Fox Hills 4th Grade Untoothed Simple Leaf Trees Most broadleaf trees, or hardwoods, have simple leaves with a single blade. All the leaves in this group have smooth edges, without teeth or lobes. Russian Olive Red-osier Dogwood Desert Willow Northern Catalpa Single leaf Ash One of the most common and most wide-spread shrubs in Utah. It grows naturally and is planted as anornamental, especially for the showy twigs in winter. Red-osier Dogwood is useful for erosion control along stream bands. The name comes from the resemblance of the reddish twigs to those of some willos, called osiers, used to make baskets. It has a whitish, juicy fruit with a 2 seeded stone which matures in late summer. The Desert-willow is important in erosion control and is planted also as an ornamental. It is started from cuttings of seeds and grows rapidly and sprouts after being cut. Indians of Utah made bows from the stiff durable wood, which is also suitable for fence posts. Despite its name, this species is not related to willows. It is found only in the south-west portion of Utah. This is the only example of a tropical tree that can grow in high cold elevations locally. It has been naturalized. It is hardier than the southern Catalpa and blooms earlier and has thicker walled seed capsuals. It is nicknamed the Indian-bean. It has large hear-shaped leaves, showy flowers, and long bean-like fruit. This Ash tree is also called the “Dwarf Ash”. As the scientific name suggests, this tree comes from a family of compound leaf trees or many leaves made into one leaf. The largest group of broadleaf trees has simple leaves with teeth along the edges. Often the teeth are uniform and pointed forward, saw-toothed, as in most willows. Some trees, such as Alders, birches, and Elms, have double sawtoothed leaves. Notice that generally the over-all shape of the tree resembles the shape of the leaf. Quaking Aspen, Cottonwood, Water Birch, Mountain Alder, Sandbar Willow This tree also goes by the names “trembling Aspen” and “Golden Aspen”. The names refer to the leaves, which tremble in the slightest breeze on their flattened leafstalks. The soft, white, smooth bark is sometimes decorated with carved initials and marked by bear claws. The wood is principally used for pulpwood, boxes, furniture parts, matches, excelsior, and particle board. They are especially beautiful in the fall with the sunlight behind them. They turn a brilliant yellow-gold. The aspen is a member of the poplar family. Like all poplars, this tree is especially valuable because it is one of the first trees to grow on burned-over forest lands. It grows quickly and protects the younger and more useful trees sprouting beneath it. This tree was first discovered by Lewis and Clark in 1805 on their expedition to the Northwest. This is the common cottonwood of Utah. It is easily distinguishable from other cottonwoods by the narrow, short-stalked, willow –like leaves. Its root system makes it suitable for erosion control. This tree was used by Indians to make their famous birchbark canoes. The bark is light weight and even more important, it is water proof. Early Americans settlers used it on the roofs of their houses. It was sometimes used for paper too. The Water Birch is usually found in clumps or thickets along the streams of Utah. It has a beautiful shiny, dark reddish brown bark. It is the only native birch in Utah. Sheep and goats browse the foliage. The alders are members of the birch family. The most common alder throughout the Utah Rockies is the Mountain Alder. The Navajo Indians made a red dye from the powdered bark. It is usually found in thickets with several trunks and a rounded crown. The seeds are formed on tiny half in cones. Nicknames are “Coyote willow” and “Narrowleaf willow”. In the spring the flowers form catkins or “Pussy Willows”. This is a very hardy species and is drought resistant. It also is planted on stream bottoms to prevent surface erosion. Livestock browse the foliage. Indians made baskets from the twigs and bark. Some broadleaf trees have leaves that are shallowly or deeply cut into narrow or broad lobes. Rocky Mountain/ Bigtooth Maple Gambel Oak Box Elder Smooth Sumac There are many kinds of Maple trees. All have palm-shaped, simple leaves. All have leaves that grow opposite each other. All have winged seeds. All maples are known for their beautiful colors in the fall. They turn colors from bright reds to oranges and yellows. The wood is used for furniture since it is a beautiful hard wood. The seeds have two wings, or sails that help them float about in the air. Some say these seeds helped inspire Igor Sikorsky to invent the helicopter. The leaves turn red to yellow in the fall.