned up promptly
• Storage tanks must be adequately vented to prevent the
development of excessive vacuum or pressure as a
result of filling, emptying, or atmosphere temperature
• Storage tanks must also be equipped with emergency
venting that will relieve excessive internal pressure
caused by fire exposure
• Insure that all connections on drums and combustible
liquid piping and vapor are liquid tight
Flammable Liquids
• Use approved metal safety cans for handling of
any flammable liquids in quantity greater than a
• Keep flammable liquids in closed containers
when not in use (example: parts cleaning tanks,
pans, etc.)
• Ground and bond
bulk drums of
flammable liquids
to containers
during dispensing
Combustible Storage
• Combustible scrap, debris, and waste materials
(oily rags, etc.) should be stored and removed
from the worksite as promptly as possible
• Proper storage practiced to minimize the risk of
fire including spontaneous combustion
• Keep combustible materials away from potential
ignition sources
• Never store flammable or combustible liquids in
access or egress areas
General Requirements For Manual
• Employees should seek help
– A load is so bulky it cannot be
properly grasped or lifted
– An employee can’t see around or
over it
– A load cannot be safely handled.
• Personal Protective equipment is
an integral part of safe handling
Boots with sturdy soles
Forearm Protection
Safety Glasses
Mechanics of Proper Lifting
• The following slides will demonstrate the basics
of proper lifting technique
• Don’t forget these basics;
– Warming up before attempting to lift is good practice,
don’t be afraid to get your blood flowing with some
simple stretches.
– There is no shame in the buddy system, get help if
you think you’ll need it!
– If management has provided equipment for helping
you lift something, use it. Never take a short cut or
put yourself in an unsafe position with a load.
- Establish a
solid base
- Bend your
- Position
yourself close to
the load
- Lift with your
-Complete the
lift before
twisting or
General Requirements For Mechanical
• When moving materials avoid overloading,
consider the weight, size, and shape of the
• Equipment capacity ratings must be displayed
on each piece of equipment and must not be
• Follow safe lifting procedures for the specific
machinery in use
• OSHA requires that all machine operators are
Powered Fork Trucks
• Research data estimates 90
deaths per year attributed to
fork truck operation.
• Operator training was made
mandatory for all industries as
of March 1, 1999.
• Employer must train operators
using federal guidelines for
• Equipment that was designed
to move earth but will accept
forks is not covered, nor are
over the road haulage trucks.
Powered Fork Trucks
Training must incorporate the following subject matter:
 Familiarization with the Machine
 Understanding the basics of stability
 Understanding the forces that cause tip-over
 Vehicle Inspection
 Vehicle Operation
 Load Handling
 Power Source
 LGP Handling and Use
 Battery Charging
 Other
 Hands-On Training
Powered Fork Trucks
Refresher Training must be provided when:
• An operator has an incident or near-miss incident
• An operator is asked to run a different type of truck
• The operator has been evaluated as not operating in
a safe manner
Training records must be kept on file after the
date of completion for at least three years
Operators are not subject to fitness tests
OSHA does not require certification cards
Waste Material Disposal
• All scrap lumber, waste material, and
garbage should be removed as work
• Disposal of waste material or debris by
burning must comply with local fire
regulations, borough ordinances, and
property owner requirements.
• All solvent waste, oily rags, and
flammable liquids shall be kept in fire
resistant covered containers until
removed from the worksite.
Tool/Machine Hazards
Point of Operation
Pinch Points
Flying Chips, Material
Tool Projection
Machine Guarding
Tool Safety
Point of Operation
•The point of operation is the place
where work is performed on the
•It is the point at which the stock is
cut, shaped, bored, or formed.
• Most woodworking machines use
a cutting and/or shearing action.
Nip/Pinch Points
Nip/pinch points are a special danger arising
from rotating or reciprocating parts. They occur
whenever machine parts move toward each
other or when one part moves past a stationary
object. Parts of the body may be caught
between or drawn into the nip/pinch point and
crushed, mangled, or severed.
How do injuries occur at the point of
• Employees can be injured if their hands get too
close to the blade, particularly when working on
small pieces of stock.
• Stock can get stuck in a blade and actually pull
the operator’s hands into the machine.
• Employees can be injured if the machine or its
guard is not properly adjusted or maintained.
• Contact can occur during machine repair or
cleaning if care is not taken to de-energize the
Kickbacks occur when a saw seizes
the stock and hurls it back at the
operator. This can happen when the
stock twists and binds against the
side of the blades or is caught in the
Flying Chips/Material
Employees may be exposed to
splinters and chips that are flung
by the cutting actions of
woodworking equipment.
Tool Projection
Many pieces of woodworking equipment
employ rotating cutter heads with multiple
knives. Cutter heads that are not properly
adjusted, or that are poorly mounted or
have broken knives, can become
unbalanced. The centrifugal forces on an
unbalanced cutter head can fling the
knives from the tool and injure or kill the
operator or other nearby personnel.
Machine Guarding
• Moving machine parts have the potential to cause
severe workplace injuries
– Crushed fingers or hands
– Amputations
– Burns or Blindness
• Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from
these preventable injuries.
• Any machine part, function, or process that may cause
injury must be safeguarded.
• If operation of a machine or accidental contact could
injure the operator or others in the vicinity, the hazards
must be eliminated or controlled.
Tool Safety
• Ensure all guards
are in place and
working properly
• Use push sticks
when needed
Tool Safety
Ensure employees are properly trained
Inspect tools/machines before using
Wear appropriate PPE
Operate machines in accordance with
manufacturers specifications
• Don’t wear loose clothing
• Keep long hair tied back
Tool Safety
• Ensure dust
collection devices are
working properly
• Tool energy source
must be
disconnected or
locked out during
• Work areas must be
well lit
Standards for Woodworking Machinery
• General Requirements for All Machines,
29 CFR 1910.212
• Woodworking Machinery Requirements,
29 CFR 1910.213
• Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus,
29 CFR 1910.219
• Standard for the Prevention of Fires and
Explosions in Wood Processing and
Woodworking Facilities, NFPA 644-1993
• Woodworking Machinery—Safety Requirements,
ANSI O1.1-1992
Applicable Standards
Basic Terminology
Physical Effects
Influencing Factors of a Shock
General Requirements
Lock Out/Tag Out
Extension Cords
Applicable Standards
Electrical standards are among the mostly
frequently cited by OSHA
 No Lock Out/Tag Out
 Improper Wiring Methods
 Inadequate Components and Equipment
OSHA references the following for guidelines
 Electric Code (NEC or NFPA 70)
 Electric Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces (NFPA 70E)
Basic Terminology
Amps – The amount of
electricity flowing
Volts – The force at which the
power flows
Ohms – A unit of electrical
Watts – A unit of electrical
Physical Effects
 Amps are the true measure of
current absorbed, not volts
 We are good conductors, the
human body is 70% water
 Involuntary muscle contraction
is the reason we are affected
 Can’t let go of energized object
 Breathing is impaired
 Heart rhythm is disrupted
Influencing Factors of a Shock
Circumstances that affect the
outcome of an electric shock;
Circuit voltage
The bodies external (skin) and
internal resistance
Total current flowing through
the body
Current path
The duration of the shock
General Requirements
 Equipment must be free from recognized hazards
 Equipment must be suitable and identified as such
through listing, labeling, or certification for identified
 Parts designed for mechanical strength and durability
must be adequate and protective
 Permanent work stations must be hardwired, wiring
must be supported and/or protected by conduit
 Other items for consideration
Electrical insulation under high temperatures
Arcing effects
Use classifications
 Live parts of electrical equipment
operating at 50 volts or more must be
guarded against accidental contact.
 Means of acceptable guarding include:
 Isolation in a cabinet, room, or vault
only accessible by qualified persons
 Use of partitions or screens to exclude
unqualified persons
 Elevation of eight feet or more above
the floor
 Electric installations over 600 volts must
be metal-enclosed, enclosed in a vault, or
controlled by lock.
Lock Out / Tag Out
LOTO written
program Components
 Documented energy
control procedures
 Employee Training
 Inspection program
Lock Out / Tag Out
 Purpose is to draw attention
to and disable a live energy
source during service and
repair work.
 Lock Out physically disables
the energy source, Tag Out
provides a warning only
 Only the employee who
placed the lock or tag may
remove it!
Safe Power Shutdown
- 5 Steps  Preparation and Notification–
Understanding energy source and alerting all
affected employees
 Shutdown – De-energizing procedure
 Isolation – Properly locking all power
 Lock & Tag Application
 Color coding for different trades
 Employee assigned locks
 Photo tags, helps locate employee,
makes association
 Control and Verification– Control stored
and residual energy with locks in place
- 3 Steps  Inspection – checking
the work area and
surrounding machinery
and for employees
 Notification – Make
notice to all affected
employees as to what will
be re-energized
 Removal of Tags and
Tags and Locks
Tags and Locks must be:
Durable – resist conditions of environment
Standardized – color code and format
Substantial – strong enough to minimize false
Identifiable – clear message, know who it is
Extension Cords
 Cords with missing ground prongs, insulation breeches,
crimping or crushing, must be removed from service.
 Splicing is prohibited, but new connectors are acceptable
 When unplugging, pull the plug, never tug on the cord
 If a cord must cross a vehicle pathway it must be
 OSHA considers an extension cord temporary power, no
matter the power source!
Service Ratings
Hard Service
(types S, ST, SO, STO)
Junior Hard Service
(types SJ, SJO, SJT,
Home use, small appliance
(type SP)
Electrical Checklist
Extension cords:
- No crimping or crushing
- No missing insulation
- No signs of stress at plug
All extensions cords out of high
traffic areas:
- Aisleways
- Lift Truck Paths
- Hallway, entrance, stairwell
Lock Out / Tag Out plan for all
maintenance operations
Equipment rated for duty and
Proper PPE when necessary
GFCI protection cord or tool
Awareness of all overhead
power lines
All tools double insulated
Paint & Stain Operations
• Spray Booth/Room General
• Spray Booth/Room Construction
• Ventilation
• Employee
• Standard
General Requirements
• No smoking in or around spray
• Respirators, eye protection, and gloves
should be worn during all finishing
• Maintain an eyewash station near area
• Exhaust filters should be cleaned or
replaced on a regular basis
Spray Booth/Room Construction
• Explosion resistant lighting shall be used
inside spray booths/rooms
• Explosion resistant motors shall be used
• Motors are not guaranteed as such.
Design specifies,
– “If there is an explosion within the motor, the
design will contain it and not allow it in to the
Spray Booth/Room Construction
• Must be substantially constructed
• Floors and walls must be non combustible
• Interiors must be smooth and continuous,
without edges, and designed to prevent
accumulation of residues
• Must be separated from other
operations by at least three feet or a wall
Spray Booth/Room Construction
• Installed so that all portions are
easily cleaned
• Hot surfaces such as space heaters,
appliances, and steam pipes must be
located away from spray-finishing
• All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust
ducts, and piping systems must be
permanently grounded
• Spray booth/rooms must enclose or
confine all paint/spray/finishing operations
• All spraying areas shall have mechanical
ventilation adequate to remove flammable
vapors, powders, or mists to a safe
location and control combustible residues
• Is your ventilation adequate for the size of
your spray booth/room?
• Open Booth
H x W x 100 = Minimum CFM
H = Height of booth opening
W = Width of booth opening
100 = minimum fpm over face of booth when
operator is present
Minimum CFM, Fan must meet or exceed velocity.
• Enclosed Booth
– Concentrations of solvents must not exceed
25% of the lower explosive limit
– A gallon of paint is roughly 50% solvent
– A conventional gun at full discharge releases
up to 12oz/min
– Consult MSDS for LEL’s of material used
– Consider size of booth and fan draw (CFM)
• Make up air must be fresh
• If outdoor temp is < 55°, make up air must be
• The electric motor driving the exhaust fan must
be placed outside the booth or duct
• Belts and pulleys used to drive
the fan must be enclosed
• Exhaust ducts must be fitted with access doors
for cleaning
Spray Booth/Room Safety
• Ensure employees are familiar with Material
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
• The OSHA standard for spray finishing
operations, 29 CFR 1910.107, provides detailed
requirements for the design and construction of
spray booths/rooms, air filters, velocity and air
flow requirements, and the (make-up) air
supplied to the booth/room
• Ventilation, 29 CFR 1910.94(c) and (d)
• Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 29 CFR
• Spray Finishing Using Flammable and
Combustible Materials, 29 CFR 1910.107
• Respiratory Protection, 29 CFR 1910.134
• The Air Contaminants Standards 29 CFR
• NFPA 33-1969
Dust Collection Systems
• Power
• Bag Size
• Noise Exposures
• Collection Type
• Accessibility
Hazard Communication
Four Components
Written Program
Contains information on how the employer will meet the requirements of the
Labels must include information such as the name of the material, manufacturer’s
name and address, and hazard warnings
(SDS) Safety Data Sheets
Contain all important information on a material and must be accessible to
employees at any time
Employee Training
Employees learn the characteristics of the materials
Written Plan
• A Written Plan must address the
following issues;
• Procedures
• Related Safety & Health Issues
• Training
• Chemical Inventory
• Labeling Procedures
Written Plan
• What are the chemicals on the job or in the shop?
• Who will be exposed to specific chemicals?
• Are the employees trained prior to work?
• What is the procedure for clean-up?
• What is the procedure for first-aid and emergency
Labeling – The NFPA Placard
The placard is used on all storage tanks and transfer containers (gas cans, storage vessels).
Fire Hazard
4 – Below 73°F
3 – Below 100°F
2 – Above 100°F
1 – Above 200°F
0 – Will Not Burn
Health Hazard
4 – Deadly
3 – Extremely Dangerous
2 – Hazardous
1 – Slightly Hazardous
0 – Normal Material
4 – Detonate
3 – Shock and Heat may
2 – Violent Chemical Change
1 – Unstable if Heated
0 - Stable
Specific Hazard
ACID – Acid
COR – Corrosive
OXY - Oxidizer
GHS - Globally Harmonized System
All existing training and right-to-know requirements remain
MSDS will be referred to as “Safety Data Sheets”
Revision to hazard classification
• Hazard Category System
• Classification based on defined chemical data
Sheet structure will be uniform
New pictures will enhance communication for non-english speaking
GHS Hazard Communication
Additions to the new standard include:
• Combustible dust
• Pyrophoric Gases
• Simple Asphyxiants
Hazards Not Otherwise Classified (HNOC) – any substance
that is known to be hazardous but does not conform to the
hazard categories
• Classification allows additions to be made at a later date
• Product Identifier - Must match the identifier on the SDS and include the
chemical identity of the substance /mixture ingredients that create hazard.
• Pictograms - Image conveys chemical hazards. (black symbol, white field, all
inside red diamond)
• Signal Word - indicates the severity of the product’s hazard.
– “Danger” = severe hazards
– “Warning” = less sever hazards.
• Hazard Statements - based on the nature of the product’s hazardous
• Supplier Identification – must include the name, address and telephone
number used to locate or communicate with the manufacturer or supplier.
• Precautionary Statements - informs the reader about how to prevent the hazards of
storing or handling the product . Four categories:
– Prevention
– Response
– Storage
– Disposal
• Other Elements – A competent person may add content to the label as long as it does
not interfere with the label structure or confuse the user
– Transport pictograms
– Precautionary pictograms
– First-aid recommendations
– Universal product codes
– General usage information
Identifier 1
Pictograms 2
Signal words 3
Hazard Statement 4
Precautions 5
Supplier Identification 6
• It is the employer’s responsibility to ensure that all
containers of hazardous substances in the workplace
are labeled
• Never remove a label
• Container size is irrelevant, all containers must be
• The only labeling exception is “Immediate Use”,
employee has 100% control of material.
(SDS) Safety Data Sheets
The SDS give vital information on the behavior of
a material:
• Physical Data
• Reactivity with other
• Emergency First-Aid Procedures
• Hazard Information
• Prolonged and Acute Health Effects
New SDS Structure
The format should include the following sections:
1. Identification
2. Hazard(s) identification
3. Composition/information on ingredients
4. First-Aid measures
5. Fire-fighting measures
6. Accidental release measures
7. Handling and storage
8. Exposure controls/personal protection
New “SDS” Structure
Format cont…
9. Physical and chemical properties
10. Stability and reactivity
11. Toxicological information
12. Ecological information
13. Disposal considerations
14. Transport information
15. Regulatory information
16. Other information, including date of preparation or last revision
Definition of Physical States
• Gas - a substance or mixture which at 50°C (122°F)has a vapor
pressure greater than 300 kPa; or is completely gaseous at
20°C (68°F) and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.
• Liquid - a substance or mixture that is not a gas and which has
a melting point or initial melting point of 20°C (68°F) or less at
standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.
• Solid - a substance or mixture that does not meet the
definitions of a liquid or a gas.
SDS Pictograms
• Provides a visual representation of the hazard
Hazard Categories
Health Hazard
Compressed Gas
Health Hazard
 Carcinogen
 Mutagenicity
 Reproductive Toxicity
 Respiratory Sensitizer
 Target Organ Toxicity
 Aspiration Toxicity
Skin Corrosion/ burns
Eye Damage
Corrosive to Metals
 Flammables
 Pyrophorics
 Self-Heating
 Emits Flammable Gas
 Self-Reactives
 Organic Peroxides
Irritant (skin and eye)
Skin Sensitizer
Acute Toxicity (harmful)
Narcotic Effects
Respiratory Tract
Organic Peroxides
Acute Toxicity
(fatal or toxic)
Hazardous to
Ozone Layer
Aquatic Toxicity
Compressed Gas
Gases under
Could yield oxygen
and contribute to
(SDS) Safety Data Sheets
• Small quantities of (household use) products purchased from retail
stores do not require an SDS, unless exposure is increased and
• If a supplier will not provide an SDS, they are required to tell you
how to get it.
• It is good practice to carry an SDS manual in a field vehicle, but not
necessary. SDS’s must be accessible to an OSHA inspector during
the shift. Faxing from the main office is acceptable.
(SDS) Safety Data Sheets
Materials and Chemicals that require an SDS:
Paint & Stains
Brick & Block
Fuels & Lubricants
Compressed Gas
Pesticides, Insecticides
Welding Rods
Cleaning Agents
Treated Lumber
Employee Training
• Employees must be trained on every new chemical in which
they come in contact
• Acute and chronic health effects
• Proper handling and use
• Proper storage
• Clean-Up procedures
• Proper disposal
• Accessing information (SDS Manual)
Job-Site Compliance
• All contractors are responsible for providing SDS for the
chemicals/materials they bring to the site.
• Other contractors must be made aware of potential
hazards created by chemicals/materials brought on-site.
Common Job-Site Exposures
Sheetrock work – sanding and cutting
Lawn Maintenance and Landscaping – fertilizers and fuels
Masonry - cutting and mixing
Insulation - blown and batting, cutting or spraying installation
Fabrication or repair - compressed gas welding rods
Pest control - mixing and spraying
Carpentry – cutting, sanding, installation
Additional OSHA Requirements
• Employers must present information in a manner and
language that their employees can understand.
• Employers must communicate the training in the
employee’s language.
• If the employee has a limited vocabulary or is
illiterate the training must account for that.
Compliance Dates
Dec. 1, 2013
Train all employees on the new label elements and Safety Data Sheet format
June 1, 2015
Comply with all modified provisions of this rule, except distributors that are
allowed to ship products labeled by manufacturers under the old system until
Dec 1, 2015
Dec 1, 2015
Comply with all modified provisions of the rule
June 1, 2016
Update alternative workplace labeling and hazard communication program as
necessary and provide additional employee training for newly identified physical
or health hazards
Hazard Communication Checklist
Inventory of Chemicals Used
Match Chemicals With
Obtain all SDS
Safe Work Practices for Each Chemical
Identify SDS Storage Location
Employees Educated on Potential
Employees Know Location of SDS
Employees Trained on Use of Material
All Containers Labeled
Notify Other Contractors When
Personal Protective Equipment
General Requirements
Foot Protection
Head Protection
Hearing Protection
Eye & Face Protection
Respiratory Protection
General Requirements
• Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be
maintained and provided by the employer when
• If an employee provides his/her own equipment,
the employer is still responsible to make sure it is
adequate and well maintained.
• PPE is to be used as a last means of controlling
an exposure. Engineering and administrative
controls should be used first when possible.
Foot Protection
• Safety footwear must
comply with ANSI
• Required for:
 Any material handling
process where
something could be
dropped on the foot
 Bulk material handling
 Work around sharp
objects that could
penetrate and puncture
Head Protection
• All hard hats must comply with ANSI standard
Z89.1, and Z89.2 for employees exposed to high
voltage electric shock.
• Bump Caps are not acceptable for construction
use under these standards.
Head Protection
• Employees must wear hard hats if there is
any possibility of;
 Being struck by an object falling from a higher level
 A flying object
 Electrical shock
Hearing Protection
• Engineering and Administrative controls
should be applied when feasible.
• Ear plugs must be fitted under the
direction of a competent person.
• Plain cotton is not an acceptable hearing
protection device.
If you are arms length from the person talking to you and
cannot hear them, its time for hearing protection!
Three Components of Hearing
• Sound
 A sound can be intermittent or continuous or a
combination of both.
 Intensity is also a factor.
• Path
 Distance, terrain, and medium of travel play a part.
• Receiver
 The average unimpaired hearing range of a person is
20 to 20,000 Hz
Facts and Numbers
• 85 decibels is considered the “Action Level” or the
level at which an employee must be enrolled in a
HCP (hearing conservation program) and notified
of their results.
• The permissible exposure level for a time weighted
average over an eight hour period is 90 decibels.
• The level at which dual hearing protection must be
worn is 105 decibels.
• The maximum allowable exposure level at any one
time during the shift is 115 decibels.
Components of a Hearing
Conservation Program
Hearing Protection
Audiometric Testing
Record Keeping
Muffs vs. Plugs
• Product will
have a Noise
Rating or NRR
• Rating indicates
the performance
of the device
Average NRR for devices shown:
Average NRR for devices shown:
Calculating Noise Reduction using
the NRR
• When C-weighted sound level measurement is
available, the following formula should be used to
calculate the required NRR
• Noise Level in dB(C) - Protector NRR = 90 dB(A)
or less.
• When A-weighted sound level measurement is
available, the following formula should be used to
calculate the required NRR.
• Noise Level in dB(A) - (Protector NRR - 7 dB) = 90
dB(A) or less
How to insert an Ear Plug
• Grab the top/back of the ear.
• Gently pull up and backward.
• (If disposable foam) Roll the
plug between the forefinger
and thumb until it is completely
• Gently slide the plug in the ear
• (If disposable foam) Let the
plug expand.
Eye & Face Protection
• All eye and face
equipment must comply
with ANSI Z87.1
• Employers must provide
protection when
employees are exposed
to any and all potential
flying debris.
• ANSI compliant side
shields applied to
conventional glasses do
not make them safety
Eye & Face Protection
• The standard covers general eye protection, eye
protection for welding, and laser applications.
• Tables E-1, E-2, and E-3 tell us minimum
performance requirements for our applications.
Respiratory Protection
• Industry
• Employer must
choose the right
application for
the job.
Respiratory Protection
Dust Masks are for Respirators are
nuisance dusts
made to filter
contaminants from
the air.
Self Contained
Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA) is suitable for
atmospheres that are
both oxygen deficient
and contain harmful
Respiratory Protection
• Employees that have to wear
respirators must receive the following:
Pulmonary Function Test
Respirator Fit Testing
Education on devices capabilities
Storage, cleaning, and regular inspection
Regularly monitored work area and
Respirator Fit Testing
 Quantitative
 A pass/fail test to assess
respirator fit.
 Relies on the individual's
response to the test agent.
(recognizable scents)
 Qualitative
 Assesses a respirator’s
effectiveness by
numerically measuring the
amount of leakage into the
Respirator Fit Testing
1. Adjust straps and other connecting or fitting devices so
that face seal is snug but comfortable.
2. Positive Pressure Test: Place hand over blowout
diaphragm and exhale, the mask should first expand,
then release around the face seal.
3. Negative Pressure Test: Place hands over the
cartridges and inhale, the mask should collapse into the
 If no leaks are discovered, and wearer can sense no
surrounding odors, mask is fitted properly.
 Facial hair that interferes with a proper seal is
Emergency Procedures
• Emergency
Evacuation plan
• Fire Safety
• Basic First Aid
Are you Prepared?
• Does the facility have a first aid kit?
• Are emergency contact numbers
readily available?
• Do any of your employees/co-workers
have CPR or First Aid training?
• Does the facility have an evacuation
Emergency Evacuation Plan
• Employees must be
educated on all
evacuation plan
• Exit map must be
• Ensure primary and
secondary routes
are unobstructed
Emergency Evacuation Plan
• Assemble outside the facility at predetermined area for a head count
• Identify who is responsible for head count
• Identify who is responsible for emergency
power shut down
• Identify who will make appropriate
emergency phone calls
• No one reenters facility until emergency is
Fire Safety
• Good house keeping is key to preventing
- Do not use compressed air to blow
- Keep evacuation routes/exits clear
- Clean up daily
Fire Safety
• Develop a system to alert employees
in the event of a fire
• Ensure exits are properly marked
(steel roll up doors are not acceptable
as fire exits)
• Ensure adequate number of
extinguishers for size of building (no
more than 75 ft. of travel)
• Ensure employees know extinguisher
• Train employees on proper operation
of extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers
• Fire extinguishers must be selected and provided for the
types of materials in areas where they are to be used
• Class A, Ordinary combustible material fires.
• Class B, Flammable liquid, gas or grease fires.
• Class C, Energized-electrical equipment fires.
• Fire extinguishers should be mounted within 75 feet of
outside areas containing flammable liquids, and within
10 feet of any inside storage area for such materials
• Access to extinguishers should be free from obstructions
or blockage
• Fire extinguishers must be serviced, maintained, and
tagged at least once a year
Ordinary Combustibles
Includes materials such as wood and
Flammable Liquids
Includes fuels, grease, other liquids
Electrical Fires
Contains non-conductive smothering
Fire Extinguisher Inspection
• Body of the extinguisher;
rust, cracks, dents
• Check hose for cracks,
• All fittings snug, no signs
of leaks
• Lever and hinge
• Safety pin in place, safety
tie present
• Inspection tag, present
and up to date
• Pressure gauge, needle
in the green
How to use a Fire Extinguisher
Pull -- Pull the pin at the top of the
extinguisher that keeps the handle from
being activated
Aim -- Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire
Squeeze -- Maintain a distance of eight to ten
feet away from the fire and squeeze the
handle. Discharge will only occur if the
handle is being squeezed.
Sweep -- Sweep the nozzle back and forth at
the base of the fire until it appears to be out.
Basic First Aid
• The OSHA First Aid standard (29 CFR
1910.151) requires trained first-aid
providers at all workplaces of any size if
there is no “infirmary, clinic, or hospital in
near proximity to the workplace which is
used for the treatment of all injured
Handling an Emergency
The three C’s, Check, Call, Care help us
remember what to do in an emergency situation.
 Check – check the area for your own safety first,
then the victim's
 Call – for help, 911 or whom ever is in the
immediate area that can provide assistance
 Care - administer care to the victim, this may be
first aid or at least stabilization